Orang Yang Terkenal Abad ke-17

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

Dr Iwan Icon Cybermuseum

Showcase:

Orang  Terkenal Abad ke 17

 
1. (TIE) John Locke & Hobbes Thomas (Inggris)
Kedua filsuf Inggris adalah pendiri filsafat Barat modern berdebat tentang sifat sejati manusia.

(Hobbes)

 (Locke)

2. Miyamoto Musashi (Jepang)

Jepang pedang terkenal dan penulis buku terkenal tentang strategi dan filosofi, “Kitab Lima Lingkaran”, yang sangat terkenal dalam budaya bisnis modern. Legenda besar bela diri pasangannya keterampilan seni dengan lukisan yang luar biasa untuk membuat Musashi salah satu hebat sejarah Jepang.

 3. Rene Descartes (Prancis)


Sebagai “Bapak Filsafat Modern” juga seorang ahli fisika terkenal dan matematika. Descartes memainkan peran besar dalam Revolusi Ilmiah yang terjadi pada abad 16-17, dengan prestasi tak terhitung di masyarakat matematika dan ilmiah.

 4. Rembrandt van Rijn (Belanda)


Seorang pelukis terkenal dari Belanda Golden Age yang dianggap salah satu yang hebat sepanjang masa.

 5. Ratu Elizabeth I (Inggris)


Ini, ratu berambut merah tebal yang membawa bersama suatu bangsa penuh dengan gejolak keagamaan. menang besar nya sebagai seorang ratu, dan pengabdian ke orang-nya (menjauhkan pernikahan bagi mereka) membuat salah satu nya penguasa yang paling populer di Inggris … atau sejarah Eropa.

 
(Benar bahwa sebagian besar pemerintahan Elizabeth berada di abad ke-16, tapi ia memerintah dan mengubah wajah Eropa dalam tiga tahun pertama abad ini … dan dia salah satu favorit pribadi saya sepanjang masa dari sejarah, jadi dia membuat daftar)

6. Raja Louis XIV (Perancis)


“Raja Sun” memerintah Perancis untuk periode berturut-turut terpanjang dari setiap penguasa Eropa lainnya – selama lebih dari 72 tahun. Dia memimpin negaranya melalui 3 perang besar dan ini dapat menstabilkan Prancis dan membuatnya menjadi kekuatan dunia dominan. Namanya identik dengan budaya, keindahan, dan halus.

7. Peter Agung (Rusia)

Seorang pemimpin transformatif besar dalam sejarah Rusia, Peter mendirikan Angkatan Laut Rusia, membangun kembali struktur militer, sekolah dibangun, dan membawa Pencerahan Gerakan Eropa Barat ke Timur.

 8. William Shakespeare (Inggris)

 
Penyair dan dramawan yang karya-karyanya mengubah wajah sejarah sastra. Meskipun Shakespeare lebih dikenal untuk pekerjaan ini abad 16, sebagian dari berperan penting, termasuk Twelfth Night, Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth dan yang lainnya ditulis pada awal abad ke-17.9. Isaac Newton (Inggris)

Astronom, teolog,, matematika, filsuf, dan ilmuwan brilian secara keseluruhan. Sir Isaac Newton adalah salah satu yang hebat sejarah, dengan penemuan yang tak terhitung jumlahnya, penemuan, dan pendirian prinsip-prinsip ilmiah dan matematika banyak (termasuk kalkulus).10. Galileo Galilei (Italia)
 

julukan Nya termasuk “Bapak Astronomi Modern”, “Bapak Sains Modern”. Galileo juga ayah dari heliosentris – kepercayaan bahwa Matahari, bukan Bumi, adalah pusat alam semesta kita. Dia juga petir tongkat untuk fraksinasi ilmiah dan agama. Sangat sedikit, jika ada, tokoh-tokoh sejarah bisa paralel ini orang besar. .11.Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia – Venesia, Italia 1646-1684

 
Dia adalah wanita pertama yang menerima gelar doktor. Nya mencintai adalah filsafat dan teologi, tapi dia berbakat dan berbakat dalam berbagai mata kuliah. Dia awalnya diterapkan untuk gelar doktor dalam teologi, tapi ditolak oleh gereja roman Katolik. Namun dia akhirnya meraih gelar di filsafat di Universitas Padua untuk kelompok penonton terbesar dalam sejarah.12.Mary Beale – Suffolk, Inggris 1633-1699
Maria adalah salah satu yang paling penting ‘profesional’ seniman potret dari abad ke-17, dan salah satu wanita pertama yang mendominasi area ini dalam seni.
Apa yang banyak menemukan menarik dengan dia, adalah bahwa setelah dia menetapkan dirinya dan menjadi lebih terkenal, ditinggalkan suaminya bekerja sendiri untuk menjadi asisten dan akuntan.
(Sangat bangga potret dirinya – 1685)13.Madame De Saint Baslemont De Neuville – Neuville, Perancis 1606-1660
 

Barbara d’Ernecourt adalah seorang pejuang dan pahlawan bagi rakyat Prancis.
Dia menikah pada usia muda kepada manusia yang mencintai perang dan kuda, dan sementara ia pergi berperang di Jerman, ia membela harta dan tanah selama perang tiga puluh tahun. armor nya dan pengetahuan militer membuat abad nya pantat 17 buruk. 
14.ERZEBET Bathory
 
Seorang tokoh perempuan yang sangat penting muncul pada awal abad ke-17. kejahatan nya didokumentasikan pada tahun 1610 dan dia telah menjadi daya tarik pengikut pengetahuan vampir sejak saat itu. Erzebet Bathory juga dikenal sebagai Elizabeth Bathory adalah putri Raja Stephen Bathoryof Poland.She lahir di 1560. Lalu menikah pada usia 15. Dia menikah dengan seorang prajurit dan menjadi wanita yang mengelilingi kastil Csejthe (Čachtice) yang berada di jantung Carpathians. Transylvania Sangat dekat.
Her kejahatan:
Darah untuk Kecantikan. Pada 1609 Elizabeth Bathory membuka sebuah sekolah untuk pendidikan perempuan muda. Orang tua dari wanita ini memiliki posisi sosial dan ingin putri mereka untuk dididik dalam kemuliaan sosial dan etiket. 25 wanita itu dibawa ke sekolah.
Dorotta Szentes dan Anna Darvulia dua perempuan dalam pekerjaan yang Bathory. Dengan bantuan para wanita semua 25 mahasiswa dibunuh. 4 yang dilemparkan dari dinding benteng untuk kematian mereka.

Alasan (spekulasi): Bathory pikir darah yang memegang jawaban untuk pemuda kekal. Dalam meludah sekali ia menggaruk darah dari seorang hamba muda miliknya. Menggosok di wajahnya ia mengklaim memiliki sifat pemuda memperbarui. Dikatakan bahwa Bathory bermandikan darah perawan untuk menjaga penampilan muda nya. Dia juga bekerja alkemis untuk datang dengan ramuan untuk membantunya menjaga vitalitas muda.

Hukuman:
Raja Matthias II dari Hongaria menghukum Countess Elizabeth Bathory yang akan dikirim ke pengadilan. Sidang berlangsung pada tahun 1610 di mana dia dinyatakan bersalah melakukan kejahatan dia bersama dengan dua kaki.
Hukuman:
Bathory dipenjarakan pada tahun 1610 untuk sel isolasi di mana dia akhirnya meninggal dunia pada tahun 1614. kaki nya Dorotta Szentes dan Anna Darvulia dibakar hidup-hidup di tiang pancang. Ini akan nasib Bathory juga tapi dengan berdiri mulia di masyarakat ia tidak dapat dieksekusi.

Dia adalah seorang tokoh terkenal karena begitu banyak legenda dan mitos di sekitar nya. Dia adalah sebagai nyata seperti Vlad Tepes. Sebagian orang mengatakan bahwa legenda Dracula mungkin berasal dari kedua tokoh-tokoh sejarah.

Elizabeth Bathory juga penggemar penyiksaan. Ketika memukul budak nya dengan cambuk ia lebih suka melakukan hal ini ke depan tubuh telanjang sehingga ia bisa melihat bagaimana wajah berkerut ngeri.

   Selesai  @ Copyright  Dr Iwan Suwandy.2011

 
 
 

THE CHINA CIVIL(RESISTANT) WAR 1914-1940(PERANG KEMERDEKAAN TIONGKOK ERA KOUMINTANG)

 

       

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

Showcase:

                     

   THE CHINA CIVIL WAR 1914-1940

                             BY

                      Dr IWAN S.

  Limited private E-book  edition 

     Special for Premium Member

           Jakarta 2011

hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

PREFACE.

This book based on several rare books

1. The 50 Years of Postal administartion In China

.a. POSTAL ADMINISTRATION IN CHINA (1896-1946)
“A letter from home is worth a million dollars” so runs an old Chinese saying. Today(1946), the entire concept is,perhaps,changed. After over half a century of postal service, million of such letter are being transmitted daily through China’s postal network. Peple recieve long-awaited messages from their relatives and friends so frequently and speedily that they no longer regard letters as having any pecuniary value
(Now we can communicate very fast by Digital SMS only in second,that is why not many postcard send anymore and not many pstcard or cover with stamps fund anymore, but postal history collection still exist because this collections were the History fact relaeted with the Humanlife heritage but became difficult to found that is why the collectors must keep the postally used covers-Dr Iwan S.)

To trace the origin of Postal service in China, one has to dig into Chinese history books which tell of the I Chan or Imperial Government courier services and the Minchu or native posting agencies as early as the Chow dynasty in 1122 B.C.
The I Chan, maintained only at the Imperial palace, ran errands between the state and the provincial authorities, while the Minchu was operated for the general public with varying charges paid by the sender and the adressee.Both the I CHan and the Minchu were well-equipped and efficiently organized,covering the greater parts of Szechwan,Shensi ,Kansu and the far west. 

GENERAL POSTAL SERVICE BEGUN IN 1896 AND GENERAL POST OFFICE FORMED IN 1911.
In 1861, an Englishman, named Robert Hart,started an experimental postal service in China along modern line
(Some of the Robert Hart postal used cover have found this day, all the cover had his initial RH -look illustration. The UCN&UCM founder have done the same in 1985 from Indonesia to all over the world one a liitle send back to sender because the country have independence, this rare collections postally used covers from all over the world to indonesia will showed later in this Blog. In 1896″The travel around the world 25 years ago with postal history collections”Dr Iwan S.).

1n 1896 ,the Emperor issued a special decree giving official recognation to the “European” postal sysyetm and bringing to end the old I Chan and Minchu postal practices -look the Foreign Post office in China stamp and postmark illustration ( The founder havel writen about the Foreign Posta services in China “The Freign Uniform in China Postal history” will put in this UCN blog later)
This postal system was for many years operated by the Chinese Maritime Customs-look the Customs postmarrk illustration.
It was not until a General Post Office was formed in 1911 that the Postal administration became a separate Government organization
When the Republic (of China) came into existance in 1912, China’s postal administration had already been firmly established, and so on March 1st,1914 , she formally became a party to the international postal convention. 

WARTIME REPUBLIC OF CHINA POSTAL OPERATION
When the Sino-Japanese War br0ke ut in 1937, China’s(ROC) postal
system suffered a heavy blow. Its head office had to be evacuated first from Nanking to Hankow, and then to the hills of Chungking. Score of mail rutes and numerous postal establishments fell into the hands of the Japanese who either set them ablaze or turnedthem into military defense works.-look illustration of Dai nippon overprint on china stamps.
However, unlike wartime Europe where mail service between the enemy or occupied areas and the “free” country was handled by the International Red Cross (same in indonesia,look at Indonesia Independence war,will put in this blog later by The Chinese Hospital Yang seng Ie red cross Batavia-Jakarta-Dr Iwan S.), the postal administration in China had creditably succeeded in keeping
open its major mail links between Free China and the leading occupied area such as Shanghai,canton and Hongkong (also Amoy szeming-now Xianmen , that is why all the ROC stamps postal used during the resistant war have send to indonesia and will illustarted in the China Resistant & Liberation war collections-Dr Iwan s.)

Foreign mail took the formof airmail and was mostly transmitted from Kunming to Calcutta ( UCM have the postal used stamped with CDS Kunming), where made for foreign destinations. Parcel pst service to the United States,canada,England,Russia, and some countries in the middle East was reopened in 1944, after an agreement was made among the Chinese Ministry of Communications, the Indian and the Soviet postal administrations. The volume of domestic mail during the war, as shwn in the year 1944, stood well over 650.000.000 pieces (Where that postalused cover now? why became diddfuct to found in China now, may be many was burn during the war or the collector get the stamps off covers-Dr Iwan s) 

ROC POSTAL REHABILITATION
ROC’s postal service undertook a program of rehabilitation soon after V-J day. Except in the Communist-occupied areas where the branch office had to be abandoned (No,the postal service still open and local stamp still issued by the Communist people liberation army , read the China liberation war collection- Dr iwan S)
The ROC postal service was resumed almost instantly inthe newly recovered areas. An over-all postal rehabilitaion program was carried out, which not only restored the old offices but also established new branches in many remote places.
Up to the end of 1946 , a total of 60.602 general post offices, branch office, stations and agencies had been registered with the postal administration. During that year, 1.027.937.076 letters or two and a half letters for each Chinese, were delivered by more than 100.000 green-uniformed messengers cvering a total distance of 349.383 miles.
Due to the vast sovered by the domestic pstal services, the modes of transmitting letters by the couriers vary in accordance with available types of transportation, ranging from mules and carts in the mountainous regions by the four-engine DC-4s. Ordinary foreign mail winds its way through the Siberian railway to Russia ot through the Hankw-Canton railway to countries in Southeast Asia including Indonesia). Mail for the European or the Americans is usuallyshipped by cean liners (Shipmail or paquebot)through the Pacific Ocean or the suez canal. Airmail is being flown by the Pan American Airways, the British Overseas aviation corporation,the china national aviation copo0ration, the Phillipine Airlinens and the northwest Air lines to various parts of the world. 

THE ROC POSTAL SERVICES DURING THE LIBERATION WAR
During the past year or two China’s postal administration has made rapid strides toward mdernization, and some ofits method and services may be regarded as even revolutionary. A 24-hours services is maintained by some post offices in Nanking and Shanghai, maiking posible the delivery of rdinary letters between the capital and the Metropolis of shanghai within ten hours. Many new methods are now being tried, first in the Shanghai-nanking area and later to be extended to other cities 

2. VINTAGE PHOTO CHINA’S POSTAL SERVICE (1896-1946)
(1) New Post Office at Kulow
(2) Mobile Post Office operating in the bigger Nanking city.
(3) Moror-cyclist postman for special delivery or express
(4) Postmen ready to colect and deliver mail on bicycles
(5) General post office in Shanghai frnts Schw Creek.
(6) Interior of General post Office Building in Sahnghai
(7) Camel Caravan packed with mail on their trek across the Gobi desert.
(8) Sledge carry mail across the frozen Sungari River in the Nortwest
(9) Post office near Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanking nation’s capital
(10) Postal both, miniature post office,serves public at popular spot 

3. 50th ANNIVERSARY OF THE POST OFFICE 1946 STAMPS
(1) 50 th anniversary of the post office 1946 stamp 100.-yuan
(2) 50th anniversary of the post office 1946 stamp 500 yuan 

II. THE CHINA RESISTANT WAR UNIQUE COLLECTIONS

1.. China Resistant war Banknote collections

1) China Restant war  National Bank Banknote

2) China Resistent war Foreigh Bank Bank Note

3) China Resistent War Military Banknote

2. China Resistant War Coin

1) Chung Hua Minh Kuo cash Coin

2) Chung Hua Minh Kuo silver coin

3. China Resistant War Ceramic

1) Chung Hua Min Kuo Mark

2) Private Mark

4. China Resistant War Pictures

1) Picture Postcard

2) Lithography

3)Poster

4) Label

(1) Matchbox label

(2) revenue label

(3) Cinderella Label

(4) trade card label

(5) other type label

3.. THE CHINA EARLY 20tH CENTURY BOOK

1.The Swedish Travelling from Beijing to Mongol and Russia 1928

2. The travelling by boat through the china river 1936

3.. THE CHINA FIGHT FOR THE WORLD (J.Gunnar,1939) 

(1) SPECIAL INFORMATIONS
After seeking almost two month this day UCN staff found the very rare iinformatif about : 

(2) The Historic of China Resistent war
(a) 1914-1927
The author written very detailed about the Chiang Northward expedition against the China Warlord forces and suthward expedition against the Mao Communist people forces.
The best information read at The China Resistant war collections.
(b) 1936-1938
The author written about the Dai Nippon army strategic” attack and reinforcement” from Manchuria to Shnaghai until the beginning of Dai Nippon war in 1937.
The best informations from this vintage book read at The China Resistance War Collections. 

2.The informations about Geologist Explorations in China between 1914-1937.
(1) 1914
When the author arrived at Peking on May 16th 1914 to take up his appointment as geological adviser to the Chinese Gvernment, he turned a page in his life’s book . A much later page, written fr the most part by other hands than him, was turned when he visited Nanking on December 11th and 12th 1936.
In the year 1911-12 a proud and ancient imperial edifice,time down and wheater-beaten, had fallen to the ground and the new men who were to build a fresh one were still somewhat dazed and bewildered,wondering how to begin. At the head of the department of Mines, to which I (the author) considered myself to belong, was an amiable little mining engineer, trained in France; a well-meaning and conscientiuous man , but scarcely a pioneer in difficult learned man of the times. Above him was the Menister of agriculture, a learned man of old school, famous of his beautiful handwritting and for the model community he had made of his native village, but too was hardly one to use a motor plough.
But after some months had passed there came a man whoose whole type was symptomatic of a new age. This was a yound geologist who had studied first at Cambridge and afterwards with Professor Gregory in Galsgow. He was just back from a tour of exploration in Yunnan and was nominally chief f China’s projected geological survey.but a chief without staff , as he put it rather sarcastically at our first meeting.he was DR V.K.Ting.
(2) 1916
Meanwhile, we Swedish colleagues had achieved a certain success at the very beginning, namely the discovery of the Lung-Yen ores. I(the author) recieved orders from the then President, Yuan Shih-kai, who was aman of a great gifts but hopelessly restricted by the old fashioned ideaa of Imperial times,to go to the Palace and submit a report on what was known of the iron ores of China. After a two hours’demonstration of all our material Yuan summed up the situation in a masterly way, and a few weaks later, in January 1916, he (Yuan Shih-kai ) issued an order for the appointment of a considerable staff for Geological Survey which till then had only existed on paper.
On the completion of the school cource the authorities showed their confidence by inviting me(the author) to examine these youn man (DR Ting) during a week’s field work on one og the great coald-fields of North China and to recommend the best of them for appointment as geologist.
(3) 1919

(a)The May 4th Movement of 1919 is regarded as the ideological origin of many important events in modern Chinese history. Its direct cause was the unequal treaties imposed on China after the First World War. Motivated by strong patriotism, students initiated the movement, and it further developed into a national protest movement involving people from all walks of life. It also marked the introduction into China of various new ideologies, among which the spread of Marxism-Leninism is worthy of special mention. Under the influence of Russia’s October Revolution of 1917, 12 delegates, including Mao Zedong, representing communist groups in different places throughout the nation, held the First National Congress in Shanghai in 1921 to found the Communist Party of China (CPC).  

The Chinese people led by the CPC underwent successively the Northern Expeditionary War (1924-27), the War of Agrarian Revolution (also known as “Ten-Year Civil War,” 1927-37), the War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-45), and the War of Liberation (1946-49). Owing to the cooperation and joint resistance of the CPC and Kuomintang, the Japanese aggressors were defeated but shortly after the anti-Japanese war, the Kuomintang re-launched civil war. After the three-year War of Liberation led by the CPC, the Kuomintang government was finally overthrown in 1949
(b) Nanking-shanghai Information in 1919

When my train(author arrived in the arly morning at the nanking station ) I recognized nothing except that the clenliness and easy poltiness f the railway staff, the representative of the travel bureu and the prters, which I had found in Shanghai were the same here. The dirty colies who formerly swarmed abut platforms and stations were gone. and when an hur later I sat in a car spinning alng the great avanue which runs through the city it struck me that I was looking at a new twn which had suddenly rise out f the grund. n the right hand i the caught sight of a well-proportined brick building within an open yard planted with trees could nt be musch more that a year old. It occured to me that this ought not t be an ordinary government building but was more probably a modern,peacefully situated scientific institution. Hardly had I thougyt this out when my eye caught the Chinese inscription and I found ,I had reached my goal, The Geological survey of China, in this new home in Nanking.
Here I found the haind-painted originalmof the map of China published by Ting and Wong in celebration of the diamond Jubilee of the leading newspaper Shun Pao. This map had been universally admired for the wealth of its cartography of the vast empire, but also for its fine modern production, with graduated colours indicating the altitude.
But let us go back to the museum. We entered first the mineralogical-petrographic section, arranged in two alternate types of show-case, one for inerals and the other for rocks. The suitability of such an arrangement may be open to discussion,but it has a handsome and ingenious appearance.
Then we went up to the top floor where the archeological material is exhibited,with the great, amazingly rich finds from Chou Kuo tien, and here we saw first of all te splendid sepulchral urns fromKansu, which we we had i stockholm for examination and which had now been moved with the reat from Peking. but then we came to finds from Chuo Kou tien, the home of Peking Man.
(4) 1922
When in 1922 DR Ting was placed at the head of a new coal-mining enterprise in Southern Manchuria. 

(5)1935
In December 1935 DR Ting,while on a geological expedition in the province of Hunan, was accidentally posioned by carbon monoxide in his room at Chines hotel and Wong at once secured the best doctor in Nanking and flew to Hunan.later specialist were also summond from the great medical collage in Paking. But on January 5th the ravaged lung ceased to function. China had lost one of her best sons, a man equally admirable for his perspicacity as an organizer, his keen critical acuntences and his unflinching loyality to this those who had once gained his friendship ( I hope the China government gift him the honor as the National China Geolgist hero-Dr Iwan S.)
(6) Nanking,SApril 1937
Regarded purely as a geographical feauture, Nanking possests a neighbour of the first importance, and that is the Yangtze river. Just outside Hsi Kuan, The Maritime Customs, the mighty river rolls its grey andmuddy stream between low banks.
the southerncapital would occupy quite common place situation on the flat plain of the delta, didnot the purple Mountain len a peculiar charm to the surrounding.
If the collectors want to know the complete Geological history of china 1914-1939 written by the sewedish geologyst J.Gunnar anderson in 1939 please asked editor via comment, this the only geologist repor about china ever seen because forbidden to open geologist informations, the secret informations of all counyries in the world ,my son geologist have told me, during DEI in Indonesia Indonesian citizen didn’t allowed to study Geologist at Institute Technology Bandung ,where my son studies there in 1994-1998. Thi story dedicated for my son Alberst S. Uniquecollections photographer , he stayed at Pertamina geologist exploration Sumatra at Prabumulih, also hello to his boss Mr Bambang which I had meet him at bajubang Pertamina camp jambi and now he was the chief of pertamina Sumatra at Prabumulih, thank you for teaching my son Pak Bambang. 

3 The book and author information
(1) The Book Tittle : CHINA FIGHTS FOR THE WORLD
(2) Author : J.Gunnar Anderson, Chinese senior geologist consultant during Chinese Restistant war 1914-1927 and 1936-1938.
(3) First Publishing in England 1939 translate from the wedish by Arthur G.Chater from the first publishing in Stockholm “Under Brinnande Krig,1938. 

The informations still not complete,that is why I hope comment,coreections and suggestion from the historian and collecterors from all over the world  in order the make this book more complete. Tahnk you very much to all my friend which help me with their informations that made this book more fast finished.

Jakarta Mei 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy.

__________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER ONE

THE CHINA NATIONAL REVOLUTIONARY UPRISING (1912-1929)

A. Dr Sun Yat Sen’s Revolutionary

(1) 1912
(a) The founding Father Dr Sun leaves shanghai station the morning on New year’s day 1912 for his nanking searing-in as the ROC provisional president.
the document of Dr Sun Yat Sen ‘s Declaration and the oat taken by him during the President swearing-in ceremony at Nanking and the photo after the ceremonies still exist now at The Sun Yat-sen Memoriable Museum.
After the ceremony Dr Sun and other leaders went to the Ming Tomb at Nanking for ceremonies informing ancetors that the Alien Qing Manchus had been overthrown and Chinese ruled restored.

four Original vintage smal B-W photo , at the back written in Indonesia and china language :
(a.1). Pemandangan (landscape)Koe Lao
(a.2.) Djalan2 naek koeda pegi Ming Tai Tjoe poenja koeboeran (Travelling by horse went to the Great Ming tombs).
Wah soengoeh seneng sekali!(Oh very much happy!) di ini gambar nyang naek koeda jaitoe (in the pictures which riding horse) Oen Tjiok,Tjoetjoe dari (grandchild of) oen Tjwan.
(a.3)Tionghoa Bin Kok poenja soldadoe ( Chung hwa Min kwo=Kuomintang soldier)
(a.4) Ini satoe koempoelan ponya soldadoe lagi pada brenti didepan koeboeran.(This is a soldier group were rest in the front of Tomb ? in chinese char)

(b)Jan.28th 1912
Dr Sun Yat-sen addressed the first meeting of the Provisional Council

(2) March 1912
(a)In March ,3rd..1912 The Tung men Hui assambled at Nanking and elected Dr Sun the Tsungli or President
(b) In March the government moved its seat North,
Sung Cio-yen brought the tung Meng Hui tofether with other factions and parties in KMT and Dr Sun was elected President in hope that he could bring factionalism to an end.
(3) The Qing Yuan Shih-kai issued the commerative stamps  of the revolution with his profile, consist 12 nomial 1,2,3,5,8,10,16,20,50 c and $ 1,2 & 5.- with same design
(4)ROC issued The Chung Hwa republic papermoney $10,$100, and $1000. gold ,with KMT flag design.
San Hsi Zeng Fun bank issued Ten liang banknote.

2.1913
ROC postal office issued the first definitive stamps printed at London (first Def.London printing =1st DLP.) consist three design:
(1) Chinese Junk 1/2,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 10 cents.
(2) Farmer ,15,16,20 ,30 and 50 cent
(3) Palace $ 1,2,5,and 10.-

3.1914
(1)June 1914
(a)In June,23th.1914 Dr Sun assambled his comrades and organized the Chung Hua Ke Ming Tang ( ChineseRevolutionary Party) to defend the provisional constitution against the effort of Yuan Shih-kai, who had seized power, dissolved parliament,scrapped theConstitution and Killed KMT member in his attempt to reestablished the momarchy. Many revolutionaries fled to Japan,
(b) J.Gunar Anderson ,Swedish Geologist have served as mining adviser to the ROC government from 1914 to 1927. He established cordial co-operation with Chinese geologist and mining engineers, and the Central government, at that time located in Peking, as weel as the provincial authorities, extended to him very possible support and facility.
(c) chekiang Provincial Govermant Bond one Dollar Local Currency , value Recieved at Hangchow guaranteed by the Financial Bureu of the Chekiang Province .
4. 1915
(a)ROC postal office issue the first definitive peking printing (1st DPP) with the same design and nominal with the 1st definive london printing(1st DLP) except added one nominal 13 cent farmer.
The different between 1st London and Pepking printing, the design of DLP were the line under the bow of the junk is smooth and didn’t touch the junk , but the 1st DPP the line rough and touch the Junk.
(b) ROC issued the Hung Shian Comerative stamps 5c,10c,50c and overprint Sin Kiang n 50 c.
(c) The Yuan Futteh Bank issued commemrative Banknte In the Memory f The Chnese Repubic Revlution in Yunnan 1916. Ten Yuan.
5.1916
(a)After Yuan shih-kai failure to established a dynasty of his own and his death in misery and solitude in 1916, there remained as his fatal legacy to his people a most poisnous element, the military governors in the procinces, later nicknamed the “war Lords”, some of them men of considerable ability who seriously desired to save their country, but taken as a whole a set of greedy and inefficient generals who, ind order to carry on their endless and fruitless civil wars, exacted exorbitant taxes from the poor peaceful peasantry. The countryside was impoverished and devastated, the rollingstock of the railways became terribly depleted in the hands of the fighting armies,bandity prevailed, the student in their despair turned to Communism as a last resort. Many of the intellectual leaders held the recovery of their country to be question of decades,still distant.
(b)Dr Sun meeting with Naval office in Canton and after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, the KMT’s military campaign was ended and Dr Sun decided to quit the political arena
(c) ROC military bank issued Republic- an China Military banknote at several area ,
(c.1)shanghai five dollar local currency sign m.y.sung
(c.2) Military Bank note five dollars issued by The Republic of China sign Sun Yat-sen guaranteed by the minestry of finance
(c.3) THe Republican China Military Banknote Nanking one Dollar Local Currency, guaranteed by Central Bureu.
(c.4) Republican Govderment of China Military Notes issued by the Menistry of War.One Dollar and five dollar
(c.5) The Republican Military bank-note AN Hwei one dollatr Local Currency
(c.6) The Wang-Ho Bank of the Republic Military Bank Note one dollar Local Currency.
(c.7) The Kang -Se Bank Of The Republic Military Bank Note One Dollar Local Currency
(c.8) Military note of Chekiang Goverment five Dollars

6. 1917
(a)Parliament was dissolved again and Dr Sun decided to send the navy to Canton as a move to safeguard the provisional contiturion
(b) In September 10th , Dr sun established a military government at Canton.

II. Saving The ROC

1. Dr Sun to quit the political arena and Chiang Combatting adversaries (1917-1925)

(1)Chiang Khai-sek stayed with his father and mother in the small village , he have merried the first wife( village lady) but he never love her.

(2)1918

(a)The Agricultural.Industrial and Connercial Trust Company limited at Chang Chow issued Banknote ren cents and one dollar.

(b) In 1918,when Ye Ye moved to Tianjin (Ford Of Heaven), the last Qing Emperor had been deposed and China had fragmented into fieldoms governed by warlords. To the North,Japan already controlled Korea and now sert her sights on China. At the Versailles Peace Conference held after the conclusion of the first World War, Japan was allowede by Britain and her allies to seize and keep Germany’scolonial prossessions in Shandong Province as a reward for having remained neutral. Emboldened,Japan began moving into Manchuria.Japanese soldiers the infiltrated south to Tianjin(Adeline Yen,1997)

(3)1919 no info

(4) 1920

Shanghai in late 1920 was an exhilarating city for a young girl. While the rest of Chila still travelled by push carts, sedan chairs and horse-drawn carriages, in shanghai shining imported motor cars were speeding down well paved roads alongside trams and busses. giant, colourful billboards advertising  British cigarettes , holywood movies and french cosmetic gazed down at crowded pavement teeming with youmgman in suits and ties and girls clacking around in high-heeled shoes and stylish qipaos.(ibid adelin yen 1977)

(5)1921
(a)ROC post Office issued three stamps commemorated 25 years China Post Office 1,5,6,and 10 c. and Famine relief surcharge on the junk stamps 1c on 2c,3c on 4c and 5c on 6c.
Also issued the first Isuued airmail stamps (without KMT emblem) nominal 15,30,45,60,and 90 cents.
(b) THe National Bank of China issued ten cents and ten dollars banknote with Dr Sun profile.

(4)1922
(a)Chen Chun-ming(the chinese warlord) mounted his coup attemp-ted and Dr Sun took refuge abroad the Naval vessel “Yungfeng” at Whampoa and Chiang risked his life to rush to the side of Dr Sun
(b) ROC issued the first black machinal overprint i cent provisional on the junk Stamps
(c) August 1922
Fragment used farmer stamp 20 cent ,CDS Shanghai 21.8.22.
(d) ROC post office issued Provisiional surcharge on Junk and Farmer(Reaper) type stamps

(5) 1923
(a)In this year, Dr Sun sent Chiang to Russia on an inspection tour.
(b) ROC post office issued the second definitive Peking printing stamps (2nd DPP) , same design and nominal, but added $20.- Palace stamps.This 2nd DPP more common that the first DLP and DPP0.
also iisued the First Constitutin commemrative stamp 1,2,4 and 10 cent.
(c) The Central bank Of China issued Dr Sun Yat-sen Banknote sign by LSWong one dolar, 10 dollar and 100 dollars. and this banknote used at Hunan,Kiangsi $Kwansi with official Handchopped in violet ink.

(6) 1924
(a) in the hout of direct need, there emerged a young leader, Chiang kai-sek, a military officer who had acted as Chief of the Staff to Dr Sun Yat-sen ever since the revolution of 1911-12, had established in 1924 under the orders of this “father of the Revlution”, the Whampoa Military academy near Canton and had here created in the space of two years a new type of Military cadets educated to fight, not for any individual War Lord, but for the resistant of China.
(b)Upon Chiang return frm Russia, he was assigned to establish an army academy which opened at Whampoa n June 16,1924.
In his inaugural address Dr Sun said that the task of revolutinary forces would be to assure the continuity of the Republic and carry out the three Principles of the People
Chiang , the first ccommandant of the Academy
The entrance if the famed Whampoa academy in the subburps of Canton
Dr Sun and Chiang have taken photo on the academy’s founding day
The Vintage Picture Photo of Chiang from Book Illustration ‘China national hero ,chiang Kai-sek,
(c)From january 27th to August 24th 1924. Dr Sun gave a series of lectures on the Three Principles of the people at Canton Senior Normal School. He cmplete six lectures each on Nationalism and Democracy and four on the people’s livelihood before going to Shakuan in nothern of Northward Expedition forces.
The vintage picture photo of Canton street from vintage minddleschool history book 1938.
(d) March 1924
In March ,19th.1924,Sven Hedin have written China Travelling book in Stockholm “From Peking to Moscow” the story of his Travel by land with car and another transportation from Beijing to Moscow via Mongolia, with many picture photo illustrations. If the collectors want to know the story and the rare photo picture illustrations please aksed as the collectors choice via comment and we will put in this blog.the vintage picture photo illustration of writes profile, his car and the staff ,Port Hateman Peking,mongol caravan in Peking. Wantsjuan road,the Pas of Hongte, on Horse, Chinese trader,Larson second car at Mongol,Telegraaf station at Ude,Rest the car at Woeastijn,Temple at the high Pas, Mongolnative people,Lama Temple at Oerga, Larson car at Chara, chinese carriage at Pas mengatai, larson car at Selenga , Mongolia Oerga Smiking pipe and the picture photo at Russia.
(e) Used Block four Junk stamps 3 cent , CDS Shanghai 1 .11.24.
(f) The Fuching Bank of Kiangsi issued $1 one yuan banknote

etc……etc………………………………………………..

_________________________________________________________________________

II.ROC NEW LIFE MOVEMENT(1930-1937)
(a) Side by side with reapested wars for progressive unifications, Chiang, backed by a great number of active and capable men, succeeded in building up during the short period from 1930 to 1937 a new modern China with a stable financial system, a reformed currency,simplified and unified taxation, important new railways and an immense network of motor roads. A new army was trained and equipped with the very able assintance of German military advisers and an air force was created with the help of America and italian instructors.

1. ROC battle 1930-1933

(1) 1930
(a)The Central China battle 1930
(b) May 1930
In his last will and testament, Dr Sun Yat-sen called fr the convening of a national coyuncil and the scrapping of all enequal treaties. these objectives were attained by Chiang. The first National Council meeting was convened at Naking in May of 1930 and at the same time the government prepared for mobilization against Dai Nippon aggression. These cadres are training at Lushan.
Chiang Government forces engage the Mao Communist in Kiangsi..

etc….etc……etc……

______________________________________________________________________________ 

III. WAR WITH DAI NIPPON (1937-1945)

(1)1937

Japanese troops , which already occupied tianjin and beijing ,were now moving steadily southwards,. they met suprisingly strong resistance in nanking and, in retaliation, went on a terrifying spree of rape,looting and murder. over 3000.000 civilians and prisoners were torrtured and killed during the rape of nanking in 1937.
(a)January 1937
Fragment used Dr Sun singlecircle stamps 2×25 cent and 5 cent(rate 55 cent to indonesia) CDS Shanghai 7.1.37. and fragment Dr sun singlecircle 2x 5 cent with red village transit postmark.
(b)March 1937
fragment postcard Used Dr Sun single circle 25 cent CDS Shanghai 20.3.37.
(c)May 1937
Mao communist local post issued Soldier and fighting stamps three nominal.
(d)july 1937
Chiang and his military adviser tried to postpone the inevitable armed confilct, but in the early part of July 1937 the war broke out over a trifle. The Dai Nippon expected the chinese to yield- as had alwats happened before. But they did not take int account the new national spritit which had spread all over China.The patience of the Chinese was exhausted. In their despair they determined to hold up Dai Nippon aggression at any cost.
(e)August 1937
Two vintage picture Photos “Bloody saterday” in Shanghai in August,14th 1937 (P)
(f) ROC pst office issued provisibal surcharge on Dr Sun single circle stamps and peking martyr type stamps 1c n 4c,8c n 40 c,10c n 25 c, and 4c n 5c stamps.

(2)1938
(a) January 1938
January.7 th.1938
Just before the resistent war against japan strated, a chines immigrant from Fukien by ship from amoy port went to Semarang Indonesia via Hongkong to have visa, The Chinese overseas passport with Nedeland consular revenue 6 gld with 0fficial stamped straight Consulaat general der Netherlandedn and the visa have signed by “De waarbemend Cosul-Geneal voor dezen De Vice Consul with official Consulate General of the Netherland Hongkong coat of arm stamped in vilolet.
(b)The Marcopolo Bridge incident triggered the war of Resistance against Japan in 1938

(c)Early 1938  after the nanking city was captured by the japanese . shanghai fell and chiang kaisek fled westward across china, up the yangtse river, deep into the mountainous province od sichuan. there he set up his wartime goverment in the town of chongqing. it’s not hard to image the tension and turmoil that these monumntous political upheaval imposed on chinese family life.

(d)July 1938
The Kuomintang provinsional congreess at Wuchang in March 20, 1938.and decided to organize a youth corps to give expression to the National cause among the young people and the young corps establish on july 9.
(d) Chiang presided over a military conference at Hengshan to review progress of the war effort . He reiterated that ROC would fight to the finish in November 25,1938.
(e) The famous godown of the four banks in Shanghai where “800 brave Soldier” heroically held out against one Japanese assault after another.
(f) Chiang and his General meeting in Chungking abaot the war capital
(g) Fan Szu-chaou . a 70-yearold guerilla leader fought the Japanese behind enemy lines.
(h) The National Gouvernment Building of ROC at Chungking and Japanese bombing that Temporary capital.
(i) ROC post office issued Palace half Button Chung Hwa printing $ 1 , 2 and 5,- top frame unshade.
I have this $2.- top frame unshade OC used cds Amoy Szeming, the years not clear.
(j) ROC post office issued 150th Anniversary American Constitution with USA and ROC flag with map. nominal 5,25,50 cent and $1.-
…etc….etc……………………………………………………………………….

1939

in 1939, sudenly and without warning, tianjin was drowned in a great flood. the disaster was of staggering propotion. the chinese called it “china’s sorrow” and went to the buddhist temple to burn incense and offewr prayers for relief. pro japanese newspapers printed in tianjin blamed the catastrope on chiang kaisek while the nationalist party press in chongqing accused the japanese

_________________________________________________________________________

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The Vietnam during French Indochine 1900-1940

 

THE VIETNAM DURING fRENCH iNDOCHINE 1900-1940

                                          

                                                       Indochina native vietnam army

CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

( Compile by Dr iwan s from his own collections added from internet google exploration.)

1.1901

(1) April.3rd. 1901
The Bank Of Indochina issued in saigon and Haipong four kind of note with nominalonly in Frech language (1,5,20 and 100 piastres).

                                                
The notes in Tonkin (haipong) was not allowed to excahnge for Cochinchinese (Saigon) notes and cochinchinese notes had to spent in Cochinchina(Saigon).
(The Haiphong notes very rare difficult to found, I have seen one in the auction, and I have the Saigon notes found in Hanoi – auth)

                                                              

(2)august.6th 1901
Off cover of postally used stamp on two type regular definitives Indochine RF stamp type I standard navigation and commerce orange 4 cent and red 6 cent, CDS Dalat-A(nam) 6.8.01, was found in Indonesia.
(Dalat a historic city for Indonesian people because Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman meet Field Markal Tarauci to have an authority to Indonesia Independent in August.14th 1945, read the complete story in this block and look “Indonesia Independent War” and look the vintage picture postcard-and vintahe photo/picture in 1964 Vietnam Unique collections- auth)

21) 1902-1904
Not yet info

20)1905
(1)In this year Bank of IndoChina issued 5 Piasters Paper Money

                                                

(2) October.14th 1905
Off cover Indochine first regular deffinitive stamps ,brown,15 cent, postally used cds Dien Bien (phu) 14 Oct 05 ,was found in Indonesia
( The famous city Dien Bien Phu where the Vietminh win the war against Franch, very popular city-unique CDS-auth)

21) 1906
Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign were issued 1 phan cash coins thwo types , machinal struck and traditional struck.(Traditional struch more rare that the macinal struck)

22)1907

(1)Than-Thai vietnam emperor throught out from vietnam to Reunion island by Franch (P)

(2) The attractive native woman design regular stamps were issued in 1907.(PH)

23) 1908-1910
Not yet info

24) 1911
(1) Ho leave Vietnam(D)
(2) October,4th .1911
Off piece Two Blue definitives native women Indochine 1 Piastre ,1000A2000 revenue , used with handwritten 4/10/11 .were found in Indonesia
(the unique earliest 20th century high nominal revenue, because in this time many used in low nominal,because in this year recetion and tax revenue became high, -auth)

25) 1912
(1) January,31.1912
The early off cover postally used CDS Lao Bao –Anam 31.Jan.12 on orange first type definitif Indochine Stamp 10 cent. Found in Indonesia (what the new name of the citry Lao Bao ? rare village postal stamp ?,because didn’t found in later vietnam name, please comment for information-auth)

26)1913
Early twentieth century Indochine Justice Francaise Extract “Extrait du casier judiciare concernant” Tribunal Cantho. Droit de timbre a o$15 en compte avec le Tresor.
Extrait du casier judiciare concernant
Name (nomne) : Nguyen Huee Tam
Fils de Nguyen Huee Vien
Et de Ha thi-Thu
Ne le 21 Fevrier 1925 a Tan quoi (Cantho)
Domicilee au dit lien
Etat civil et de familie Celibataire
Profession ……………………………….
Nationalite Sujet francais de Cochinchine
Pour extrait conforme:

Cantho le 1er December 1913
Le Greffier
Vu au Parquet Signed Lie
De procureui de la Republique Round Stamped
“Procureur De La Republique

Tribunal De cantho”
27) 1914
Some hundred thousand Viet-namese go to French in Labor battalions during WW I.(D)

28) 1916
Emperor Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign issued two kind of 1 phan cash coind “Khai Dinh Thong Bao” Traditinal and mechanical struck. (The mechanical struck more comon coins-auth)

29) 1917
Not yet info

30)1918
Ho arrives in Paris during Russian revolution and remains there for the next seven years.(D)

31) 1919
(1)Ho tries to petition for self determination in Vietnam against President Woodrow Wilson , at the Versailles Peace Conference
(2) A surcharged set of 1919 reccestated by the changeover from centimes to piastres in the present years. And a reprinted set staring 1/10 cent denominated.(PH)

32) 1920

(1)Ho joins newly formed French Communist Party .(D) and the photo of Saigon in this year.(P)

Vietnam was at this time part of French Indochina, with communist and nationalist political activity targeted by the Sûreté, or French national police.

(2) In 1920 the Banknoted issues from Haipong and Saigon could circulated all over Indochinese territory In this year also issued low nominal banknote 10 ,20 and 50 cents.(Haipong issued more difficult to found-auth)

(3) September. 2nd 1920
(1)The earliest Reciept of House land tax Paid sign by Nguoi thau of Cantho, Village du thoi thanh, with red stamped. Franch Liberty Indochina with chine character.(D)( I have the best collection of this land tax reciept from Village Tan –Buoi from 1920-1922, 1930-1934, 1939, 1940-1943, 1946, 1949. This unique document were the factual information that during 1923-1929, 1935-1938, 1944-145, 1947-1948 something happen that the land tax did,t paid and the authority also change by name , may be the conflict and war situations, let we proof that fact with historic informations, let the Historian made the study of this historic collections, let ‘s study together-auth)

33)1921

(1) June.29th1921
The receipt of land house tax paid ?(so hien bien lai ) , nhan lauh cua hua i ngsat, nguoin thau signed Nguoi than and red Franch Liberty stamped Cantho- Village du tan-Buoi

34) 1922
(1)Khai Dinh(1916-1925) Annam’s emperor visit Paris (P)
(2) July.10th 1922
The reciept of Land Tax paid, signed Nguoi Than, redbrown French liberty stamped Cantho, Village du Tan Buoi.
(the last signed Ngoui Than-auth)
And anpther same document but with first signed Vien chuoc thou nhem (new title-auth)

(4) December,17th,1922
The blue paper reciept of Land tax paid, signed by Vien Chuoc thou nhem and lFrench liberty stamped Catho ,Village du Tan Buoi. (D)

35)1923

(1)January 25th 1923
Republique Francaise Indochine 36 cent Revenue Sheet, used added Indochine Dimanston revenue 24 cent USED WITH stamped Annuale , This was the the Francaise Indchine revenue’s letter sheet contract “To ban Chuoc vuon ruong” adress “Nguoi ban le van thiet 45 luoi vo la Nguyen thi Khue 42 tuoi Saigon , for “Gia ban chuoc ban lon Mot Ngan Dong(1000$00)”, between ngoi ban ming and nguoi mua ming , “zoi-giao : Trong bon nam chuoc thi bac co loi nam ba phan ngoai bon nam chuoc lai thi bac nad loi con von J ngay to”( please native Vietnamese t translate this historic revenue sheet-auth)

(2)April ,5th.1923
Bo Dai was born in hue the capital of Vietnam Kingdom ( He was the last emperor of Vietnam-auth)

(3) April 13th 1923
Francaise Indochine 24 cent Revenue letter’s sheet was used to write the information in Franch & Vietnamese characters :
a) Lang cap duc nam 1866
S-o-160-50 2 Ha 20.00-Rg 2ecl VC-Thong Minh –dao ,S-Re chle , E.-Re .Nguyen Do , O.-Re.Nguyen tac-Yen.
b) 9 Jiullet 1905
212-243-88bNgai-v-Thoi -2.26a.00-Vuon .
NG .-reg Chu , S-Reach hu-Tri , E-V-Vg-Tai-Vang , O.-Re.Le-v-Thanh.
Ngua cua con Hbh-Phai la Hbh van Tbao trans NG0 2908 du 9 Juillet 1905.

c) 17 Aout 1909.
Vendu deft par les heritiers de Thuan Wbai’;t;Do ewught Ngo 2809 du 17 aout 1909. signe Eudel.
d)Emperor Khai dinh at His Palace

d1)5 September 1917
(1)Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi survant partage a l’anuable intervenu entre les heririers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt Ngo -2773 du 5 September 1917. Po L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard,
(2) Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi suivant partage a’ l’annuale inteerheum entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Do euregt ngo 277e eu 5 September 1917 .P.o L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.
d) Extrait de Diao du Village de3 Thanh Thien, canton de Mhinh-puc
(1)Lang cap duc nam 1866
49-24-49 Diavo actuel -2.000 Ha-Reg 2e-cl : N-Reg chu,S-V-chu,E.-Re Ngai –v-Do, O-Re.Nguyen tacc yen.
Veneu deft per Pham-v-quan ,sanh,Thien,Ngai, Duong, bay, Than,Hoa,Dieu,Thuong, Nham,Cuac, Dat, Chou et Gian, heritiers de Thuan, ai Ngai-v-Do enregt No 2809 du i7 Aout 1909 P.o.eur Sign Eudel.
Part attribuee Ngai –v-Thoi suivant partage a l’annuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt-Ngo 2773 du 5 September 1917. P.o.Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(2) 71-34-71 Ngai-van-Thoi
2 Ha Reg 1er cl : Ng –reg-Chu, SW.- Vuon chu, E. R-Ng-tac-vang, O-r-Le-v;Thanh,
Ngua duc cua Hbuynh-v-Phai va vo la Nbg Ru Phuong cau chung no 2369ndu 17/7-1901.
Part attribute a Ngai-v-Thoi sui vanpartage l’anuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai van-Do enregtno.2773 du 5 Septembre 1917 Le l’Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(3) 72-170 -72 Ngai –v-Thoi 280.00 : Thong Minh Dao, S.- reg chu, E.- rg Ng-tac-Vang , O.- reg Le-van-Thanh.
Ngua euc cua thj Phuong la vo Phai cau chung so 2367 du 17 September 1901.
Ngeme partage que le Ngo-3H du bo. P.g.l’Ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.

P.E. G.
Droit percu : 5 $ 00.-
Quittance No.5511
Bentre, le 13 Avril 1923
P.L’administrateur etfro
Sign by Huchard & Red Bentre Stamped. ( interesting information about ? from 1866 to 1917 and officially sign by Bentre Administrators with offcial stamped. On 12 April 1923, may be this official information about land owner ? from the Bentre Admninistration in 1923. )

36) 1924

(1)Ho leaves Paris for Moscow , becomes full-time Communist agent . Later went to Canton as assistant to Mikhail Borodin , Soviet represen-tative in China.(D)

Ho leave Paris because his communist and nationalist political activity targeted by the Sûreté, or French national police.

(2)In November 1924 Hồ arrived in Guangzhou(canton)  on a boat from Vladivostok.[4] He posed as a Chinese citizen named Lý Thụy (Li Shui) and worked as a translator for Comintern agent and Soviet arms dealer Mikhail Borodin.
(3) December.8.1924
Off cover brown definitive Indochine RF stamp , 12 cent in double circle type -2 stamp, Postally used CDS Hanoi (To)nkin 8.12.24.
 

 

37) 1925


(a)Emperor Khai Dinh was died, he was burried at imperial ‘s tombs, near the purfurmed river. His tomb very best and artistic, like miniature city, with many artistic statue of dragon,gourd and civillian, elephant, horse .

 and interior very artistic


Theorically Bao Dai his elder son became the emperor Of Vietnam, and The young emperor came back from France to ascended the throne under france tottulage.

( I have some original vintage photo of Khai dinh Tomb fro 1930 , 1949, and 1955, the old photo, the childrens were riding the horse and elephant ‘s statues
In the modern times we hav the informations about that Tomb :………………………………………..- auth)
Khai Dinh ‘s elder sons was the last empror of Annam 1926-1945, but he always at Paris, and under Japanese protectorate he came back to Vietnam stayed at Dalat,
( by referendum the last emperor was thrown out by Ngho Dinh Diem in 1955, read another subchapter-auth)

(b)In May 1925, Hồ participated in the founding of Thanh Niên, or Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth Association. This group was a forerunner of today’s Vietnamese Communist Party.
 
 

 

38) 1927

(1) June .13th.1927
Mytho Indentity Card,certifies exaste les reneignaments et-dessus(issue by) Mytho le 13 Juin 1927 Le Directeur, form was printed by Photo-Nadal,120 rue cayinat,saigon. (Nadal-photo have produced many vintage picture postcard-auth)
No. Maticule 372
Nom (name) : Ly Thi Nega
Ne l e(born ) : 13 Juillet(july) 1913
A’ (at) Phu Lun (Sadec)
Eleve de L’Ecole des : Sacuro
Nom,profession : Ly dai Con
Adresse des parents : Proprieclaire a Phu Lun (Sadec). (Sadec an native traibes near the border with ex annam area-auth)

(2) August 18th 1927
Republique Francaise Indochine 12 cent revenue sheet, used at Bentre,by Tong Minh-hue Lang Thanh –thoi,
Bentre Village square official stamped with chinese char. Also thumb –finger print sign.

(3) August,1st 1927
Rare Indochine 40 cent Revenue 300$ A4000$ , used on Document “To Han Mai dat” Bentre le 1er Aout 1927 , handfinger thumb signed of seven persons , legalised by the chief of Bentre Village with square stamped Bentre Village Thanthoi and Province De Bentre Administrateure stamped at 3 Aout 1927.

(4) October.24.1927
The rare and unique Carte D’Indentite (I.D.) Changenebes de Domicile (Change the domicillies) from”D’Outremer Service de Laison avec les originares aries Territoires Francais d’Outra-Mer” (The Service’s laisson of Foreign France teritory area) with the round stamped on blue Republique Francaise Timbre tax d’outra-mer ,very rare Revenue for France Colony, pity the ID card quality poor but useable for historic archived and must restored–auth)
Nom (name) : Luong hoc San
Nationalite: Citayen Union Frnacasie (Cochinchine).
Profession : Efecidiant (not clear ?)
Ne le : 24 octobre 1927
Long Binh Ranch..Cochinchine.(The rare used Franch colony revenue in cochine china, pity the revenue in bad condition,but the photo and card good condition, still interesting Cochine chine ID card during that colonial era-auth)

39)1928
No Collections and no Information, please someone will kind to send the info in 1928-auth.

40)1929

(1)Nguyen Ai –Quoc more knwon Ho Chi Minh have builded Vietnam Communist Party (D&P)

(2)Nearly Mint Picture Postcard Hanoi-Le Jardin Botonique.printed by Grands Magasines Reunie Hanoi(OP)

(3)Republique Francaise Indochina 10 Cent Revenue sheet overprinted Indochine 3 Cent used in chinese char about …. with six square stamped “ “P.Binhoh-h.Phu-Cai”in center chinese char…….(PH)

____________________________________
41) 1930,the economic crisis and rebellion year.
_____________________________________

(1)in 1930 the economic crisis added the social economic conflict between the poor farmer and labourmens ,in Indochine they have made rebellion the same situation in China.

(2)The second type Banknote issued by The bank of Indochina, this notes different from the first type, the name of the issuing bank, which “Banque de I’Indochine (Indochine written jointly without dash, the first type “ Indo-Chine”), while in the transitional period of the two typical categoriethe one-piaster notes bore the bank name of “banque de I’Indo-Chine”, and there was on their back side trilinual letters of Chinese,Vietnamese,cambodian and note emblem.
For these second catagory of notes, on their back side there were lines of Chinese Characters and a legal warning (in French) which have been all writen nratly and lightly. The note values have been written clearly in three letters of chinese,Vietnamese and Cambodian.
The following five-piaster notes were called very popularly by our compatriots as “Con Cong ”(Peacock) papers. On the back side of the twenty piaster notes there was the four-faces statue found at bayon temple (Cambodia). They were called populary as “Giay Qanh”( “Vingt Papers) which come from the french number “Vingt”(twenty).
For one hundred-piaster note, there was rather special thing. The Vietnamese figures (The single vase,The Imperial Temple Gate of Hue,capital city) were shown on the front side, while on their back side was seen the bust of Joseph-Francois Dupleix, a well-kown french colonialist official. ( I have this notes in fine condition, but very difficult to find the veryfine or unc condition, this note were found in Russian market Phonphen Cambodia, in Ho Chi Minh city difficult to find the Indochine papermoney, alway verybad condition maybe because the Liberation ‘s war and many Saigon ntaive vietnamese flea away after the fall of saigon, the only place still found was Cholon area, but the chinese there very carefully to change this high nominal value after the French leave that area, please comment-auth)

The Doc Luc, Giay Qanh and Con Cong(Single vase, twenty piaster pape and peacock) have constituted a triad of big notes which have been used for a rather long time under the French rule.After this three bankonote, issued the same banknote disign but the Baque De I’Indochine and nominal value in Red Colour , the rare banknote was the highest nominal 1000 piastres, the first type in yellow colour ( That is way very rare the very fine conditions , many poor conditions have found –auth).
After this Banque De I’Indochine issued several design cammon banknote, une,cinq,cent,cinq cent with native design.

(3)January,13th .1930
Rare chinese calligraphy bring by chinese immigrant (hoa Kiao or Chinese overseas) to Cholon-Saigon, about Chinese homeland traditional ritual from Tjiang Shi (Quanshi?) , the best time to pray at 10.15 pm , position up above, also about Chinese zodiac good fortune.
(I have found several document ,revenue and postal history written in chinese char during ancient time, francaise Indochine, Bodai’s,diem ‘s and liberation war from the Vienama’s chinese overseas area at Haiphng near Hanoi and Cholon- Saigon. I will write a special book about Vietnam’s Chinese Overseas unique collections- auth)

(4) November,13th 1930
The reciept of Land House tax with Indochine Francaise liberty armour ‘s Cantho Village violet stamped , signed by Ngui Thau, before by Vien Chuc Thau Nhan. (fiscal history-auth)

42) 1931

(1)August,7th 1931.
The reciept of Land House tax paid ,signed Vien Chu thau Nham with Violet French Liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan Buoi (D)
( the change again of official govern-ment system in the village four times from 1920-1939, from Nguoi Thu(1922) – Vien Chuc Thau Nham(1923)- Nguoi Thau(1930)- Vien Chuc thau Nham(1931)-Nguoi thanh(1932)- Vien thau Nhan(1939 )-Nguoi Thau (1939,May)- Vien chuc thau nhan (1940)-Nguoi thau(1941)-Thue (1946)-Nguoi thau (1949), very best informatif set collection So Hien Bien lai , especially the year 1941-1942-1943 – 1946-1nd 1949 as the collection for showed-please comment-auth)

43) 1932

(1)July.10.1932
The Reciept of Land house tax paid, signed Vien Chuc thau nham, with red-brown franch liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi (D)

44)1933

(1) December, 17th 1933
The Pink paper reciept of Land House tax, signed Nguoi Than, with Red French liberty stamped Canth, village du Tan Buoi (D)

45) 1934

(1)May 20th 1934
Emperor Bo Dai merried Jeannete Marie (?) at the imperial city of Hue.
And his wife became “Hong Hau Nhan Phuong” or empress of the South.
( I ever stayed at the “Nhan Phuong” Hotel at Hanoi near Hoat kiem lake in 2007-auth)

(2)October, 15.1934
The White paper reciept of Land house tax pai, signed Ngui Thou with red chinese character of the Frech liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan buoi (D)

46) 1935

(1)December.30th 1935
Off cover emperor Bo Dai official stamps send from the capital of Vienam administration office , 5 cent orange Indochine definitive stamps overprint Service, postally used CDS HUE –A(NAM) 30.12.35
(Hue was the capital of the state of Anam . The Service stamps
for official latter of the Annam kingdom adminsitration during the last emperor Bo Dai-auth)

(2) Blue Matches label withe elephant design,”Societe Indochinese des alldmetes-Benthuy-Hanoi” with chinese char.
(Very rare Matches label from Indochine Francaise in the Tonkin village Benthuy –Hanoi found in Indonesia before the World war II , because many collections burns during Vietminth war against Franc in 1952-1955, this is the first reported of that kind collections, were someone had the same collection please comment –auth)

47)1936

(1)In 1936

(a) stamps issue depecting the various native emperor and king in variety of commemorative honouring notable figures.

(b) Old styled chinese char about Chinese School information (difficult to translate, my be someone will help me -auth)

(2)August.21th .1936
The Vaccination card, “ Ville De Cholon” Etat-Civil Indigne(Bo doi Bon Quoc), Bulletin De Naissance (To Bien Lai khai Sanh)
Identification :
Nome et prenom : Law Ngoc
Sexe de l’infant ; Hau um
Ne le (born) :18.8.36
Address :A Cholon Rue Thu Gia De Lam Thong Et de Hua Teich .

Ephemera of The Variolla vaccination ’s law in Vietnamnese and Chinese char:
“ Every newborn child must have variolla vaccination, ifn’t done the parent will have sactions”
Behind the card stamped :
Vaccine contre La variola 21-8-36, Succin 24-8-36, Vaccine per BCG 22-8-36.

(Rare Histroric health vacinnation record collection during Francaise Indochine at Cholon-Saigon Cochinchine in 1936 –auth)

48)1937
No collection and information, why? Please comment -auth

49)1938
No collections and information Why snf what happened ? please comment-auth.

50)1939

(1)29th April 1939
Two vintage document used as the covers of Hand written vintage book:

(a)The Reciept of personal Tax from Village Da ban-Huyen de Yen Binh, paid (Paye) 129$81 , “import personnel and Toncier of” nguyen Quang ,hand sign by “Administrtaeur-Resident”at 29 april 1939 with official stamped
Pour L’annee 1939
Village de Da Ban
Canton de….. Huyen de Yen Binh
1.-Impo’t personnel
. …contribuables a’ 250$00
…..contribuables a’ 200.00
….. contribuables a’150.00
……contribuables a’ 125.00
……contribuqbles a’ 105.00
…..contribuables a’ 80.00
…..contribuables a’ 55.00
…..contribuables a’ 40.00
…..contribuables a’ 25.00
…..contribuables a’ 15.00
…..contribuables a’ 7.00
…..contribuables a’ 5.00
..32contribuables a’ 2.50 80,00
….6contribuables a’ 1.00 6,00—— 86.00
Centimes additionales a’impot personnel 17.20
————–
Total de l.impot personnel et des centiemes additionnales 103.20

2.-Impot Toncter
Riziores de 1’ classe—— Mau a’1$90
– 2’ classe…… Mau a’1,50
– 3’classe……. 11 Mau a1,00…..11,00
Terrains de 1’classe…… Mau a’2$30…
— 2’classe…. Mau a’1.00
— 3’ classe…. 12 Mau a’0,50…..6.00
— 4’classe….. 30 Mau a’0.17……5,10
— 5’classe….. Mau a’0,02…..
Total de L’impot foncier 22,10
3.centiemes additionnels au principal de l’impot
Au profit du Badget provincial…………….. 4,42
4.4/1000 additionels au principal de L’impot foncier
Au profit deLa’Chambre d’Agriculture….0,09——– 26.61
______________
Total de lo’impot a’ verser par le village———- 129.81
________________
Arrete a La somme de Cent vingt reuf pistres ,quatre vingt et un cente.
Nguyen Quang te ………..29 april 1939
Administateur Resident
(b) Versaments Printed Document, The Rice field class no 1 & 2 and Land Tax in chinese char.
Nu du carnet d’enregistre ment ……….831
DATE de versements …………………….3739
VERSEMENTES
En Toutes latters….toen trrs piatres cents
En Piastres ……………………………………….103,20
Hand sign and not clear official handstsaped :
TRESORER’ DU CONTROLUER(?) ..
PLACE DU ECONOMIQUE..(?)..
IN THE CENTER ‘PA………..”

d) Vintage Handwritten Book in Chinese charcter and many Coding pictures about the confucian prayed

(This Unique Imporst Fiscal “ Nguyen or Tunyen(?) Quan ‘s “ Import personnel and Toncier from village Da Ban ,huyen Yen Binh was the first report Fiscal revenue historic collections from Vietnam, I am very lucky to find this very rare document with another documen were used as the cover of an handwritten chinese char vintage books in antique shop near Hoat Kiem lake Hanoi in 2007. auth)

(2) October,30-1939
Off Cover brown native stamp Indochine RF 50 cent, postally used CDS Haipong 30.10.39 (Haiphong was the older capital of Tonkin, the chinese marchant harbor, the rare Haiphong’s picture and ID Card look at the next page, chronologic year 1947 and 1955. auth)

29) 1938
(1)September.4th 1938
THE VERY RARE WESSELS ‘S HANOI TONKIN COVER TO DUTCH East Indie (now Indonesia).
THE UNUSUAL AIRMAIL cover from HANOI TONKIN, FOUR POSTALLED STAMPED DESTINATIONS WITH HANDWRITTEN DESTINATION AND PORTO F 1.
This postally covers was sent from Hanoi Tongkin to Het Postzegelhuis (Post Office) Djogja Indes Neerlandaises (Ned.Indie, now Indonesia) WITH FIVE Rhodes STAMPS , 3 x 5 cent , 6 cent and 18 cent Indochina stamps(rate 39 cent) Par avion WITH INDOCHINA MAP, with ROUND Postmark HANOI P.O.-TONKIN WITHOUT DATE , SENT VIA BANGKOK G.PO.c 4.9.38 , VIA BATAVIA (HANDWRITTEN IN BLUE PARKER INK “HAUR BATAVIA”(NOW JAKARTA) AND ARRIVING POSTMARK DJOKJAKARTA 7.9.38 WITH HANDWRITTEN f 1.- ADDED PORTO ONE GULDEN. (UNSUAL PORTO)
(the photo of this Wessel’s cover will show in this blog. Please comment if anyone have the same collection-auth)

(2)Near mint Indochine Pictured Postcard with the Native village Tonkin Womens sold the flower and fruit “Paysannes Tonkinese revenant du Marche.
This card base on “Cliche No-Nhu_Hoan,MY-Hao Ban-Yen-Nham-Tonkin, pritted by Edition photo NADAL ,Saigon-Imp.Braun(P)

51)1939
(1)March.23th 1939
The blue paper receipt of land House tax paid, signed Vien Chuc Than Nham with red French liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi , 23 mars 1939. (D)

52)1940
(1) March.29,1940
The Police D’Abonnement A L’Eau Porable , Cochine Chine polish insurance (?) With very rare overprint 36 on Indochine Francaise 25 cent Timbre fiscal revenue , le abonemen Cathedral De Saigon .RP Eugene Scullard ,Place Pigneu de Boheine.
secteur de saigon, Services Technique, control de Eaux et De Electricite, This contract sign at Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Vue et propose L’Ingenuer Charge du Controle, L’Abonne, Vue et soumis a L’apprebation de M.L’Administrateur Le chef de services technique sign R.Lachamp, and Vu et accepted Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Le chef de Service Administratifs with Cholon Region Station Services Technique Stamped.(Very Rare Cathedral de Saigon abbonnement certificate with very rare overprint Yellow-36 on 25 cent Indochine francaise timbre fiscal revenue, only found one pieces this emergencies revenue-auth)

(2)May.22.1940
(b)The Republique Francaise Indochine 15 cent Requete revenue sheet
(a) added “Tonkin -handstamped” R.F.Indochine 3 cent revenue , used with village stamped with chinese character “H.Phu-Cat V.Dai-Hac”, this revenue sheet was the house and land transaction , the house located at the highsociety area, north the village, south Phan Tiu, West Phan Yen, East Kwang chung .
( This revenue sheet found at Hanoi Hoat Kiem area” and the best showed collection to compare between the Tonkin ‘s Phu-Cai Hand-stamped 3 cent, with The Cochinchina’s Mytho- Mechanical overprint 3 cent, wonderful two historic revenue sheet from Tonkin-phut Cai (north) and Cochinchina-Mytho (south) found by Indonesian , especially if showed in USA or French , please comment-auth)

(b)added “ Cochinchina-mechanical overprint” R.F.Indochine 3 cent, used at “Tinh Mytho,Tong Phong vu ,” at Tang Hoa Log. To Ban Dut Dat Ruong”ontract betweeen “Vhu Phua and Chu Ben” date (ngay) 22 Mai 1940, (found at Ho Chi Minh city from Cholon area.-auth)

(3) July.17th.1940
Gouvernement General De L’Indochine, Residence de Thai Binh
“LIVRET DE FAMILLE” Nguyen Van Tan
(Family’s book, inside the book Nguyen Van Tan write in red ink the name and birth date of their family from the first generation born Hanoi,Nguyen van Tan 25.12.1893, 2nd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi.3rd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi 4th Nguyen van Kiem birth date 5.10.1922 at Thai Binh , 5th Le thiMInh,10-10-1930 at Ha Dong, 5) Nguyen van Toan 4.12.1954 at Saigon.Nguyen van Thinh 3.12.1956 at saigon and Nguyen Van Tring ,1-12-1957 at Da Nang etc another 11 persons.
(Unique Family birth date book of Governement General the Indochine, rare document from the official France colony administration, better shwed with another Gouvernur General Indchine document-auth)

(4) October,18th 1940
The best chinese overseas in Vietnam peom art calligraphy, as the remambrance for the best freands.
Including in small book more than fifteen poem and phraese about : (a)struggle for Independent
(b) you can have high vision, but must look at the true situations.
(c) Younger people don’t have the thought like a poet writers about old days situations , the Youngerman must made action to pass the threads in futures times.
(d)The Enemy were someone against us, the people were the battles.

(5)October .19th.1940
The Kuomintang flag with Sun Yat Sen photo as the head of Chinese overseas Middle school “Ijazah” , was authentication by Embassy of the republic of China .Saigon. double circle official kuomintang symbol stamped ,with big red squared official choped .
(The rare chinese overseas school document with China kuomintang –cholon ‘s embassy stamped.
I have another collection with the Kuomintang embassy stamped from Haipong and cholon- rare showed item and will list detailed in my another book title “The Unique Vietnam’s Chinese overseas document.revenue and postal history collections” –auth)

(6) December,19th 1940
The Police de’abbonent of General Immobiliere de Saigonm104.Bd Charner sretificate with very rare overprint 36 on 30 cent’s Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal (the other one 25 cent) on the Police D’Ambnnemen a L’eau Potable, sign by Directeur de la du Generale Immobiliere de Saigon,

( two very rare revenue onerprint 36 on indochine Francaise Timbre fiscal 25 cent and 30 cent very intersting collection for showed, the abnnement polish of the famous Saigon’s Cathedral and Saigon’s General Immobiliere building.-auth)

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Vietnam during Indochine at World War II 1942-1945.

 

VIETNAM’S INDOCHINE FRANCAISE
DURING WW II (1941-1945)

3.2.1 Before Japanese came

1)1941

(1)From 1941 to 1945 almost all of Indochina stamps were designed by vietnamese painters ans printed in Vietnam as well (D)

(2)Ho return to Vietnam and form the Viethminh to fight both Japan and Franch.(D)

(2)March.14th 1941
The Receipt of house rental paid, stamped Cantho Village du thoi than.
(D)

(3)Juil(July) 5th 1941
The rare vintage Chinese Certifacate of Registration at Cholon saigon, name Ly Chu Yen , writting in chinese character and Chinese Kuomintang (Star) emblem, with Light brown 20 cent Chinese Fiscal revenue design old chinese native building , Chinese consulate cholon saigon stamped .
( I found one complete certificate and one uncomplete half certificate without photo but the Chinese consulate stamped on revenue more clair. The very fine show piece. I have a visit at the Saigon(now Ho Chi Minh City)’s Consulate PR China ,to get fast one day visa two entree with four times cost than normal one weeks finish visa one entree, but the service very best, and I used that visa to see the Histroric Nguyen trai and Le loi Langson border between PR China –south autonon Quanshi’s province with the north area of Vietnam, they called the Freedom border -auth)

(4)August.30.1941
The rare Postal Recepisse(Reciept) “a remettre au depossant”, name and destination : Phan Ky Che Ban bien Place de Ai Section Rach –gia, send from CDS Cantho Cochinchine 30.8.41.

28) The Vintage Picture Postcard of Cochinchine
(1)The picture of Hotel at “Baclieu”” Le pare et l’Hotet de I’Inspection”
The card was issued by Photo Nadal Saigon,Gravure Braun&Cie .Dornach(France).(P)
(2)The Vintage Picture Postcard Of CochinChine.”the picture of Potterie Canal of Cholon with the junks.”
The card was issued by Photo Nadal Saigon , Cholon 1634. gravure Braunn &Cie.Dornach(france).
(I have seen the canal during last visit in 2009,still many ships but no jung anymore -auth)(P)
(3) The Vintage Picture Postcard of Cochinchine. The pisctur of la Douene Bentre.
The card was isuued by Photo Nadal Saigon, Bentre 1104,Gravure Braun & Cie.Dornach(France) (P)

33)1941
(1)June.30th 1941
The very rare Postal Recepisse no 671 postal cancel CANTHO-COCHINCHINE 9.30 , 30-6.1941.
Recipesse, remettre ao deposant,
(A rempiir per l’expediteur.)
Nom et adresse du destinatire (the destination address): Chan Ky chee Bon Bien
Rue : Pace de la Section a’ Rachgia.

(A remplir per l’agent des Postes.
Nature de L’object Valeur declare remboursement Poid.
(1) Voir notice e speciale au veran
(2) Coller 1e1 L’etiquette gommes du G-20

In The Back :
Notice Speciale
Si L’object ne porte pas de declaration de va-
Leur et n’est pas greve de remboursement biffer
Par deux forts traits de plume,Les emplacement
Reseves pour L’inscription de la valeur declaree
Ou du montant du remboursment.
Le delai se prescription des valeurs de toute
Nature confie’ens a’ La Poste est est d’un on.
La designation de L’expenditeur peut e’tre faite
Au moyen d’une griffe.
En vuebd’eviter le stationement au guichet,
Les expenditeurs sont prie’s d’affranchix regulie’re-
Ment leurs envois avant le depo’t.)
(The Best postal History postal cancel of Cantho Cocchinchine during WWII with Speciale notes in French , as the postal History of French hegomony and historic colonial in Cochinchina , also very impostant to the comparative study postal cancelled of the postal used covers in Indochina after the war, because two many fake falsifiaction bogus postal used covers, I will showed this very rare postal history, not put on my blog because someone will made falsification fake cancel on covers-auth)

(2)November.21.1941
The light green paper receipt of land’s house rental tax paid, sign by Nguoi than with red French liberty stamped of Cantho vIllage du Tan Buoi(D)
_

3.2.2 VIETNAM PROCTECTORATE DAI NIPPON (1942-1945)

__________________________________
1) 1942
____________________________________

(1)June.19th 1942
The red paper receipt of Land House tax paid,handwritten , signed Nguoi Than with very light red franch liberty square stamped of Cantho Village du Tan Buoi ( Rare document during WWII – Vietnam Francaise indochina as the Protectorate Dai Nippon , Vietnam still used the same stamped of Indochine cantho village-auth)
___________________________________
2)1943
_____________________________________
(1)August,4th 1943
The light pink paper receipt of land-house tax paid signed nguoi thanh with very very light franch liberty stamped of cantho village red stamped.
(Very rare document during WWII 1943 from The Indochine protectorat Dai Nippon village ‘s stamped still used -auth)

___________________________________
3)1944
____________________________________

(1) Vo Nguyen Giap forms Vietminh Army(D) and the vintage photo of him (P)

(2) By the end of 1944,US Forces under General Douglas MacArthur had fought their way through the Pacific and werereconquering the Phillipines. Rumor spread that bthey would debark in Indochina in their first assaut against the Asian continent.
General de Gaulle, determined to regain Indochina for France, feared that vthe Americans would favor the Vietnamese nationalist.
He parachuted Franch agents and arms into the area with orders to attack the Japanese as the US troops hit the beaches. Soon Saigon buzzed with talk of the forthcoming French Operation.

__________________________________
4) 1945-The end of WW II and Franch resettlement and Vietnam Independent war was begun.
____________________________________
A. Before Dai Nippon take over the Government.

1)January 1945

(1)January 4th 1945
The Very rare & veryfine condition Gia Dinh reciept 55$ and 9$32 from Li Van San (Nhan lanh cua M) for “Pr le compte de li r Nang & Ho-thi Dau (?) , ve thue dat nha/pho, so bo thue —,nam- 1944. (no revenue exist.)
Ngay 4-1-1945
Violet Gia Dinh –Binh Bhoa Ya ‘s square stamped design bird and chinmese char.
(Very rare extrafine village Bin Hoa ya of Gia Dinh province (after that Saigon-Cholon) ‘s document during Dai Toa Senso- Great East Asia War 1942-1945-, the latest dcument before the France administration was took over by Dai Nippon in March 1945-auth)

__________________________________
Move down march!!!!!!!
B. DAI NIPPON MILLITARY ADMINISTRATIN IN INDOCHINE PROTECTORATE.FROM MARCH 1945 TO SEPTEMBER 1945.
___________________________________
1) March,9th.1945
(b)The Japanese lost no time in reacting .On the evening of March.9th 1945 , after strategically deploying their forces, they instructed the French govenor to place his army under their command.
(b) In Hanoi , they ceremoniously intrened the French soldiers who had surrendered without fighting. But in oother place ,those who resisted were wiped out to the man. They imprisoned several hundred French civilians , many of whom were totured to death by the same native jailers employed by the colonial adminis-tration to brutalize Vietnamese nationalist.
(c) Overnight , French power had cumbled, and the Japanese seemed to be doomed to defeat. Which Vietnamese faction would fill the void?.

Move up January 1945!!!!!
(a)When the influence of World war II affected the French Indochina, the French Government issued a catagory of notes in which the ame of the issuing organ, Le gouvernment General de I’Indochine, at time from 1940 onward . the paper quality became worse than before, the paper was carelessly presented in IDEO(imprimerie d’Extreme-Orient _far east Printing House ) Hanoi.

(b)During this period , there were still metalcurrency, the leads coins were moulded with a paddy ear on one side . Especially there were issued lead coins with a paddy cluster moulded on the back side. A popular saying in relation to currency was orally propagated to stir up among people the anti-French Resistence for Independece :” When the paddy grows on the lead, elephants tram papers, the Monk shall have to disappear soon”(D)

(c) Worried by the growing Japanese influence, the French encouraged their own youth groups. But the Vietminh quickly infiltrated them and also seeded its cadres in japanese-sponsored associations. So, with no more than five thousand members in early 1945, the vietminh has a web of activitits all cross Vietnam, ready to act as events unfolded(D-ibid stanley Karnow p-159)

_____________________________________
move up. March.!!!!!
(2) January ,31th.1945
The Diploma from Guberneur General Indochina sign under delegetion to Secretary General with Indochina Goveuneur general stamped , at hanoi 31 Jan 1945, during Indochina as Protectorate Dai Nippon. The complete diploma in france :

Republique Francaise
Diploma D’Etudes Primaires Superiures Indochinoises
La Gouverneur General de Indochine.
Vu les directs du 20 octobre 1910:
Vu le direct du 2 mai 1920 ,modifie par le decret du 18 october 1922,
Vu Le Reglement General de l’Instruction Publique en Indochine :
Vu Le process-verbal de l’examen subi par Mn Nguyen van Loi ne le 7 Juin 1925,
Par leguel la Commission de l’examen atteste que le Diplome d’Etudes primaires superieures.
A Thoibinh,Cantho a ete juge d’obtenir le (epreuve facultative ————–) avec La mention Passable—–
Delivre a Mr “Nguyen van Loi “ Le present diploma pour servir et valoir ce que de droit.

Enregistre saus le no.1191 La Directeur pi Fait a hanoi 31 Jan 1945
(Direction de l’Lnstruction deI’Instruction Le Gouverneur General
Publique) Publique en de I’Indochine,
Indochina PAR Delegation
Secretary General
du Gouvernerment General I’Indochina
Slautier.
(OD)

(The very rare historic document before the Dai nippon took over the French administration in 1945 , the last French administration during WWII-auth)

_____________________________________
B. DAI NIPPON MILITARY ADMINISTRATION IN VIETNAM March-August 1945
_____________________________________

(1)March.9th.1945

(a)Japanese took over the Government administration through out Indochina. (D)

(b) Phung Thuong, as a boy before WWII , he had felt no particular resentment against the French, whom he rarely saw. But the famine of 1945 arused his hostility to both the Japanese and the French, and Vietminh agents entered the villages, urging the peasant to organize. They evoked Ho Chi Minh, a name then unknown to Khang. Even so, he agreed to head a platoon of seventry peasant armed with machetes and scythes, with only tw musket among them . They fortified the villages, building staves in hole covered with foliage. One night, in ambitius eneavor , they had fired six of their seven bullets. (D)

(2)11th March 1945
Bao Dai proclaims the indepen-dence of Vietnam under Japanese auspices.
Bo Dai, the indolent puppet emperr, had been hunting during the Japanese cuop.(D)

3) April 1945
No collections and information-auth

4) May 1945
No collection and information-auth

5) June 1945
No collection and infornation-auth

6)July 1945
(1)The allied leaders had met in Postdam, a Berlin suburb, to plan the future. There they had devised a schemed to disarm the Japanese in vietnam- aminor item on their agenda- by dividing the country at the sixteenth parllel. The British would take the South, the Chinese Nationalist the north, it was a formula for catastrope.

(2)The British commander, General Douglas Gracey, was miscast. A colonial officer with limited political experience but a genuine affection for his Indian troops, he held the parenalistic view that “natives” should not defy Europeans. Officially, his was not to reason why, he had been plainly told by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the allied commander for Southeast asia ,to avoid Vietnam’sinternal problems and merely handle the Japanese. But Gracey, guidednby his prejudices , (D)

7)August 1945

(1) August.14th 1945
Ir Soekarno and Drs Mohamad Hatta (Indonesian National’s leader during Dai Nippon Military Adminis-tration in Indonesia) went by flight to Saigon and by road to Dalat , where they have a meeting with Marskal Tarauchi (the command of Dai Nippon Military Administration in Saout East Asia ) and they have The Indonesia Indepen-dence’s mandat (D)
( Read the detail history in Unique Collection’s. Blog(By Dr Iean S.) “ Indonesia Independent War document and Postal History“-auth)

(2) When and Where the DaiNippon surrender in Vietnam ?-auth

________________________________
C.TRANSITION PERIOD AFTER JAPANESE SURRENDER IN VIETNAM 1945.
__________________________________
1)August 1945

(1)ANNAM BECAME THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM INCLUDING TONKIN,ANNAM AND COCHINCHINE WITH HANOI AS THE CAPITAL.

(2)By the summer of 1945 , flood aggravated the already serious food shortage as the Red River dikes , neglected by local officials, burst in several spot. In Nothern Vietnam, poor in the best of circumstances, two million people out of a population of ten million starved to death.
Not far from Hanoi , a leathery old peasant by the name of Duong Van Khang recalled years afterward that so many of his fellow villagers died :” We didn’t have enough wood for coffins and buried them in bamboo mats.”

(3)Condition were no better in the cities. Dr Tran Duy Hung, mayor of Hanoi at the time, recollected the scene in an interview decade later.

(4) Starving peasant in several places attacacked French post and stromed Japanese granaties.

(5) With the news of Japan’s surrender in August, the uprising spread. Vietminh agent mved quickly to take advatage of the Turmoil. A villager recounted the events of that period in a district of Thai Binh province, in the Red River delta :
“The Village marketplace was jummed. A man in brown pants and a cloth shirt climbed onto a chair, and guards armed with machetes spears and sticks surrounded him. He delivered a speech, saying that the Japanese had capitulated to the allies, and that the time had come for Vietminh to seized power . I was just a teenager in ragged clothes, and I asked a schoolmate, “ Now that we’ve seized power, who will be the mandarin?” He replied :”Get this.the mandarin is just apeassant-really ordinary”

(6) The Vietminh leader the marched to the district headquaters; the procession behind him swelled as nearby villagers joined in. The local chief had fled. The Vietminh leader seated himself in the district chief’s chair t dramatize his new authority. The next day, Vietminh agents put a village official on trial before five thousand peple assembled on a soccer field.
They read the charges. He had been an accmplice of the Japanese pirates. He had forced the peasants to pull up their rice and plant jute and peanuts, enriching himself even though the people were miserable and dying. He admitted that he had worrked for the Japanese but claimed that he was just carrying out orders. But they announced that his crime was very serious because he had opposed the revolution and helped the enemy. So They sentenced him to death and shot him right there.
This really fired up the people. They went after the henchmen of the Japanese, dragging them out of their housees, making them lower their heads and beating them. That finished their prestige, and the fervor of the massed kept rising.(D)

(7) August.16th 1945
To keep pace with the momentum, Ho Chi Minh summned sixty comrades to Tran Tao, a village in Thai nguyen province, North of Hanoi.
The time had come to grab power and greet the allies on the arrival. Ho formed a National Liberation Comittee with himself as president, calling it “The equivallent of a provisional government “ appealing for a general insurrection, he proclaimed in classic revolutionary style “ The oppresed the world over are wresting back theirindependent. We should not lag behind.(D)
Clad in coarse khaki uniforms or black pajamas, the first Vietminh detachments entere Hanoi on August 16, raking over publics buildings as Japanese troops stood by.
The emperor ‘s delegate, a symbol of imperial authority, resigned to a Vietminh-run committee of citizens which promptly announced its seizure of power from a balcony of the Hanoi opera house, a model of French gingerbread architecture

the edn @ copryright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Northvietnam-Vichi war(Vietminh) 1945-1955

 

THE VIETMINH  WAR

@copyright Dr Iwan S (iwansuwandy) 2010. iwansuwandy.wordpress.com.

 

                                                         

                                     Ho and friend stamps after victory 1954

I.  Historical Background

1.Above and Beyond.vol.4,New Horizon Publisher.Inc.Chicago,196 

(1) The vital role of air power in Vietnam during French vietminh war in the early 1950 were not exist.

(2)The French Army had the same mobility and firepower as the guerilla.

It was tied to the road for rapid movement of large units and its heavy fire-power was provided by attellery which could not be moved anymore quickly than its infantry.

(3)Under these circumstances the initiative was firmly in the hand of the Viet Minh who did not attack until the situation was strongly in their favor, and they could keep their forces secure indefinetely in jungle strong-hold.

(4)The most common Vietminh tactic was to attack one of the scattered French garrison with strong forces, and then to ambush relief columns sent to its aid by road.

(5)Many large French units were wiped out and it was impossible to force the Viet Minh to fight a conventional battle of importance.

(6)Finally, the Viet Minh did accept the challange of a conventional battle, but it was near the town of Dien Bien Phu in a rimote district of nortwestern Vietnam.

French commanders believed they could win even  though they had been forced into defensive positions and were cut off from inforcement and resupply by road.

Their estimate proved incorrect and before  their final defeat , the government in Paris sought US aid in the form of airpower to bombard the Viet Minh assembeld around Dien Bien Phu  , to resupply the French troops and if necessary to evacuate them.

It wasnot possible to arrange this aid and the ill-equipped French air  unit were  not able to stop the Viet Minh victory which lead to a complete French withdrawal from South East Asia.

                                    

2.Montgomery. A History of Warfare, Collins,St James’s Place London, 19

(1)In Vietnam , vietminh guerrilas took to jungle to fight against reesta-blishment of Franch control.

 (2)The war began in 1946 with the French attempt to reconquer Indo-China, which had been part of their empire since the early 1880’s.

(3)It ended with the armistice Agree-ment signed in Geneva in 1954, which left Vietnam divided between North and South along the 17th parallel  (line-auth).

(4)In this war the French losses were 35.000 killed and 48.000 wounded. The campaign repays study.

(5)What stand out are the hesitation, vacillation , lack of clear political purpose, and the constant political and military interference on the part of the home government in Paris.

(6)It also highlights the utter incompetence and arrogant blidness of the French military command set-up in IndoChina, which conducted the war with a complete disregard for local condition.

(7)The final disaster was the surrender of the French garrison of Dien Bien Phu on fifth May 1954,which was the death blow to the French empire, and threw that area open to the cold war.

(8)The lesson for the present is do not hold an Asian enemy in contempt.

This is an interesting book on the subject by a French author,Jules Roy, The Battle of Dien Bien Phu(I have the PHOTO OF THIS BOOK-AUTH). When Roy returned to Hanoi in 1963, the Vietminh commander General Giap

, said to him :” You were defeated by yourself” that is very true.The French realized in 1954 that they had lost their Indo-China war”

(I have the original photo of Giap,Ho , Pham van Dong and other Vietminh war hero , found in Indonesia during Afro-Asia conference 1955 at bandung-Indonesia-auth)

 3.French and the Vietminh (Kahin,America in Vietnam War,1976

 1)On the eve of Japan’s defeated in World war II.

     (a)The Vietminh confidently looked foward to Allied support in any future struggle against colonialism, because of the assistance they had given to his resistance movement against the Japanenese.

     Ho Chi Minh apparently anti-cipated ultimate Allied recog-nation to his newly-established goverment, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

     This expectation was clearly reflected in his government’s declaration of Independence of September 2,1945 which stated :

“We are convinced that the allied nations….will not refuse to acknow-ledge the independence of Viet Nam”

     (b) But France’s postpower government was determined to reassert French control in Indochina; and Russia included-mwere more concerned with maintaining good relation with France than with any effective support of the priciple of Self-determination in Vietnam.

(c)The first hind of Allied plans for postwar Vietnam came at Posdam. The Agreement reached there in July 1945 stipulated that, following the defeat of Japan.

     British forces were to occupy the southern half of Vietnam up to the 16th paralel, and China nationalist (Kuomintang) Chiang Kai-shek forces were take over the country North of the parallel.

     Under this agreement the mandate of both the British and Chinese Nationalist forces was restricted to “the round-up and disarming of the Japanese and the Recovery of Allied Prisoners of War and Internees”( In Indonesia the same, called RAPWI-auth)

                                                                         

     The conduct of the Allied occu-pation in fact went far beyond this limited assigment.

 The Commander of The British occupations forces, Major-General Douglas Gracey, exceeded both the Postdam Mandate and the orders of his superior Admiral Louis Mountbatten , who had admonished him to “confine operations of British/Indian troops to this limited tasks which he had been set.”

(d)Short of troops of his own, Gracey relied heavily upon japanese forces to keep Saigon and the surrounding areas under his control and out of the hands of the Vietminh.

He rearmed the bulk of the 5000 French troops interned in the Saigon area . ( the complete information read chronologist, “Bodai regime”-auth)

     (e)The Kuomintang Chinese army, in the northen half of Vietnam , devi-ated from the Postdam mandate in an other different way. Their force of 180.000 men, which was far larger than required, displayed more interest in systematically looting the country than in repartriating of The Japanese.

     In parts of Northen Tonkin , the Chinese replaced the Vietminh with their own proteges. However, despite attempts to influence the Vietminh’s activities, the Chinese commanders recognized Ho Chi Minh’s regime in Hanoi as the de facto government and allowed it to function with con-siderable freedom ( the complete informations read the nex subcapterd below-chronology-auth)

3).Vietnam (Constantino,Renato “The Making of Filipino” A Story of Phillipine Colonial politics” page 205& 231, first printing 1969,… panay avenue,Quezon City,Phillipine)

(a) The United States has asked her Allies to join her in warning communists “Against further aggresion in ear-torn Indochina”

(b) The next subject on which Senator Recto opposed the US position,and President Magsasay’s as well, was vietnam.

(c)Describing Vice-prosident Carcia’s prompt expression of support for United States intervention as ill-advised, he cautioned the Foreign Affairs Department against making ,without prior consultation with Congress, statements which might involve the country in war.

He pinted out that the Phillipines is in No Position to issued such “threats” because it is just a “small power” He expressed the fera that “ we may just be like hunring dogs sent out to bark at wild boars. Not physically able to fight the boar, we back out at first sign of conflict”

     Besides, he reminded the govern-ment that sould ourt threatening words involved us in war , our mu-tual defense agreement did not con-tain the categorial assurance that united States would come to our defense.

(d)President Magsasay said “ the last vestiges ( of the old-style colonialism) are now disappearing from Asia”, but the oppositioned Senator Recto said : (1)“ Westren colonialism is far from dead, and it is not correct to say that it has reached the last vestigial stage.Of course  it is doubtful if it can conquer again or re-establish itself upon the vast areas of the globe that it controlled in the 18th and 19th centuries, but this certainly is not due to lack of willingness or ebthuasiasm to do so, but rather to impressive evolution of the nationalism of many subject peoples since the closing years of the last century, starting in Asia with our own successful revolution against the Spanish colonial government.”   

 (2)“ Freedom-loving Asians correctly believe that it is not for any Westren people now to decide for any Asian nation what principles of foreign policy it may adopt or  repudiate”

(3)I am definitely against the commitment of Filipino troops in the war in Indochina. There is no cause, no reason for sending our fighting men to assist a colonial power to  perpetuate itsef against the Liberation ambition of the native population”

(4)Recto advised the United states to drop her”supercillious and patronizing attitude toward “Asia for the Asians”if she wants Asian cooperation”

(e) Magsaysay Reacts.

This veiled criticism of magsaysay and the more open attack  on Americans and pro-Americans like Romulo had an immediate repcussion.

(f) The Brownell doctrine, foreign policy, Indochina, and Japanese reparations each provided a new battle ground in the worsening relation between Recto and Magsaysay.

     The United states through her defense secretary that Filipino soldiers would not be sent to fight abroad, Recto felt that the Filipino people should be made to understand that “unless full gaurantees are secured from America” .

(g) The clash between Recto and the President Magsaysay was the paramount feature of party politics at that time. Everyone’s attention was focused on this duel between formidalbe adversaries.

  (h)Liberal Representative Diosdado Macapagal, implementing his party’s pledge of support to Magsaysay and perhaps trying to drive a deeper wedge between Magsaysay and Nacionalista Party leaders, enumerated in radio address the following ten “fundamental” conflicts between Magsaysay and Recto ( the complete history will list in UC’s nex book “Phillipnes Unique collections” –auth)(i)The fundamental’s conflict about Indochina-war :

(1) While the president Magsaysay is for joining the U.S. in warning Red China from intervening in Indochina, Senator Recto has opposed such step as like a dog rousing the wild boars from its lair only to run away.

(2) While the  president Magsaysay has dropped Asia for the Asians as a policy, Senator Recto has vowed  to make it a basis of our foreign palicy.

 (the historic informations  about the Phillipines and Vietnam Independen-ce war will put at the chronologic collections information. I hope after read the historicbacground we know that in phillipine, were senator recto opposides the President Magsaysay policy about Filipinos joined the Indochina war, detailed read the Renato Constantino books-auth)

d.ibid Stanley Karnow,1994

(1)After the defeat of the French by Ho Chi Minh and General Giap in summer of 1954 , there appeared the chance of negotiated solution .

(2)The Geneva conference of that year had resulted is a number of agree-ments and compromise.

 (3)The lighting was ended, and Vietnam was divided slose in the 17th paralel, with the North Vietnamese controlling what became the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, recognised by the communist state; in the South arose the anti communist Republic of Vietnam.

(4)Vietnam , it was proposed, would be unified again following elections in July 1956.

 (5)Two crusial features of the Geneva Accords were thus Vietnam were remain unitary states whose future would decided by elections, and that no foreign troops were permitted to assist North or South Vietnam. But from the start prohibition against the inroduction of foreign’s arm and amunition’s was a dead letter.

 (6)Eisenhower and Dulles  regarded the Geneva Accords as appesement of communism and a defeat for the free world.

They dissociated themselves from the agreements but promised not to overturn them by force provided there was no aggreasion from the North. They also expressed doubts about the all-Vietnamese elections and inssted that they be held under the auspices of the United Nation.

 

 

 

 

 II. The Chronology of VICHY-VIETMINH WAR COLLECTIONS  ( COMPILE FROM Dr IWAN s. And other private’s COLLECTIONS)

a) 1945

1) August 1945(1) August.19th.1945

(a)Vietminh August revolution begun. (Where their headquaters,Hanoi? Or in the jungle? Please comment, because very important to know their areal authority connected with their postal area and will used to know the pstal history collection orisinil or fake -auth) (D)

(b) During this period , the banknotes issued by the French have been circulating all over the three parts og Vietnam, cambodia and Laos. For some time when petty notes became rare, the people had even to tear the notes into halves to be used as change among them.

2) September 1945

 

(1) September.2nd. 1945

  

(a)The Democratic Republic of Vietnam proclaimed the Indepen-dence. (Where ? in Hanoi?-please comment-auth)

(b) The dubious Imnaha postal history’s report, Special cacheted cover address to Nam Dinh province from Hanoi CDS Hanoi-Tonkin 2.9.45 the Vietnam Independence day, with 6 Indochina stamps overprint “Chi Dung Trung Ngay La’  and also shoetype cancel Nam-dinh Tonkin 6-9-45 cancel.( I think thi spostal history fake, because in liberation war independent in Vientnam like Indonesia the Indepence proclaimed without the permission of the Japanese soldiers because the allied armed forces asked them to status Quo , that is why no special Indepence postmark , in that day still used the Japanese occupation stamped or Indochina stamped in vietnam without overprint because Japnese occupations stamped never issued in Vietnam because too short time occupied, please comment –auth)

(3)In parts of Nothern Tonkin , the Kuomintang Chinese Army , depen-ded on Postdam agreement’s man-date replaced the Vietminh with their own pote’ge’s.

However, despite attempts to influ-ence the Vietminh’s activities, the Chinese commanders recognized Ho Chi Minh’s regime as de Facto goverment and allowed it to function with considerable freedom

(the situation near same with Indonesia Indpendent war at the same time but more late in Sepetember 1945 by the British allied forces, read “Indonesian Independent war-auth)

Neverless, the weight of the Chinese occupation, politically as well as economically, was sufficiently onerous to dispose the Vietminh to meet some of France’s demands in order to secure the evacuation of Chiang’s troops from the area.(ibid Kahin)

(4)The young Republic could not immedietly issued its own stamps,  some of the Indochinese stamps were temporaly used with new incriptions “DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM”,”INDEPENDENCE  ,FREEDOM ,HAPPINESS”,”POSTS”.\,”FAMINE RELIEF ” AND “PEOPLE’S LIVEHOOD” over-printed.

Alltogether 13 different inscription were over-printed on 53 different Indochinese stamps converting into 57 Vietnamese stamps.(D)

(be careful many bogus fake overprint were issued,IMNAHA postal history just put in his blog, the Democratic republic of Vietnam overprint stamps postally used on cover and off piece revenue overprint Vietnam Dan Cu Cong Hoa,  North Vienam area

                                                            

                                                                   Haiphong Church

The Saigon & southern area(ex Cochin-China) Never found  stamps and revenue from the nothern area until the fall of Saigon in 1975 , but some document were found belong to the chinese overseas who refugee from Haiphong to Cholon-Saigon, the discussion will at the collections,

Please all the Indochina revenue and postal history expert all over the world to give their comment-auth )

(4) A vietminh committee set up to govern was wrangling with Jean Cedile, whom de Gaulle had sent to Indochina as France’s representative. French residents, afraid to lose their colonial privileges, were barcing for a fight.(D)

3) October 1945

     When the French colonialist returned, French currency continued to be spent again in the French-occupied regions. Together with their own conspiracy to re-occupy Indochina.

4)November 1945

Not yet info

5) December 1945

 (1)December.14th 1945

Two postally covers with Rhodes block 4 , 1st 4x 5 $ and 2nd 4 x 3 $, with same cds 14.12-45 to the same monseue guyermeir hanoi

(This is phillatelic cover or CTO because the rate too high and send to the same persons –auth)

 (2) December.17 th 1945

The IMNAHA report of Yersin pair overprint stamps on postally used cover, cancelled Hanoi Chanh Than Cuo 17.12-45 Ngan Phep, back stamped” Hanoi Chanh Than Cuo 18.12.45 Buu Tin” sent to Monseur Guyenare. 11 pho juu dng das Hanoi without tonkin,rate 2 Dong.

(The  rate and postal cancel fine postal history, and this time vietminh in Hanoi, but why didn’t sencored? And to the same person monseur Guyenare—this was phillatelic creations, the hand written style near same with another postal history-Auth)

 b) French-Vietminh conflict in 1946

1)January 1946

 (1)January.31th. 1946

The President Ho Chi Minh on this day has issued a decree regarding the issue of Vietnamese currency.(D)

2)February 1946

 (1)February,26th 1946

Very rare and dubious Imnaha’s  postal History report, Locally used comercial cover send in the Hanoi city , stamps scott 47-48 with soecial Vietnamese Postmarked  “Hanoi Chanh-Thau Cuc Buu Tin 26.2.46”  and in the back of cover, destination CDS Hanoi 27.2.46.

(I thing this postal history fake, because in this time Hanoi under Chinese Nationalis Allied Forces authority and no Vietnamese Postal office this day, please comment this Imnaha report postal history-auth)

(2)February.28th 1946

     In the return for substantial French concession, Chiang Kai-shek agreed to withdraw his forces within three months from the nothern half of the country. (ibid Kahin) 

3)March 1946

(1)March,3rd 1946

     In this day, Imnaha report two different dubious  postally used cover:

(a) Asia Life Insurance postally used cover, cancel Hanoi RP/11-3-46/Tonkin, sent to Eng Nguyen duong Hop 15 pho Domine ,  double pen line strip on the addres and stamped “gia lai nguan guil anf khong den tiah and hand written khong dten tanh tra par ng gia(Perfect post mark but the written style not like the vietnamese style and post cancel indochina type , why vietminh stamps cancelled by french Indochina hanoi postal cancel ? , may be this cover made by the franchman ? phillatelic creations,-auth)

     (b) Postally used cover used pair stamps scott no 3, with special date postmaked  “Que Hoi Dinh Bang 1945 VNDCCH Buu Dien 3.3.” , also had rectangular handstamped “ Ding Bang Toan Quoc Dai Bieu Ai Hoi Lan Thu Nhab Cua Nuoc Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hua”, label affixed “Envelope Commemorative Du 1er Assemblenation Du Viet Nam le 3 Mars 1946” ( To much vietnamese stamped during the worst situation, please comment original or not –auth)

(2)March,6th 1946

(a)The French accepted the Inde-pendence of Republic Democratic Vietnam under President Ho Chi Minh who fight almost more that eleventh years, now he was 35 years old.

(b)Ho Chi Minh felt compelled to reach a compromise settlement. Under this agreement he made the maximum concession possible without risking forfeiture of his dominat position in the nationalist movement. Even so, strong dissatisfaction with the settle-ment was express by various political group, and Ho had to exert all his in-fluence to secure their final acqueis-cense .

(c)Within the country the depre-dations of the Chinese occupation forces had further weakened an al-ready war-ravaged economy.

In addition, wartime neglect and Allied air bombardment of the North’s river-control systems had led the flooding of some eight provincee, causing many deaths and widespread starvation . These near catastrophic economic condition strenghted Franced’s bargainin position.

(d)Under the March 1946 agrea-ment , France could introduce 15.000 troops into the nothern part of Vietnam to relieve the Chinese occupation forces. This was on the understanding that each year thereafter 3000 of these French troops would be withdrawn , until the end of 1951 none would remain (ibid Kahin)

(e) There  were three parties in this republic, but the Vietminh was te biggest.

    

(f) The Chinese Nationalist ‘s Republic in Nanking more respect only to one Independent republic in their border but British and United Sta-tes didn’t like the Vietminh because their communist idealisme and fight to the Pacific area of Vietnam.

    

(g) The Republic Democratic Vietnam still under the Union under Frenc,  and econoly-politically United too with other Indochina area in the South.

(h)The Republic Democratic  Vietnam willn’t be developed if not United with other area because in the Northern more Industrial and in the South very rich agriculture especially rice.

     Nowadays Indochina export 1,5 millions Ton Rice, but now because of the battle or guerilla, export was down only 100.000 ton.

(i) In This situation the Independent of Republic Democratic Vietnam not full in politically and economically.

 

 4) April 1946

    

(1) In return for the Vietminh’s consent to the reentry of French forces into the North, Paris recognized Ho’s Democratic Republic of Vietnam as “ A free state, having its own govern-ment, parliament, army and tresuty, forming part of the Indochinese Federation and The french Union

(the same situation in Indonesia after the Lingajat i agree-ment , read Indonesian Independent war-auth)

 

(2) April,12th 1946

     Another dubious IMNAHA  postal history report, the postal used cover with 8 stamps including Michchel 1,3,6-10 and 12, postmark “Hanoi Chanh Thau Cuc Buu Tin “ and at the Back of cover CDS Hanoi 13.4.46.

(I think this postal history was the phillatelic creation or fake because  too many stamps not well rates and vietnamese Buu  Tin (Postal) not exist this day, please comment some one have the original Hanoi Buu Tin stamp-ed, and officially never report   –auth)

6) May 1946

    

(1)     May,9th 1946

Another dubious Imnaha postal history ‘s report :

Postally used commercial cover with block of four scott 19, locally used cover with Postmarked Hanoi Thanh Tau Cuc Buu Tin 9-5-46 with backstamped , from Hotel Splendide Hanoi ( The same hanoi Buu Tin Stamped  from February to May 1946 , I think fake postal history created by the sam person, please comment-auth)

 

(2)May,23th,1946

Chiang Kai-shek withdraw his Chinese Allied forces from the nothern half of the country. The departure of the British and Chinese forces brought the Vietminh government under direct pressure from France.

By this time it was evident to Ho that no support would be forthcoming from either the United zstates or Soviet Russia; form his perpective, the Vietminh had been deserted by the international community  and left alone to deal with French.

 

(3)May.31th 1946

     Ho departured for Paris- the city of his youth.

 

7) June 1946

 

(1) June ,1st.1946

Admiral G.Thierry D’Argenlieu, the new French Viceroy in Indochina, set up a separate puppet government in Cochinchina and  recognizing a “Free Republic”.

Spite of some local hostility towards the Tongkinese the population, who were concious of their ethnic identity with the inhibitans of North and Central Vietnam, for the most part refused to support a movement considered to represent a Franch manouvre designed to split the nation in its straggle for independence.

Moreover , in recognizing the Vietminh’s territories of Annam and Tonkin as “a free state” within the French union, it was evident that the French had in mind something short of Independent. 

 

(2)Summer 1946

      Further attempts at negotiations between French and the Vietminh proved fruitless. Relations resulted in increasing twosides worsened rapidly, while actions by both resulted in increasing friction and numerous small-scale inincident.

    

 

July 1946

Not yet info

9)August 1946

 

(1) August.19th 1946

The five type Ho  Chi Minh stamps 1,3,9,4+6,6+9 hao, were issued to comemmorative First Anniversary of August Revolution (19/8/1945) and National Day of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam(02/9/1945)

 (Very difficult to find this stamps postally used on covers and many fake stamps-auth)

10) September 1946

(1) September 2nd 1946

(a)Marking the first National Day of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the Postal Administration of Vietnam issued the stamp-set featuring the president Ho Chi Minh’s potrait upon decree no.172/SL signed on August 27 by the Government President, consisting of 5 valued od the same design with different colours and face values designed by painter Nguyen Sang. Among this denominations, there were two with extra-tax for narional salvation. The issuance of this  stamp-set was an important stage in the development of Vietnam Postage stamps.(D).

(2)September ,8th.1946

   The information about Indochina hadn’t heard in foreign country, and in Indonesia we didn’t heard nothing.

Censor and Isolation had made by the French, then the world didn’t paid attention anymore to this small and not important country different with the other country.

But for Indonesian the Political’s rolled in Indochina more important and interesting  because the situation of socila politic in that country near same with Indonesia.

(a)The populatrion of Indo-china about half of Java, and the power of french military more than  the Duch . The Total French army more than 80.000 and new military forces alway added.

(b)The Vietnam nationalist army (Viet-minh) didn,t have much gunpower than in Indonesia because the Dai Nippon Occupation army gave their gun to the Indonesia Republicans(TRI or Republic Indonesia Army).

(c)Republic Vietnam consist two area Tonkin and Annam , situated in the North  of Indochina.(D)

(3)September,10th 1946

     Before the modus vivendi was signed, General Morliere, the French commissioner in Tonkin, had set up a unilateral French control over imports and exports at the important Tonkinese port of Haiphong. The Vietnamese had looked foward to collecting much-need customs revenue at Haiphong after signing the agreement, but the French refused toalert their control.

(4)September,19th 1946

At midnight on September 19, dressed in athin tunic, ho slipped out of his hotel accompanied by a french bodyguard and drove to a building not far away. He took the cage elevator up to the Apartement of Marius Moutet, minister of Overseas France, another new name for postwar French empire. In Moutet’s study, he iniatialed a partial agfreement, which they entitle “a modus vivendi” , an interim understaning. As he left, Ho murmured to his bodyguard :” I have just signed my dead warrant”.

     Ho’s decision to defer t the French on the Cochinchina issue was to obsess him for the rest of his life and made his ambition to reunify Vietnam almost compulsive during his last year.(ibid.Stanley Karnow)

10) October 1946

(1)When Ho returned to Hanoi , his concessions upset the Vietminh’s hard-core militants, some of whom accused him of selling out to the enemy,  but the population acclaimed him. Despite his calls for moderation, howeever, he must have known that peace wuld not last.

     General Etiene Valluy, the French commander who replaced Leclerc, circulated a secret memorandum to his officers proposing a coup d’etat against Ho , and Giap was girding his forces.(D)

 

11) November 1946

(1)November.8th 1946

The IMNAHA’s report of postally used cover with the complete petain overprint vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa, cancel “Ha-Noi  Trung Uong Bac-Bo 8-11-46, sent to monsieur Felix Lang Poste restante Hanoi , without the sender name and Hanoi-Tonkin cancelled ( This cover was the phillatelic creation because poste restante only for foreigner and the rate to high, and without arrival cancelled, that time Hanoi in the French’s authority and Ho Chi Minh was slipped away from Hanoi -auth)

(2)November 16th 1946

     Ho Chi Minh protested to French Premier  Georges Bidault against the failure of the Franco-Vietnamese Customs Commission to meet, as prescribed in the modus viverdi. He objected also to the High Commissioner’s action in levying taxeson French nationals in Vietnam.(notably on the cotton mills at Nam Dinh) as a violation of the September agreement, which stipulated that they would be under Viet Nam fiscal control.

     The atmosphere in Viet Nam was tense in November 1946.

(3)November.20th 1946

(a) a French War Crimes Commission came toLang Son to investigate a mass grave where a number of Fench soldiers, killedby the Japanese in 1945, had been buried. French troops escorting the com-mission clashed with armed Vietnam-ese and each side accused the other of provocation.

(b)The incident at Lang Son, where the number ofFrench dead was less than ten, was rapidly overshadowed by another incident of considerably more alarming propotions which began the same day. A French patrol ship seized a Chinese junk attempting to run contrabandinto Haiphong, where the French had established a virtual blockade.

(c) Vietnamese soldier fired on the French ship from the shore, and shooting broke out within the city itself. General Morlie’re and Hoang Huu Nam, VietnameseUndersecretary of State,  intervened immediately; The French agreed to respect Vietnamese sovereigny in Haiphong and both sides promised to keep their troops far enough apart in  the city to avoid friction.

(d)When a French patrol boat seized some Chinese smuggler on the morning of November 20, Vietminh militia intercept the Franch craft and arrested its three crew members. At that, the volatile French commander, a Colonel Debes, assaulted the Vietminh.

By Afternoon , fighting lashed the town as Franch tanks rolled over street barricades and the Vietminh replied with mortars. At the opera house , facing the main street square, a troupe of Vietnamese actors held off the Franch with antique muskets. 

(4) November.21th 1946

(a)A commission of French and Vietnamese officers, assigned to monitor truce violations, manage to imposed s cease-fire this day. That might have ended the flare-up, except for a decision made in Paris by Prime Minister Bidault.

     (b) D’Argenlieu flashed Bidault ‘s respnse to Saigon , where General Valluy in turn ordered General Morlier, his representative in Hanoi, to insist  that Ho put all the Vietminh forces out of Haiphong and accede to French control of the city.(I have a chinese overseas parport issued by Chinese consult at Haiphong in 1947-auth)

     (c)Morliere , anxious to avert an explosion , reassured Valluy that the ultimatum was unnecessary . since hostilities had stopped.But valluy, eager to strike, also telegraphed the hawkish Colonel Debes :” It appears that we are confronted by premedutated aggression… The momment has come for you to teach a severe lesson to those who have treacherously attacked you. Employ all means at your disposal to master Haiphong completely, and thereby bring Vietnam military leaders to a better understanding of the situation.”

    

(5)November,23th 1946

(a)On this morning, Debes demanded that the Vietminh authrities evacuate their troops from Haiphong within two hours.

    

(b)The Vietnamese, protesting that they were observing the cease-fire, telephoned Hanoi for instructions. Debes gave them an additinal forty-five minutes, then issued the order.

(c)The culminated tension on this day with the French Naval Bombardment of Haiphong, where at least 6000 Vietnamese civilian were killed.

(d)French infantry and armored units raced through Haiphong, fighting house to house against Vietminh squad. French aircraft zoomed in the bomb and strafe while the cruiser Suffren, in the harbour, lobbed shells into the city, demolishing whole neighbourhoods of flimsy structure.

     (e)The Vietminh reliated by lounching coordinated attacks against French in Hanoi,which touched off major hostilities. This event marked the beginning of a war that soon to spread throughout most of Vietnam (ibid Kahin)

 

(f)Refugees streamed into nearby provinces with their belongings in baskets and on bicycles, and the Naval guns shelled them as well .

(g)Days passed before the French finally routed the last vietminh snipers.

The Vietnamese claimed twenty thousand death s, but French admiral later estimated”No More’ than six thousand.

    

(h)Vu Quoc Uy, then chairman of the Haiphong municipal committee, told that during interview in 1981, that the Vietnamese toll had been between five hundred and a thousand.    D’Argenlieu, still in Paris, cabled congratulation to Valluy, assuring him :”We will never retreat or surrender”

 

(i)Ho sent Blum a set of concrete recommendations for restoring calm. The telegram, transmitted through Saigon, was delayed by French officials theree for nine days-during which time the conflict again escalated  (ibid Stanley Karnow)

 

(6)November 23th 1946

    

(a)In the afternoon  French and Vietnamese troops  succeeded in bringing the fighting to a halt

     This , hovever, was only the first installment of the incident at Haiphong.

(b) Admiral d’Argenliu who was in Paris at the timemaking a report to the French Government, proposed using the Haiphongclash to give the Vietnamese a lesson; and his suggestion was approved,

 “Even going so far as the use of cannons?” he asked.”Even That”, Premier Bidault replied, probably not realizing there was any questiion of immediate action.

(c)D’Argenlieyu cabled General Valluy, his deputy in Saigon, who ordered Morliere to use force against the Vietnamese. But peace had already been achieved in Haiphong.

     Morliere pointed out, the Vietnamese situation was grave and requared not the explototation of incidents but their settlement; any imprudent act might lead to widespread hostilities.

(d)Unsatisfied by this reply, General Valluy telegraphed directly to Colonel Debes , commander od the French troops at Haiphong :

     “It appears that we are up against premeditated aggressions carefully staged by the Vietnamese regular army, whichno longer seems to obey its government’s order. Under these circumstances, your commendable attempts at conciliation and division of quarters, as well as the inquiry that I asked you to make, are out of season.

     The moment has come to give a severe lessn to those who have treacherously attacked you. Use all the means at your disposal to make youself complete master of Haiphong and so bring the Vietnamese army around .

 

 

(7) November ,30th 1946

     The first Vietnamese notes were issued in this day after nearly one hundred years of French protection.

     On the Frontside : The National name of Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and the picture of the President Ho Chi Minh.

     On the backside : the peicture of worker, peasant and soldier, with or without a line of words of “Vietnamese note”. The note value is represented in full Vietnamese, Cambodian and Laotian letters. The number are in arab transcription.

     The signature put on these notes were those of Minister of Finance ( Pham van Dong, Le Van hien) and Director of the Central treasurury.

     This kinds of notes were called asa Financial notes”, and they were also called populary as “The old Ho’s Notes”

( We must be very carefully to collect this kind of notes, because too many variations and also many fakes, if someone want to study about this note, please read the official book ‘

“ One Hundred Years of Vietnamese Paper Currency 1875-1975” craeted by The Ho chi Minh city Philatelic Association , Nha Xhat Ban tre Hoi Tem Than Pho Ho Chi Minh) 1994. This book very difficult to find in Ho Chi Minh city, I found at Russian Market Phom Phen Cambodia and the price very high, if some one want to know information about Indochina and Vietnam banknote collection, please contact in the comment and the editor will help you for more detailed inforemations.-auth)

 

 

 

 

12) December 1946

 

(1)December,17th 1946

     “If those gooks want afight, they’ll get it,” said Valluy as he landed in Haiphong this day, his temper boiling over the slaughter of three French soldiers by Vietminh militia in Hani that day.

     Incidents were now multiplying in Hanoi and, as they had in Haiphong.

     Ho begged the Franch to recind the order , Giap deployed some thrity thousand men at three locations in the suburbs, planning to invade Hanoi if trauble started (D)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2)December.18th1946

Another IMNAHA report Of Postally used Chamer overprint stamped with cancel Hanoi Chanh Thau Cuc 18.12.46 Bac Bo, with tree kind black stamped khoe Chong Xam Lang squered, Nguoi Viet-Nam )hu Ong-Thay Viet-Nam and doublecircle Nguyen Tri phuong Doan T.N.T.P Buu , sent to monsieur Ly-OG-Lin Poste Restate Hanoi (Tonkin) ( This cover have the same addres and poste restante during tis time no Vietminh in Hanoi they have evacuated out of the city because the French attacked them after the ultimatum at Haiphong Battle- this cover phillatelic creation or bogus stamped because the battle situation one day before the French armed forces in Tonkin and the vietminh headquaters always used red ink stamped not the black ink

This cover was the same with  Indonesian Independent war postal history created by Mr Phoa Lim Koey meridori street Surabaya sent by his friend from Padang Mr GKL, Medan Mr SSt. With many high nminal stamps ,the rate not right and the postal uesd cancelle d too fine without sencored label , to see the original war’s postal history look at my blog “ Indonesian Indepent war document and postal History-auth)

(3) December.19th. 1946

   (a)The Franch Vietnam armed Forces were in Tonkin.

     (b) The origin of the events is still murky, but the vietminh militia proba-bly struck first on the evening of this day, sabotaging the municipal power plant, then breaking into French homes to murder or abduct their occupants.

(c) Alert in advance by spies, the French counter attacked, and Hanoi became a battle ground, its building aflame and its three-lined avenues littered with corpses.

     (d)Ho in bed with fever at his modest bungalow behind the French governor’s mansion, fled before the French could capture him.

    

(e)At nine in the evening, Giap issued a virtual decleration of war “ I order all soldiers and militia in the center, south,and north t stand together, go into battle, destroy the invaders, and save the nation. The resistance will be long and ardous, but out cause it just and we will surely triumph”

    

 

(f) Except for a Christmas truce, the Battle of Hanoi raged through Decem-ber.

( Very difficult to find the document ,revenue and postal history collection 1946 and 1947 because many battles around north Vietnam especially Haiphong and Hanoi, I only have one document from Haiphong in 1947, please comment-auth)

    

(g)Giap’s troops rushed into the city to join the Vietminh, their arms a hodgepodge of Ancient French muskets, old American rifles, British bren autmatics, Japanese Carbines, spears, swords and machetes as well as homemade contrivances called Phan Dinh Phung grenades, after Vietnam’s nineteenth-century nationalist hero. They fought from street to street against French tanks, artillery and machine guns.

(30 years later, Dr Tran duy Hung, then the Vietminh mayor, described the event : “We were in Kham Thien street, a French unit facinf us from across the railways tracks. We built a barricade with railroad ties, piling it high with beds, dresser, chair, tables, whatever. Not even a tank could get thrugh it. Some of our boys-we called them”gentlemen militia”-wre red and yellw shoulders braids captured frm the French. People sang revolutionary songs when they charged. We were very optimistic, very romantic. We were ordered to divert the French until our forces could withdraw from the city. We could only get out by crawling under the Long Bien Bridge (I have the photo of that bridge-auth) , which the French controlled . We exploded all the firecrackers we coulkd find. When the noice stopped, the French moved in on us, but we had escaped into the countryside to begin the long war.

(h)Ho had fled to Hadong, a town six miles south of Hanoi, where he echoud Giap’s call to arms-and also appealed to Westren Allies to restrain the French. -ibid stanley Karnow)

 

(i) In the Provinces of Quang nam ,Quang Ngai, Phu Yen, a lot of credit cards(Tin Phieu) came into existance ( one piaster, 5p.20p,100p,500p,1000p) being signed by The Delegate from the Central Government and the Repre-sentative for the Centarl Part’s Admi-nistrative Commitee,

(j) In Paris, however,Blum had altered his atance . Stressing his commitment to vietnam’s Independence within French Union , he now emphasized that “ Oredr must be restored” as a precondition to fresh discussion.

     He sent Marius Moutet to Vietnam to survey the situation, and Ho promptly offered to talk with the minister in whose apartment he had singed the modus vivendi four month earlier. But Moutier rejected the overture as “ propaganda” adding ambigiuously the France would only deal with “authentic spokesmen for Vietnam people”(D)

(4) At The end of 1946

     After the Vietminh failed to seize Hanoi, the French expanded along the Red River valley, the regin’s principal rice-growing area. Cnstructing towers and blockhouses, the skirmished constanly with Vietminh partisant, who emerged at night to assault their posts, then disappeared into hamlets or fled into the hills overlooking the broad plain of fertile paddy fields. Duong Van Khang had helped to form a small Vietminh unit in his village, Phung Thuong, twenty miles east of Hanoi . (D)

_______________________________

(b)Vietminh War 1947

________________________________

 

1) January 1947

 

(1)The revolving doors of the Fourth Republic spun again in this month, and Paul Ramadier, also a scialist, supplanted Blum in a caolition government composed of Socialist,Christian Democrats and communists.

    

(2)Voicing hope of peace, Ramadier dismissed d’Argenlieu and replaced him as high commisioner in Saigon with Emile Bollaert, a respected civil servant who appointed as his personal  adviser Paul Mus, a scholar of Asian affairs who was sympathetic to Vietnamese.

    

(3)Ho sensed that reconciliation was possible and proposed imme-diate cease-fire to avert a war, he warned, would “only end in hatted and bitterness between our two peoples” but Ramadier government was falling apart.(ibis Stanley Karnow)

    

(4) After 1946

The Vietminh weapons were supplemented by United States equipment captured from the French forces. Any disparity in military equipment, however , was more than compesan sated by the Vietminh’s popular backing (“People Power” -auth)

2) Febryary 1947 no info

 

 

 

 

3) March 1947

 

(1) The communists dropped their support over internal economic matter-though they voted the apprpriatins to fund the French army on Vietnam.

     So , while Ramadier tried to steer a moderate course, Christian Demo-crates in his cabinet, like Bidault and Paul Coste-Flores, the defense minister, were maneuvering to prevent negotiations. Other officials with different wiew also subverting them.(D)

4) April 1947 no info

5) May 1947

(1) The communist dropped their support over an internal economic matter.

     Instructed to present Ho with a set of suggestions. Paul Mus trevelled some sixty miles from Hanoi the Vietminh ‘s jungle headquaters.

     He informed Ho that France would agree to a cease-fire on condition that the vietminh lay down a part of its arms, permit Franch troops to circulate freely inside its zone and turn over several German and Austrian deserters from the Foreign Legion.

Would you accept if you were in my place ? Ho asked Mus :”No “ replied Mus. Ho thereupon rejected the offer-which was, in any case, a demand for surrender.(D)

 

(2) In 1947.Truman administration official conceded that Ho’s Communist “connection” might serve the Kremlin’s purposes.

 

(3) The Vietminh force had establishe a base in the Vietbac.

     The base eighty miles to north, in a landscape of jungle-clad mountains hneycombed with caves,

     Heavy monsoon rains drenched the region for half year, covering it with a protective mist againbst air raids.

(4)The French encircled the area in 1947 , by securing its only two roads and dropping in paratroopers, (that is way imposible the Vietminh overprint propaganda used on postally covers in Hanoi ,French area, in 1947-1948, be carefull many propaganda overprint stamps on cavers put in phillatelic auctions with high price-please comment-auth)

(5)They almost capture Ho Chi Minh, who slipped into camouflaged hole at the last minute.

    

(6) The French commander, General Etine Valluy, whose expe-rience until then had been in Europe , quickly sized up his effort as imposible. With a total of some fifteenth thou-sand men, he was trying to defeat sixty thousand enemy troops over nearly eighty thousand square miles of almost inpenetrable forest.

     Unlike his nineteenth-century predecessors, he was up against not small insurgent bands but a disciplined army. He could only withdraw to a thin string of forts along Route 4, a twisting road running through ravines and over high passes between the towers of Langson and Caobang . Chronically expossed to Vietminh ambushes, French soldiers dubbed it the rue san Joie, or street without Joy. (ibid Stenley Karnow,p-199).

 

6)-11) no info

12) December 1947

(1) The End of 1947

By the end of this year the increase in the popularity of Ho chi Minh and his Vietminh throughout most of Vietnam had convinced the French that Victory could not be achieved through purely Military mean.

Therefore, Paris complemented its persistent military campaign with an attempt to establish an amenable indigenious Vietnamese regime as a power strings, but she hoped that by endowing the regime she sponsored with asemblance of autonomy it would attract substantial nationalist support away from the Vietminh.

(ibid Kahin) 

___________________________________

(c) Vietminh War 1948

____________________________________

 

(1)The Map of Vietnam under Indochina in 1948(D)

(2) The Postal Administration of Vietnam also issued postage stamps in order to  meet the need for pre-paid postage on ppostal network  and at the same time to popularize the Party and state ‘s policies  and victories of the Vietnamese people and army (Propaganda-auth)  such as the stamp-set “Production and thrift” ,”Dien Bien Phu victory” “Liberation of the Capital” etc.

Stamps were printed by the extemely rudimentery means, using all the local materials available , even perforated by Sewing machine or other rudimen-tary tools.

(Some postal History of this stamps used on cover send from Hotel and another famous building, but we must be careful because during the war all the cover must sencored, the only guinined may be postcard but Vietminh never issued prepaid postal stationer that time , and also some Francaised Indochine timbre fiscal revenue also over print by the vietminh but only off document, revenue on the complete document never seen, please comment-auth)

 

(3)June 1948

(a)CIA officials had rejected a proposal to contact Ho covertly because “ a White man would be very conspicuous. In order to have an effective intelligence officer, he would have to have a little brown blood. Then, we wouldn’t be able to trust him”

 

(b) After alengthy process of Bargaining, The men chosen to head the new regime (Bo Dai, the former Emperor of Annam whom the Japanese had also endeovored to exploit in their eleventh hour) was in duced to cooperate on condition that, under his leadership, the state of Vietnam (Etat du Vietnam-auth) woul be “Indepndent within the French Union “.(Ibid Kahin)

 

(4) late 1948

In late 1948, a new French high commisioner for Indochina took over. 

Leon Pignon, fomerly political aide to Admiral d’Argenlieu favored firmness .but he foresaw that Communist , advancing across China, would soon arrive at the Vietnamese frontier to bulkwark the Vietminh.

He also reckoned that the US would

Help France more readily if a see-mingly liberal Franch policy were adopted.(D)

 

_______________________________

(d) Vietminh War 1949

________________________________

1) January 1949 in

(1) US help to the French in Indochina had limited. American troops were not engaged in fighting anywhere, and it was to be hope that the withdrawal of the Russian and American had reduced East-West tension on the Asiaa mainland,(D)

(2) The Republic of Vietnam at the south  in 1949, have 21  provinces with the bigger city, Saigon,Cholon, Cantho,Baclieu and Rachgia. (D)

2) February 1949

Not yet info

3)March 1949

(1) After an additional year of negotiations over the meaning of this terminalogy concluded with Elysee’ Agreement of March 1949, but not retified by the French Chamber of Deputies on this month. (Ibid Kahin) 

4) April 1949

Not yet info

5)May 1949

(1)May.19th 1949

The second type Ho Chi-Minh stamps ,two stamps 2d and 5d, comme-morate 59th Birth anniversary of President Ho Chi-minh

 ( never seen postally used on cover-except fake or Phyllatelic collector creation or CTO -auth)

6) June 1949

(1)18th June,18th 1949

BO DOI VAN TAI

Phuc vu chien dieh Bien Gioi(1950). Trong nhung nam (1951-1953), Trong cuoc Tien cong chirn lu’o’c Dong Xuan (1953-1954) va chien dich Dien Bien Phu(D)

(.2)The situation changed drastically in 1949, when the Chinese Communist reached the Vietnamese border.

     China could now provide the Vietminh with automatic weapns, mortars ,howitzers, even trucks, most of it captured American materiel, some of it Soviet equipment earmarked for the Korean war.

     Chinese advisers joined Vietminh detachment , and Vietminh units crossed into China to train at camps near nanning and Ching Hsi.(In 2007, I have made a trip from Hanoi by night train to Nanning,read  and back bus bus from nanning passed the langson border back to Hanoi as the remambrance of that situation, read in this blog “ Trevelling’s unique collections-4” auth )

(2)Giap swiftly expanded his battalions into regiments, and soon he had mobilized six division, each numbering ten thousend men, among them a “heavy division’ composed of attillery and engineering regiments.

     The image of ragtap Vietminh guerillas persisted, but it war pure romanticism. Giap now commanded a real army, backed up by China’s enormous weight.As a veteran Vietminh officer, recllecting the period after 1949, he told the writers “ it was a significant moment. We were no longer isolated from the communist camp”

( look at the originil vintage General Giap photo , that I  found in Indonesia from the Vietnam photo collections given to Indonesian official during Afro-Asian conference at bandung indonesia in 1955, not many foreign country know him, because the popularity of Ho Chi Minh , he almost same with Indonesia Hero General Sudriman but more popular because Bung Karno , the Ho friend , didn’t joined the Indnesian Independent war in the battle’s field, he only struggle as the polititions and didn’t joined the Guerilla war in 1949 , read “Indonesia Independent war” –auth)

2)-5) no info

6) June 1949

(1) Mid 1949

    

(a)Major support for French was not given until mid 1949, when communist rule was established in China, when Peking sent its armiest into the Korean war, this disposition to aid the Fench effort was firther reinforced.

    

(b)A policy leading to the contain-ment of China increasingly preoccu-pied the Truman Administration and during the Korean war, Paris endeavor with consideable success to convince Washington that the French camp-aign in Vietnam  basically sustained that policy.

     Thus President Truman linked his decision to Send American Forces to Korea with the announcement of Incraesed arms shipments to the French in Indochina and the interposition of American power between communist and nationalist China in Formosa Straits. (ibis Kahin)

 

(c)Between 1949-1950

   Giap had bought time to enlarge his forces. He promoted local gueri-llas to regional units and assigned regional officers and noncoms to bigger detachments.

   Between 1949 and 1950, he quadruple (four times-auth) the number of regular Vietminh battalions to one hundred and seventeen. But his army never exceeded three hundred thousand men- fewer than that of French, Foreign Legion and African colonial troops in addition to three hundred thousand Vietnamese.

   Giap ‘s ability to recruit more soldiers was limited by French control of most of Vietnam’s populated areas. (D)

 

8)-11)not yet info

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12) The end of 1949

 

(1)Until the end of 1949,

(a)approximately $1.5 billion had been poured into the  war. Well before this time the french forces were being pushed back and the military initiative had passed to the Vietminh.

(b) The success of Ho’s battalions, moreover , had been achieved with the arms far interior in both quantity and quality to the rela-tively modern American equipment employed by the French,

Any dispensary in Military equipt-ment , however, was more than compenated for by the Vietminh’s popular backing, the essential attri-bute of power that the French were never able to develope( Ibid Kahin)

 

        (c) Until the end of 1949, the United States displayed little, if any, real interest in Indochina.(ibid Kahin)

_______________________________

(e).Vietminh War in1950

________________________________

(e1)January 1950

 

(1)January,14th th 1950

Ho Chi Minh declared on Jan 14 that the Democratic Republic of Vietnam is the only legal Government , it is recognized by the Soviet Union and China, but also establized diplomatic relation s with Marshal Tito’s Yugoslavia, prompting some American officials to suggest that  Ho isn’t a Soviet”puppet”.

     Chinese Communist , now at the Vietnamese border, begin to provide modern weapons to the Vietminh.  

(2)When in free zones the Vietnamese notes and various credit cards, supply tickets, exchange tickets of the concerned areas will still circulating,

(3)January 25th 1950

     Ho Chi Minh first stamp postally used cover, cancel Thai-Nguyen 25-1-1950 Buu Dien Cuc, one ho chi minh first green stamp, rate ? ,sent from ng gui Ba Hoi,Thai Nguyen with red double circle stamped “vy-Ban Khang chan hanh cho/ lien-khu viet Bien/ Truong Hang Chien Hanh Chinh to Lien-Xa Van H.  lien-xa Ninh Gia  Ha Noi (The written style by Vietnamese, the color choped red, ok, But the official cover why not free stamp like I have found the same type send at Saigon? , This cover very best phillatelic creations because in 1950 all Vietminh were in the jungle and Hanoi under French power. Beware to collect a cover without original letter inside, many fake or bogus phillatelic creations, this time many seen, I hope some one will show us the original cover with original letter inside during vietminh war like you will see in my collection during Vietnam –vietcong liberation war 1968-1975-auth)

(3)January,29th,1950

     The Elyse’e Agreement of March 1949, at least in this day retified by the French Chamber of deputies.(ibid Kahin).

(4)January 18 & 31 th 1950

     They (Peking & Moscow-auth) responded promptly, establishing formal relation on January 18 and 31, respectively. The Cold War had decisively entered the Vietminh-French dispute.

Within this context, the policies of France in Indochina took on a greater legitimacy in th eeys of Washington and gave her the right to sustantial U.S. aid. (ibid Kahin)

(5)Early 1950

     (a)American experts suddenly wondered whether Ho Chi Minh might not after all be a Soviet surrogate, since he requested and obtain recognition of his regime from Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia, one of Moscow’s principal enemies. But they never explorered the mystery further- as they never had in the past nor would in the future(D)

(b)any misunderstanding could be  avoided that could turn    the cold war  into a “Hot war”.

(the Truman administration)

(c) The 1950 ‘s  were the dangerous decade.(ibid Kahin)

2) February 1950

 

(1)     February,7th 1950

(a)A week after the ratification of Elysee Agreement, The U.S. extended diplomatic recognation to his government. Thirty other states soon followed suit.(ibid Kahin)

(b) After the French Parliament finally clear its intention to ratify the Elyse’e Agreements and when inter-national backing of Bo Dai seemed imminent did Ho Chi Minh request diplomatic recognation from Peking and Moscow.(ibis Kahin)

3)-4)  not yet info

5) June 1950

 

(1)Mid 1950

Washington ‘s recognition of Bao dai sparked economic  and military-assistance programs, which began in id-1950

 

6)July 1950

(1) July.25th 1950

     The Russian –trained North Korea army crossed the 30th paralel and invaded South Korea. The Korean War begun, (the complete collections read the next book “ The unique Korean war document and postal History”-auth)

(2) July.26th. 1950

     Presiden Truman signs legislation granting USD 15 million in military and to the French  for war in Indochina

7)-11) Not yet info

12) December 1950

(1) December.6th. 1950

     French defeated at Caobang, a key post on the Chinese border , General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny named Franch military commander and high commisioner for Indochina.

(2) For all Eisenhower’s and Dulles’s ideological simplifications about “the international communist world”. Their narrowly concieved intervantion in the third worls like in Vietnam.(D)

(3) Late 1950

     The spark of hope was lagerly rekindled by Giap’s blunders, however.

      Giap perceived that his gains in the sparsely inhabited zone adjacent to China left him with two principal problem to assert the Vietminh’s political authority, he had to conquer the main population cen-ters around Hanoi and saigon, and to get the food his men desperately needed, he had to take over the rich fields of the Red River valley in the North and the Mekong delta in the south. (this is the reasons why, the Vietnam must unitied from North to South , and in 1975 they succeeded, please comment-auth)

 

    

 

 

 

__________________________________

(f) Vietminh war  1951

___________________________________

1)January 1951

     (1)Anticipating the attacks, de Lattre had strengthened the Red River valley with hundreds of cement blocked-houses and new airfield.

     He was prepared in january 1951 when two Vietminh divisions, comprising twenty thousand men, swept down from the tam Dao mountain and stormed Vinhyen

(in 1951 the vietminh still in the jungle, that is why all the covers sent to Hanoi with Vietminh stamps before Ho Came back to Hanoi in 1954 were the bogus phillatelic creations and before became postal History collectors better the study the chronologis of the history that will help the collector to know the original or fake postal history collections ,also many of the so called south central vietnam –vietminh issue and may fakes and fantasies, this issues are being studies by the phillatelist , trantrong kai  have believe some of the guinine that illustrated at IMNAHA web site, very pity all the iten not on covers or piece, very difficult to indicated the original or fake, I have discuss the original on piece and cover complete with informations at South Vietnam etat du Vietnam, Etat du Vietnam Quoic Gia, Thue coniem and Vietnam Cong Hoa Coniem, Cholon Saigon Regional timbre fiscal, Nathrang, Danang, and the overprint Viet cong on Vietnam Cong Hoa coniem revenue in 1975 and 1976-  please comment-auth)

 

 

 

(2)A town situated amid flooded rice fields thirty miles northwest of Hanoi.

     Outnumber, the French defneders innitially fell beck. But de lattre, personally taking charge, flew in reinforcements and mustered every available aircraft to bomb the massive vietminh formation.

(3)Giap retreated after three days of fierce combat, leaving sic thousand Vietminh dead and carrying off another eight thousand wounded. He was determined to try again.(D)

 

2) February 1951

(1)February 1951

     Ho Chi Minh creates the lao Dong or Worker party as a substitute for the Comunist Party, ostensibly dissolved in 1945.

3) March 1951

(1)Late March 1951

     Giap focused on the port of Haiphong.through which the French brought in supplies, and his miscalculated, underestimating the ability of the french to deploy naval guns and move troops aboard assault boats through the region’s estuaries and move troops aboard assault boats through the region’s estuaries and canals.  

     When he launched an initial attacks against Maokhe, northwest of Haiphong , the French again fought him off (D)

 

4) no info

5)May 1951

(1)May.19th.1951

The third type  Ho Chi Minh stamps (100d green,100d violet and 200 d red) were issued for 61th Birth Anniv.of President Ho Chi Minh

(Many fake stamps, rare postally used on cover-and the overprint propaganda stamps didn’t used anymore,-auth)

(2)Late May 1951

In yet another attempt, Giap at-tacked with three division along the Day river, southeat of Hanoi, aiming to dramatize  and hecontemplated di-fferent region in which to launch a major offensive.

     Giap reckoned that the French would fight to protect Laos, whose king sided with them, largely out of an atavistic hatted for Vietnam.

     The French garrison in Laos, outside of the main towns, like vietiane and Luang Prabang, were also dispersed and vulnerable.

     Giap concluded, howeever, that Laos in the area along laotian border were strectched thin. (I found Laotian medal in Ho Chi Minh city, may be belong by the soldier who joined the battle at the laos area-auth)

6) June 1951

(1)June.5th. 1951

, President Ho Chi Minh, right after the victorious frontier campaign have signed a decree date june 5 ‘ 1951 regarding the establisment of The State bank Of Vietnam and issue the notes were exchanged in place of he “Finacial Bnotes” These notes have shown following characteristic :

     Front side : The National name of Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa) .

     Backside   : The State bank of Vietnam.

     There were only on the notes two kind of letter are Vietnamese and Chinese.(Mot Tram Hong, Nam Muoi Dong, Ngan Hang Duoc Gia Viet-Nam) There were not any signatures of the authoriries concerned, except two round seals of Director and deputy Director of the State Bank of Vietnam found on the front side of the note

The nominal of notes : 50.,100,200,500,1000 and 5000 Dong (D)

_____________________________________

(g)Vietminh war 1952

_____________________________________

1) January 1952

(1)January .11th.1952

     General Giap’s offensive in the Red River valley blunted by de Lattre, and he dies in Paris.

2)-9) no info

10) October 1952

(1) October 1952

     Giap began to deploy three divisions in the vicinity of a wretched frontier village that had been evacuated by a laotians battalion employed by the French for garrison duties. The village located in a valley eleven miles long and five miles wide, belonged to the Thai, an ethnic minority that grew rice and marketed opium brought down from the surrounding mountains by Hmong tribes. The Thai called the place Muong Thanh.

     To the Vietnamese, whose trader bought opium there, it was known as Dienbienphu.(D)

_____________________________________

(h) Vietminh war in 1953

_____________________________________

1)-3) no info

4) April 1953

    

(1)After a series of clashes in the sector, Giap probed into Laos in April 1953.

     He skirted the French posts on the Plain of Jars, a plateau strewn with prehistoric urns, and reaches the outskirts of Luangprabang, the quaint royal capital , most of whose inhabitants had fled, having been alerted in advance by a blind soothsayre. Then just as he was poised to capture the town, Giap pulled his troops out of laos as well as from the area near Dien Bien Phu .

The explanation of Giap tactic in 1990 “ I never intended to remain in Laos. It was a feint designed to distract theFrench , and it worked”

     Giap had shown that he could march into laos with relative impunity, and might attack again at the end of the rainy seasons. Henceforth the French were to fasten on Dienbienphu as the crucial barrier where they would bar the Vietminh’s future access to Laos (ibid Stenley karnow,p-204)

 

 

 

 

 

 

4)-5) no info

 

6) June 1953

 

(1)Mid 1953

     Despite the substantial aids her was getting from the United States, Franch had lost to the Vietminh her authority over all but a minor portion of the Vietnam country.

     In the North by far the major part of Tonkin was in Vietminh hands.(ibid Kahin)

7) July 1953

(1)July.7th.1953

The series of stamps “ Production and thrift” issued with face value  in kilograms of rice 0K600,1K00,2K00 and 5K00,(D)

(naver seen postally used on covers-auth)

(2) July.13th 1953

     George Bidault , once intrasigent, said this day , two weeks before signing of the Korean cease-fire, that Franch would be in an “ untenable position” if “peace were reestablished in Korea while the war continued in Indochina”.(D)

 

August 1953

(1)August .4th.1953

     The Soviet Union was on a similar tract. Stalin’s successor had issued a statement this day, eight days after the Korean agreement was signed, proposing discussions to resolve conflict in Asia. (D)

9) no info

10) October 1953

(1)  October 1953

`    France grant Laos full independence as a mamber of the French Union

France implied in a treaty with King of Laos that it would protect his land, a member of the French Union, as the French colonial empire had been renamed following WW II.(D)

(2)Early October 1953

(a)Giap said to the writers that : “At That point, I had no idea where or even wheter a major battle might take palce”

He rode by horseback to Ho chi Minh’s headquaters, a bambooshack located in a hiltop in nothern Vietnam.

Ho chainsmoked and interrupted with questions as Giap, referring to a map briefed him on the situation. Dienbienphu never came up in the discussion. “the art of war is flexibility” Ho said . They would watch the French maneuvers and wait before making a decission.

 

(b)As Navarre poured troops into Dienbienphu, however, Giap increasingly felt that this was the place to stand. The French , he observed, were “ completely isolated” in the valley and dependent on airlifted supplies, which meant that they could strangled. By constrast , their domination ofthe surrounding mountains gave the Vietminh forces both the adventage of height for their cannon and a way to bring food and equipment in from the rear.

 

(c)Giap had not yet formulated a plan, nor did he have Ho’s approval of Dienbienphu as the battle ground. (D)

 

11) November 1953

(1) November.9th. 1953

(a)Majority of the French National Assembly expresses hope for a negotiated sttlement to Indochina war.(D)

(b)Prime minister Laniel made what amounted to offer :” If an honorable settlement were in sight, on either the local or the international level , France would be happy to accept a diplomatic solution to the conflict” (D)

(c)Navarre ordered preparations for operation Castor, under which five French battalions would retake Dienbienphu.

(c) Giap had deliberately created that impression by staging diversionary actions around the country. His scattered assault prevented the French from reinforcing one spot without leaving another open to attack. Squad of Vietminh guerrillas ambushed French convoys carrying materiel inland from the port of Haiphong, and terrorist intensified their assasinations of pri-French official.

Vietminh regulars stepped up the raids along the coast of central vietnam, crossed the border to besiege towns in the southern Laotian and seized areas of Cambodia (D)

(d)Prince Norodom Sihanouk takes command of the Cambodian army , declares Cambodian’s independence from France.(D)

(e)  Vietminh forces a push into Laos.(D)

(f)Ho Chi Minh tells a Swedish newspaperman that he is ready to discuss French peace proposal.(D)

(g)The Franch Government was forced to sign the Geneva Agreement and the peace restored in North Vietnam . Since then , a new stage of development has been opened to Vietnam postage stamps.(D)

(2)Giap began to move thirty three infantry battalions, six attelary regiments and a regiment of engineers into the region, some over long distances.

     Reflecting afterward on the massive deployment, military his prians judged that, in outweight the mobility of armies. That principle guided Giap in his struggles agains France and later America. As he told in 1990, his voice bursting with conviction :” In war there are two factors –human beings and Weapons. Ultimately ,though, human beings are the decisive factor. Human being! Human Being!”

     Thus the ground was laid for Dienbienphu, which would equal Waterloo,Gettyburg and Stalingrad as one of the decisive battles of history. It was also Giap’s epiphany.(D)

 

 

 

12) December 1953

(1)Late December 1953

Cao Xuan Nghia had told that he trekked with his infantry company for forty-five days from their camp in Thai Nguyen , nort Hanoi, reaching the highlands above Dienbienphu.

They had to cross mountain and jungles , marching at night and sleeping by day to avoid enemy bombing. They slept in foxholes, or simply alongside the trail. The Vietminh infantry each carried a rifle, ammunition and hand granades, and their packs contained a blanket, a mosquito net and a change of clothes. The army each had a week’s supply rice, which they refilled at deposits along the way. They ate greens and bamboo shoots, picked in the jungle, and occasinally villagers would give them a bit of meat. By then he (Cao) had been in the Vietminh for nine years, and he was accustomed to it .(D)

 

(2) The end of December 1953

Meanwhile, Giap had been carefully studying the terrain at Dienbienphu and concluded that it would require at least fifty thousand troops to annihilate the French garrison. He conferred again with Ho      at the end of December, recommended launching the offensive on January .25, 1954 and predict victory in about six weeks.

After posing a few questions, Ho agreed and granted him “full power” as field commander ,”This engagement must be won” he exhorted Giap, adding “ But don’t begin it unless you are sure of winning”(D)

__________________________________

(i) Vietminh war in 1954

___________________________________

1)January 1954

 

(1) January.25th. 1954

     Foreign ministers of United States,Britain,France and Soviet Union meet in Berlin, agree that a confe-rence on Indochina shlould be held in April.(D)

(2)Jan.18th-Feb.18th 1954

Three types stamps issued for commemorate “Month of Friendship”. Design Ho with Vorosilov and Mao, thema Vietnam-China-USSR solidarity, offset mono (100d) and becolour 50d&100d)

(I found one mint block four -100 D stamps at Ho Chi Minh city and one at Hanoi in used conditions -50 D stamps, never seen postally used covers-auth)

(3)January, 1954

     Colonel Charles Piroth, a one-armed officer in charge of the big French guns, had pledged to Navarre :”Mon general, no Vietminh cannon will be able to fire three rounds before being destroyed by my artillery”( the wrong prediction-auth)

2)-4) not yet infor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4)March.13th.1954

    

(a)Battle of Dienbienphu begins.(D)

(b)Navarre declining to credit Giap with plans for amajor test at dien-bienphu , had committed large units to central Vietnam and even refused to shift them once the bigger encoun-ter began.

     He misread Giap’s ability to move a huge force rapidly, so that his own troops were outnumbered by aratio than five to one during the trial by fire.

     He rejected the notion that the Vietminh could devastate his men with attilery deployed on the hill above Dienbienphu, nor did he foresee that the enemy emplacements would be protected by camouflage and antiaircraft guns against bombing from the air.

     He failed to anticipate that giap’s howitzers, posied within easy range of his airstrip, would cut off flights in and out of the valley, making it difficult for his besieged soldiers to recieve supplies or evacuate wounded-much less withdraw themselves. He also chose a terrain presumed suitable for tanks only to discover that, unlike its description on his map, its cover of thick bush entangled armored vehicles and its monsoon rains flooded the plain in the spring.(D)

    

 (c) American equipment captured by the Chinese Communist from the  nationalist during civil war and later given to the Vietminh. Riding in acaptured jeep, Giap accompanied the groups of bicycles and columns of men that resembles lines of ants as they trudges through the mountain jungles, laden with everything from catridges to vast quantities of rice, which had to be carried for cover the impoverished region. From time to time they sranbled for cover as French aircraft strafed and bomb them. “It was very difficult, n’est-ce pas, very difficult” Giap recalled :”Only motivated soldiers could have performed such a feat”

 

(d) An even more agonizing ordeal for Giap troops was to position the howitzer and antiaircraft in the hills above Dienbienphu. Again, with sheer muscle, cadres and coolie alige dragged the heavy weapons up the slopes with range of the Franch garrison.(D)

(e) Preparing for the new assault took nearly two month. Finally, on the afternoon of March 13, Giap gave the signal to advance.

     His first objective , Beatrice, fell imediately, and Gabrielle follow the next day as the Vietmint howitzers raked the airship and pinpointed orther French targets.

(Many pin commemorated this victory battles, I have a vintage and modern pins-auth)

(5)March. 15th 1954

    

(a)At dawn on this day, Piroth lay down in bed, pulled the safety pin out of a grenade with his teeth and blew himself to bits. He had said the night before, after Gabrielle’s collapse: “I am completely dishonored”.

(b)The French figured that the oncoming rains would mire him in mud, but just the opposite occured. The lowerings cloud hindered thei aircraft from bombing and strafing his men and made the parachuting suppliesbto their beleagured garrison nearly imposible.

(c) The French now knew that, on the eve of negotiations, they were doomed on the battlefield and also at the conference table- unless they recieved a formidable dose of outside help. Only the Unites States could furnish that aid fast and effectively. But another engagement would have to be fought in Washington(D)

 

(6) March.20th. 1954

    

(a) No sooner had Giap fired his first salvos than the French calimed that they urgently needed American Military assistance at Dienbienphu to holster their diplomacy at Geneva.

 

(b) GeneralPaul Ely, the French chief of staff, delivered the massage to Whasington on this day, winning over Admiral Arthur Radford, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. Radford proposed that sixty B-29 bomber based in the phillippines , escorted by fighter planes of the U.S. Seventh Fleet, conduct night raids against the Vietminh perimeter around Dienbienphu. Ely returned to Paris with the plan, labeled Operation Vulture, and his government welcome it.

Another member of the joint chiefs, General Nathan Twining of the air force, endorsed the idea. But General Matthew Ridgway, army chief of staff, had little faith in air strikes- and no taste for a fight on the mainland of Asia. An old-fashioned ingantryman who had comanded the US Force in Korea, he argued that even Atomic Weapons would not reduce the need for seven American combat divisions to assure French success  in Indochina- tweleve divisions of the Chinese intervened. The other members of the joint chiefs agreed with him that  The Indochina conflict was the wrong war in the wrong place. As they stated shortly afterward: ”Indochina is devoid of decisive military objectives” and involvement  there “ would be a serious diversion of limited U.S. capabilities.(D)

 

4) April 1954

(1) April 1954

EISENHOWER –USA, decides against American intervention to help France in Indochina after Britain reject his proposal for concerted action.

Contrary to portrayals that depict him as an unalloyed “dove”. Eisenhower did not completely oppose U.S. intervention. But recalling his command of the Allies during World War II, he refused to commit America alone, “ Without allies and associates,” he told his staff at one meeting :” the leader is just an adventurer, like Genghis Khan” Besides, he had been elected on a pledge to end the war in Korea, which might  have spiraled into a bigger confrontation with China- and as his closer aside, Sherman Adams, observed : “ Having avoided one total war with Red China the year beforee in Korea, when he had United State support, he was in no mood to provoke another one in Indochina….without the British and other Westren allies.”

Eisenhower appealed to Prime Minister Churchill to participate, reminding him of the failure to stop Hitler :” by not acting in unit and in time “. He sent Dulles to London to plead his case, but the British spuned him.

 

(2)Churchill told the House of Commons that Britain “was not prepared to give any undertaking….in Indochina in advance of the results of Geneva,” and Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, who was to cochair the conference with Vyascheslav Mlotov, Soviet foreign minister,  Simply refused to be “ hustled into injudicious military decision”. The best that Dulles could achieve was a British promise to conttemplate  a future regional security arrangement, which eventually became SEATO(D)

 (3)Postage Due issued and used for fines (three the third type Ho Chi Minh stamps and one 100 d production and thrift first series with overprint TT (within one or double frame) in red,dark violet ,brown or black) , denoted the amount to be collected (by post-master or letter carrier) from address, because of insufficient prepayment of postage. The insufficient amount was shown on the stamp.

 (many bogus or fake covers ever sold at auctions, the guenine postally covers with this type stamps never report,please comment-auth)

(2)April 1954

     It was clear by late april, as the battle rahged at Dienbienphu, that neither the American nor anyone else would come to rescue of the French.

     Giap told later that “ No doubt we would have had problems”he replied “ but the outcome would have been the same. Only a lunatic would have resorted to atomic weapons, which in any case would have devastated the French troops. At the time, I feared poison gas.Fortunetaly, it was never used,”(D)

 

(3)April,29th 1954

      Eisenhower speaking at a press conference on this day, he said :”You certainly cannot hope at the present state of our relatins in the world for a completely satisfactory answer with the Communists. The most you can work out is a practical way of gatting along”(D)

 

 

 

 

4) May 1954

 

(1)May ,6th 1954

The surrender of the french garrison of Dien Bien Phu

 

(2) May,7th 1954

     On the afternoon of this day, the red Vietminh flag went up over the French command bunker at Dienbienphu and French defeated.(D)

(3) May.8th. 1954

    

(a)Indochina phase of the Geneva conference with Britain and Sovier Union as cochairman.

 

(b) In Geneva, nine delegations assembled around a horseshoe-shaped table at the old League of Nations building to open dicussion aimed at ending the war in Indochina.

 

(c) In the end, the Geneva conference produced no durable solution to the Indochina conflict, only a military truce that awaited a political settlement, which never really happened. So the conference was merely an interlude between two wars – or , rather, a lull in the same war.(D)

 

6) June 1954 no info

7) July 1854

(1)July 1954

     Agreement reached at Geneva call for cessation of hostilities in Vietnam,cambodge and laos. Provisional line at secenteenth parallel divides Vietnam pending political sttlement to be achieved through nationwide elections.

 Final declaration accepted orally by all participant at the conference except United States, which states it will not disturb the agreement but would view renewed aggresion with concern.(D)

8)-9) no info

10)October 1954

(1) October.9th. 1954

    

(a)France forces leave Hanoi.(D)

    

(b) Four type stamps (10d,50d,150d ,&150d) were issued for comme-morated Victory at dien Bien Phu

 

 

(c) Due to National Bank of Vientnam was founded in 1951 and issued new currency to gradually replace the currency of Ministry of Finance, which had been circulated since 01/12/1945 . 1 d issued was equal to  10d before, and the old Ho stampes type 3 were overprinted with new value (many fake overprint, very rare postally used on cover-auth)

11) October 1954

(11)Commemorative stamps 10d-50d-150d-600 kilo of Victory at Dien Bien Phu( Chien thang Dien Bien Phu), kilo nominal was value expressed in weight of rice.

     The design of this stamps , an Vietminh soldier on top of De Castry’s bunker with vietminh one bigger star flag.

(I never seen this stamps on postally used covers, please comment-auth)

__________________________________

(j) The end of Vietminh war  in 1955

____________________________________

1)January 1955

 

(1)Three type stamps(10d,50&150d) design soldier hold children and the vietnam flag on the castle, were issued for commemorated Liberation of Hanoi capital (never seen this stamps-auth)

 

(2) January 1st 1955

Return of gouvernment to Hanoi stamps (1000d,1500d,2000d &3000d) were issued ,offset monocolour .

2)February 1955

(1)Land reform stamps, first issued 20d&50d.

3) -4) no info

5)May 1955

 

(1)Land reform stamps ,second issued, 5d & 10d.

6) June 1955 no info

7)July 1955

    

(1)Ho Chi Minh , in Moscow , accepts Soviet aids (I have the vintage photo of this monent-auth) , having early negotiated in Beijing for Chinese assistance.(D)

(a)USSR Moscow issued special red souvenir’s sheet stamps(PH-stamp auction internet-auth).

(b) original vintage photo Ho and Vorsilov inspected the army guard (P-fund in Indnesia-auth)

8)-11) no info

12)December 1955

(a)Land reform in North Vietnam reached its most radical phase as landlords before “People’s tribunals”(D)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________________

K)The First years after vietminh ‘s war in 1956

 

(1)The third series Land refrom stamps were issued,40d & 80d (I found this stamps used off cover at Hanoi-auth)

(2) The stamps for commemorated opening of the Hanoi-Muc Nam Quan railway 4 type100d,200d,300d&500d offset monocolured.

 

(3) Official stamps 20d,80d,100d ,500d ,1000d ,2000d &3000d Army hero Anh Hung Cu Chinh Lan were issued.(I found 2000d & 3000d off covers stamps at Hanoi, never seen postally used on covers,please comment-auth)

(4)Tran Da Ninh stamps (5d,10d,20d ,100d) were issued (I found Off Cover stamps at hanoi-auth)

(5)The very rare stamps Army’s Hero (Mac Thi Buoi) , picture of Guerilla Heroine (Chan dung Mac Ti Buoi) 1000d,2000d,4000d & 5000d

(I have seen used 1000d off cover blue stamps at auction in internet, and never seen postally used on cover,please comment . Conclussion Vietminh stamps circulated after the victory at Dienbienphu and French October 1954. be careful the fake postal history with CDS Haiphong or Hanoi before this date between 1950 to September 1954 except sent in the village through curier but never report, may be the revenue with Vietminh overprint will be guinine if still on North Vietnam village’s document –auth)   

 

 

____________________________________

3.2. REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM BEFORE THE LIBERATION WAR (FORMER BO DAI/SAIGON REGIMES)

____________________________________

 

3.2.1 HISTORICAL Background

————————————-

a.Vietnam A History (Ibid, Stanley Karnow,1983)

————————————–

  

(1)Since the Vietminh had prevailed at Diienbienphu and still menaced the French elsewhere in Indochina, Pham Van Dong predictably came on strong. He insisted on a political settlement first, under which the French would withdraw and leave the Vietnamese to resolve their own differences- a formula calculated to panic Bao dai Regime and virtually guarantee a Communist triumph. He also arguedd for  recognation ofthe Pathet Lao and the Free Khmer, the Vietminh-supported Communist movements in Laos and Cambodia, contending that they deserved legal status and control of territory in their countries.(I have the original photo of Pham van Dong from the  photo collections given the Indonesian official during Afro asia Bandung conference 1955-auth)

 The French rejected these demands , Pham van Dong refused to yield- and the conference slid to a stand still.

(2)     Zhou Enlai showed at geneva for the first time,

he’s primary  ain was to carve an agreement that would deny the United States a pretext to intervene in Indochina and again threaten China. Thus he sought a settlement that would give the French at least a foothold in their former possesion, to the exclusion the Americans.

Such an accomodation inevitably required a sacrifice of the Vietminh’s objectives. But Zhou put China’s priorities first. Besides, Chinese foreign policy throughout the centuries had been to fragment South East Asia in order to influence its states, and Zhou subscribed to that tradition. A divided Vietnam suited the Chinese better thatn a unified neighbor- particulary one that had quarreled with China for two thousand years. Similarly, China’s security would be served by restraining Vietnamese ambition in Laos and Cambodia. By curbing the Vietminh, moreover, Zhou hoped to display his noderation to India, Indonesia and the other nonaligned countries of Asia. Indeed, his appearance at Geneva was a prelude to his performance soon afterward at the Bandung Conference, where he and the Indian Prime Minister Jawalharlal Nehru embranced as they launched their campaignnto preach the “Pancasila” , the “principles of peaceful coexistence”( I have the original photo of Nehru, Zhou Enlai and Ho Chi Minh during Nonaligned Country Afro Asia Conference Bandung 1955, auth)

(3) The Vietminh showed no signs of elasticity, and Bao dai had just appointed the intractable Ngo Dinh Diem to his prime minister. But Zhou Enlai intervened. He arranged to meet Mendes-France covertly on June 23 1954, at the French embassy in Bern, the Swiss Capital.

Zhou had discarded his usual severe tunic for a gray Westren business unit, and he meant business. He told Mendes-France that, in contrast to the demands of the Vietminh, he favored a cease-fire first and a political accord afterward. He would urge the Vietminh to stop meddling in Laos and Camboda, and to respect the sovereignity of these “two Vietnams”- a direct blow to the Vietminh’s dream of unifications. The possibility of American military bases in Indochina worried him. Beyond that, he said, China’s only aim was peace in the region, adding that his government had “no other ambitions(and) poses no conditions”.

Worse awaited the Vietminh leader two evening later, at a farewell dinner organizes by Zhou. The guests included a member of Bao dai’sdelegation, Ngo Dinh Luyen, theyounger brother of Ngo dinh Diem. Pham Van Dong was astonished and dismayed that Zhou, a Communist comerade, should have invited a “puppet” of the French. But Zhou went even further, obliquely indicatingvin his silky manner that China favored a permanent partition of Vietnam. Turning to ernment to be established in Saigon open a diplomatic mission in Beijing:” Of course, Pham Van Dong is closer to us ideologically, but  doesn’t rule out representation from South. After all, aren’t you both Vietnamese,and sren’t we all Asians?”

(4) The conclussion at Geneva was to be misinterpreted, if not misunderstood, for years to come. The only documents signed were cease-fire accords ending the hostilities in Vietnam, Cambodia and laos.

The Agreement between France and The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, as the Vietminh officially called itself, wasnot a political settle-ment .It provided for temporary division of Vietnam pending a nationwide election to be held in the summer of 1956. The French forces would meanwhile withdraw from the north, and the vietminh from south. Except for the United States and the Saigon regime, the other participants merely gave their oral endorsement to afinal declaration noting the understandings.

(5) The Eisenhower administration , crusading against its foggy notion of an international Communist conspiracy, reluctantly pledged to abide by the Geneva agreement. In a separate statement, however, Bedell Smith warned that the United States would view “with grave concern…any renewal of aggression”- a caveat President Kennedy used seven years later to justify his comminment to the Ngo Dinh Diem government. Diem also rejected the Geneva accords, which put half Vietnam under Communist control, and he predicted that “another more deadly war” lay ahead for Vietnam. His forecast was prescient, after eight years of conflict and four hundred thousand soldiers and cibilians dead, the agony was far from finished(D)

 

(b)(ibid,Grenville,1994)

   The South Vietnamese government, headed by the Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem , refused to sign any of the treaties but carried out the military truce conditions.

   Eisenhower’s conduct in 1954 marked another turning point in the tragic history of Vietnam and of the United States’s involvement in that tragedy, which lwd to extensive sacrifices in men, material and, a decade later social cohesion.

   What Eisenhower and dulles refused to accept was that no firm line had been drawn against further communist expansion, further erosion of the westren position in South east asia, though they had no wish for the US to replace colonial France or to exploit South Vietnam.

 the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Vietnam Bodai War 1945-1950

 

 BO DAI-SAIGON REGIME WAR

                                               

I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

——————————————-

a.V ietnam (Constantino,Renato “The Making of Filipino” A Story of Phillipine Colonial politics” page 205& 231, first printing 1969,… panay avenue,Quezon City,Phillipine)

——————————————–

(1) The United States has asked her Allies to join her in warning communists “Against further aggresion in ear-torn Indochina”

 

(2) The next subject on which Senator Recto opposed the US position,and President Magsasay’s as well, was vietnam.

(3)Describing Vice-prosident Carcia’s prompt expression of support for United States intervention as ill-advised, he cautioned the Foreign Affairs Department against making ,without prior consultation with Congress, statements which might involve the country in war.

He pinted out that the Phillipines is in No Position to issued such “threats” because it is just a “small power” He expressed the fera that “ we may just be like hunring dogs sent out to bark at wild boars. Not physically able to fight the boar, we back out at first sign of conflict”

     Besides, he reminded the govern-ment that sould ourt threatening words involved us in war , our mu-tual defense agreement did not con-tain the categorial assurance that united States would come to our defense.

(4)President Magsasay said “ the last vestiges ( of the old-style colonialism) are now disappearing from Asia”, but the oppositioned Senator Recto said :

(a)“ Westren colonialism is far from dead, and it is not correct to say that it has reached the last vestigial stage.Of course  it is doubtful if it can conquer again or re-establish itself upon the vast areas of the globe that it controlled in the 18th and 19th centuries, but this certainly is not due to lack of willingness or ebthuasiasm to do so, but rather to impressive evolution of the nationalism of many subject peoples since the closing years of the last century, starting in Asia with our own successful revolution against the Spanish colonial government.”    

 

(b)“ Freedom-loving Asians correctly believe that it is not for any Westren people now to decide for any Asian nation what principles of foreign policy it may adopt or  repudiate”

 

(c)I am definitely against the commitment of Filipino troops in the war in Indochina. There is no cause, no reason for sending our fighting men to assist a colonial power to  perpetuate itsef against the Liberation ambition of the native population”

  

(d)Recto advised the United states to drop her”supercillious and patronizing attitude toward “Asia for the Asians”if she wants Asian cooperation”

(5) Magsaysay Reacts.

This veiled criticism of magsaysay and the more open attack  on Americans and pro-Americans like Romulo had an immediate repcussion.

(6) The Brownell doctrine,

 Foreign policy, Indochina, and Japanese reparations each provided a new battle ground in the worsening relation between Recto and Magsaysay.

     The United states through her defense secretary that Filipino soldiers would not be sent to fight abroad, Recto felt that the Filipino people should be made to understand that “unless full gaurantees are secured from America” .

(7) The clash between Recto and the President Magsaysay

The clash was the paramount feature of party politics at that time. Everyone’s attention was focused on this duel between formidalbe adversaries.

 

(8)Liberal Representative Diosdado Macapagal, implementing his party’s pledge of support to Magsaysay and perhaps trying to drive a deeper wedge between Magsaysay and Nacionalista Party leaders,

enumerated in radio address the following ten “fundamental” conflicts between Magsaysay and Recto

 ( the complete history will list in UC’s next book “Phillipnes Unique collections” –auth)

(9)The fundamental’s conflict about Indochina-war :

(a) While the president Magsaysay is for joining the U.S. in warning Red China from intervening in Indochina, Senator Recto has opposed such step as like a dog rousing the wild boars from its lair only to run away.

(b) While the  president Magsaysay has dropped Asia for the Asians as a policy, Senator Recto has vowed  to make it a basis of our foreign palicy.

 (the historic informations  about the Phillipines and Vietnam Independen-ce war will put at the chronologic collections information. I hope after read the historicbacground we know that in phillipine, were senator recto opposides the President Magsaysay policy about Filipinos joined the Indochina war, detailed read the Renato Constantino books-auth)

————————————–

b. ibid Stanley Karnow,1994

—————————————

 

(1)After the defeat of the French by Ho Chi Minh and General Giap in summer of 1954 , there appeared the chance of negotiated solution .

(2)The Geneva conference of that year had resulted is a number of agree-ments and compromise.

 (3)The lighting was ended, and Vietnam was divided slose in the 17th paralel, with the North Vietnamese controlling what became the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, recognised by the communist state; in the South arose the anti communist Republic of Vietnam.

(4)Vietnam , it was proposed, would be unified again following elections in July 1956.

 

(5)Two crusial features of the Geneva Accords were thus Vietnam were remain unitary states whose future would decided by elections, and that no foreign troops were permitted to assist North or South Vietnam. But from the start prohibition against the inroduction of foreign’s arm and amunition’s was a dead letter.

 

(6)Eisenhower and Dulles  regarded the Geneva Accords as appesement of communism and a defeat for the free world.

They dissociated themselves from the agreements but promised not to overturn them by force provided there was no aggreasion from the North. They also expressed doubts about the all-Vietnamese elections and inssted that they be held under the auspices of the United Nation.

     (7) on the 3rd June 1945

(a)the Cochin-china as an Autonom Republic under the Federation of Indochina and the Franch Union(D)

 (b) The Republic Democratic Vietnam still under the union under French,and Economy-politically  united too with other Indochina area in the South.(Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia  ?-auth)

(c)Republic Vietnam willn’t be developed if not united with other area because in the nothren more Industrial  and in the South very rich agriculture especially rice.

 (d)All of the South area were under the French powers, and there were made the Goverment like the Dutch have made in East indonesia area out of Java and Sumatra .

(e)In this Situation The Independent Of Republic Vietnam not full in Politically and economically.

(f)When the Independent of Republic Vietnam , French have promised wilnot gunfigting in the southern area Cochin-China, and there will made “People ‘s referendum” to choose to join the (j)Republic Democratic Vietnam or Not  as the Humanright to self determination and  this referendum will profillacted the war .

 But The french army were came to that area and accepted the Indepen-dent Republic Of Cochin-china under French Union in June 1946.

(g)The new Republic of Cochin-china have the Annamese native president dr Nguyen van Tinh, before they made as secret referendum to choose  accept or not to join the Republic Democratic Vietnam under Ho Chi-minh .

(h) The Republic Democratis Vietnam had protested that situation, and became small war during Ho chi Minh meetings in Paris.

(i)During Paris conference, French have made Dalat Conference with delegation from every French’s and they have accepted to made The federation Of Indochina,  the same Dutch made In Malino Indonesia.

     When Ho Chi Minh heard that situation, The Paris conference was banded, and the small war have begun again but Republic Democratic of Vietnam didn,t have power because the French have the power in Indochina, the same situation in Indonesia some Java area under Dutch.

(j)The Killing, fired, kidnapped, terrorisme from the two side as the same what we saw in Java and Sumatra Indonesia.

(k)The Frech army used 6000 Duitsch army who signed the contract to joined the french arme forces after Franch occupied Rhine area in Germany (Duitschland).

 

(l)After the French have enough armed forces, the Allied army from British departed  from Indochina.

(m)Although the Situation in Indochina were same in Indonesia , but difference situation that when the Dai Nippon have surrendered the French official and Armed forces still in Indochina put as prisoner of war and the French authority more strong than in Indonesia.(OD)

 

   (n)Since the Vietminh had prevailed at Diienbienphu and still menaced the French elsewhere in Indochina, Pham Van Dong predictably came on strong. He insisted on a political settlement first, under which the French would withdraw and leave the Vietnamese to resolve their own differences- a formula calculated to panic Bao dai Regime and virtually guarantee a Communist triumph. He also arguedd for  recognation ofthe Pathet Lao and the Free Khmer, the Vietminh-supported Communist movements in Laos and Cambodia, contending that they deserved legal status and control of territory in their countries.(I have the original photo of Pham van Dong from the  photo collections given the Indonesian official during Afro asia Bandung conference 1955-auth)

 The French rejected these demands , Pham van Dong refused to yield- and the conference slid to a stand still.

(o) Zhou Enlai showed at geneva for the first vtime, he’s primaray  ain was to carve an agreement that would deny the United States a pretext to intervene in Indochina and again threaten China. Thus he sought a settlement that would give the French at least a foothold in their former possesion, to the exclusion the Americans.

Such an accomodation inevitably required a sacrifice of the Vietminh’s objectives. But Zhou put China’s priorities first. Besides, Chinese foreign policy throughout the centuries had been to fragment South East Asia in order to influence its states, and Zhou subscribed to that tradition. A divided Vietnam suited the Chinese better thatn a unified neighbor- particulary one that had quarreled with China for two thousand years. Similarly, China’s security would be served by restraining Vietnamese ambition in Laos and Cambodia. By curbing the Vietminh, moreover, Zhou hoped to display his noderation to India, Indonesia and the other nonaligned countries of Asia. Indeed, his appearance at Geneva was a prelude to his performance soon afterward at the Bandung Conference, where he and the Indian Prime Minister Jawalharlal Nehru embranced as they launched their campaignnto preach the “Pancasila” , the “principles of peaceful coexistence”( I have the original photo of Nehru, Zhou Enlai and Ho Chi Minh during Nonaligned Country Afro Asia Conference Bandung 1955, auth)

(p) The Vietminh showed no signs of elasticity, and Bao dai had just appointed the intractable Ngo Dinh Diem to his prime minister. But Zhou Enlai intervened. He arranged to meet Mendes-France covertly on June 23 1954, at the French embassy in Bern, the Swiss Capital.

Zhou had discarded his usual severe tunic for a gray Westren business unit, and he meant business. He told Mendes-France that, in contrast to the demands of the Vietminh, he favored a cease-fire first and a political accord afterward. He would urge the Vietminh to stop meddling in Laos and Camboda, and to respect the sovereignity of these “two Vietnams”- a direct blow to the Vietminh’s dream of unifications. The possibility of American military bases in Indochina worried him. Beyond that, he said, China’s only aim was peace in the region, adding that his government had “no other ambitions(and) poses no conditions”.

Worse awaited the Vietminh leader two evening later, at a farewell dinner organizes by Zhou. The guests included a member of Bao dai’sdelegation, Ngo Dinh Luyen, theyounger brother of Ngo dinh Diem. Pham Van Dong was astonished and dismayed that Zhou, a Communist comerade, should have invited a “puppet” of the French. But Zhou went even further, obliquely indicatingvin his silky manner that China favored a permanent partition of Vietnam. Turning to ernment to be established in Saigon open a diplomatic mission in Beijing:” Of course, Pham Van Dong is closer to us ideologically, but  doesn’t rule out representation from South. After all, aren’t you both Vietnamese,and sren’t we all Asians?”

(q) The conclussion at Geneva was to be misinterpreted, if not misunderstood, for years to come. The only documents signed were cease-fire accords ending the hostilities in Vietnam, Cambodia and laos.

The Agreement between France and The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, as the Vietminh officially called itself, wasnot a political settle-ment .It provided for temporary division of Vietnam pending a nationwide election to be held in the summer of 1956. The French forces would meanwhile withdraw from the north, and the vietminh from south. Except for the United States and the Saigon regime, the other participants merely gave their oral endorsement to afinal declaration noting the understandings.

(r) The Eisenhower administration , crusading against its foggy notion of an international Communist conspi-racy, reluctantly pledged to abide by the Geneva agreement. In a separate statement, however, Bedell Smith warned that the United States would view “with grave concern…any renewal of aggression”- a caveat President Kennedy used seven years later to justify his comminment to the Ngo Dinh Diem government. Diem also rejected the Geneva accords, which put half Vietnam under Communist control, and he predicted that “another more deadly war” lay ahead for Vietnam. His forecast was prescient, after eight years of conflict and four hundred thousand soldiers and cibilians dead, the agony was far from finished(D)

 

 

 

 

 

—————————————

d .ibid,Grenville,1994)

—————————————

  

(1)The South Vietnamese government, headed by the Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem , refused to sign any of the treaties but carried out the military truce conditions.

(2)Eisenhower’s conduct in 1954 marked another turning point in the tragic history of Vietnam and of the United States’s involvement in that tragedy, which lwd to extensive sacrifices in men, material and, a decade later social cohesion.

   What Eisenhower and dulles refused to accept was that no firm line had been drawn against further communist expansion, further erosion of the westren position in South east asia, though they had no wish for the US to replace colonial France or to exploit South Vietnam

II.The Chronology of BO DAI-REGIME WAR  COLLECTIONS .

(THE Federation Of Indochine ,SAIGON REGIME)

__________________________________

1.After The Japanese surrendered-1945

___________________________________

 

1)June 1945

 

(1)June ,3rd 1945

The Cochin-china became an autonom Rep. under Federation Of Indochina and  French union  with  General Nguyen van Xuan as the president (D)

 

2) July, 1945

 

(1)The Postdam agreement, British Allied forces were to occupy the southren half of Vietnam up to 16th parralel.

    The commander of the British occupation forces, Major-General Douglas Gracey, exceeded both the postdan mandate and the orders of his superiorAdmiraln L. Mountbatten.

    Short of troops of his own, Gracey relied heavily upon Japanese forces to keep Saigon and the surrounding area under his control and out of the hands of Vietminh. (ibid Kahin)

3) August 1945

 

(1)     August.5th 1945

Japanese Surrender and Saigon in Chaos .

The French had crumbled, devas-tated by the defeat of Japanese whose troops in Vietnamwere waiting for repatriation.

 

4) September 1945

 

(1) September,22th 1945

 

(a)A day after their release, Franch soldiers went on a rampage, shooting entries, they poured into the Saigon city hall and ousted the Vietminh’s so –a called Provisional Executive building, raising the French flag from the rooftops .

(b) Then, their ranks swelled by angry French civilians, they coursed through the city, broke into Vietnamese homes and shops, and indicriminately clubbed men, women and even children.

 (c)Gracery and Cedile, appaeled by the spectacle that they them-selves had inspired, pleaded for calm but bit was too late.(D)

 

(2) September,23th 1945

 General Gracey rearmed the bulk of the 5.000 French troops interned in the Saigon area and permitted the French to launch a coup d’etat on this day.

 

(3) September,24th 1945

 

(a)Responding to the French frenzy, therefore, the Vietminh launched a general strike on this day. If any one date marks the start of the first Indochina war, it might be that day.

   

 

 

(b)For the strike and its aftermath initiated a momentum of conflict that, despite periodic negotiating attemps, could not be stopped.

 

    (c)By morning, Saigon was paralyzed. Electricity and water supplies had halted. Shop were shut and offices closed , trams stood still and even rickshaws had disappeared from the deserted streets.

(d)Anticipating the worst, the city’s twenty thousand French civilians barricaded their houses or fled in panic  to the security of the rambling old Continental Palace Hotel  

( I have the Book’s illustrated picture of this hotel in 1964-auth), the billet for French and British officers.

   

(e)The crackle of gunfire and the thud of mortars soon resonated tthrough the city, as armed Vietminh squad attacked the airport,, burned the central market and stormed the local prison to liberate hundreds of vietnamese inamets.

(f)But the most brutal episode occured at the Cite Herault, a residential suburb.

(g)At dawn, Binh Xuyen terrorist led by the Vietminh agents slipped past japanese soldiers supposely guarding the district.

    Smashing doors and windows, they broke into bed rooms and masacres one hundred and fifty French and Eurasian civilians, sparing neither women nor children.

They dragged more than a hundred others away as hostages, mutilating many before freeing them later.

(h) Predicrably , communist historian omit any mention of this atrocity in their accounts of the period(D-ibid Stanley Karnow)

(4)As his country descended into Violence , the Vietnamese  faction’s clash with each other and with Frenc , Bo Dai left the country to Hongkong.

(5)Not Yet collections in this month

(Very difficult to find the collections after Japanese surrender in Cochin-china, different in Indonesia we fine the Japanese occupations coll, after japanese surrender, because they still have the power and will tranversed the power to  the British Allied forces , but British came too late in the end of September and early of October 1945.

    The Collectors must be carefull, because  too many  fake revenue and postal histories  in Vietnam on this time and sold very high dollars-auth)

__________________________________

b.French vs Vietnamese in 1946

_________________________________

1) January 1946

(1)January.31th. 1946

     The Government has signed a decree on the issued of Vietnamese notes.

     During that period, and even for some previous years, the Banknotes issued by the French have been circulating all over the three parts of Vietnam,cambodia and Laos. For some time when petty notes became rare, the people had even to the art notes into two halves to used as change among them.

     Afterwards , when the French colonialists returned, French currency continued to e spent again in the French-occupied regions. Together with their conspiracy to re-occupy Indochina, the French colonialist have created various goverments in the South, controlling a number of regions and setting up L’Institue d’Emission des Etats du Cambodia,Laos and vietnam .The figure on the back of Banknotes issued  by the issuing Institue have shown us whom the national s

S overeignty belong to.

2) February 1946

No yet information

3)March 1946

(1)March,6th 1946

A clash had been prevented French would recognize Vietnam as a free state within the French Union – the new name for the old French empire and Ho would permit the presence of twenty-five thousand Franch troops in Vietnam for the next five years. But the final confirmation of this accrd never came.

4) April 1946

 

     (1) When the French colonialist returned, French currency continued spent again in the French-occupied area. Together with their conspiracy to re-occupy Indochina.

     The French colonialists have created various government in the South, controlling a number of regions and setting up “ L’Institue d’Emission des Etats du Cambodge, du laos et du vietnam. The front page same, but the backpage  different with Elephant (Vietnam), Angkor statue(cambodge) and Kiln (Laos) also the picture of the state’s king .

The banknote  One piastres yellow-red with the king picture and The house monument, five piastres -green

With Bodai picture(vietnam), and  monument of Laos and cambodge, 10 piatres yellow brown-along bay Haiphong picture(vietnam), Laos dancers, Cambodege lady; 100 piatsres blue-pink , Bodai picture (vietnam), Laos ‘s three lady and cambodge  lady with flower, the highest nominal 200 pisatres, Bo Dai picture & Elephant(Vietnam) and Ankor statue (Cambodia).

 ( I found the 200 piastres Bo Dai & elephant picture in very find condition at Russian market Phom Phen Cambodia, the 200 piastres Angkor statue pictures very rare I never saw the very fine conditions many in bad condition-auth)

 

5) May 1946

(1)May,1946

D’Argenlieu went through motion of further talks with the Vietminh at Dalat, a lovely hill town in the South. But he parried the big issues, like Cochinchina’s status and Vietnam’s sovereignity, contending that they could only be discussed at a higher level meeting, scheduled to take place in France,

 

(2)May 31th 1946

on this day ,Ho depated for Paris.

 

(3)No sooner had Ho left Hanoi

      

(a)D’Argenlieu resorted the old fait accompli ploy, in violation of the March agreement and without informing Paris, he proclaimed a republic of Cochinchina in the name of Franch.

(if someone have the collections of this puppet Republic of Cochinchina please comment and send the illustrations because I have never seen, in Indonesia there were the same puppet republic and I have fount the postal and document histories of that puppet state, read Indonesia Independent War-auth)

    

 

(b)The Cochinchina isuue also aroused the French in Saigon, who inundated the government in Paris with telegrams and petition, some even protesting against the presence in Franch and his”agitation and troublemakers”

(c)At the same time , d’Argenlieu tried to subven the negotiation by convening his own counter con-ference in Dalat, to which he invited selected Vietnamese, cambodians, Laotians and a delegate from the “ Republic of Cochinchina” to discuss Indochina’s future. The french did nothing to diswavow him-and may have even secretly approved his machinations.(ibid,stenley Karnow).

  

6) June 1946

 

(1) June .22th 1946.

The green paper land-house tax paid 9$50,without revenue, with black colour catho village francaise Indo-chine type.

(rare document at this time, why not republic of Cochinchina because at the document still used The old village and province of  Francaise Indochina stamped , this proof that Republic of Cochinchina only the puppet republic without power-auth)

 

 (2) Under an agreement to remove the Chinese forces, Ho Chi Minh agre-ed to the return of the French army to Hanoi in 1946. Troops are seen here entering the city. The welcoming cro-wd was composed mostly of French residents (P-ibid Stanley karnow)

 

(2)In 1946, as they moved to install their new government in Notrhern Vietnam,Ho Chi Minh and his followers organized verious associations- including this youth group, whose members were trained to sing political songs extolling Vietnam’s indepen-dent (P-ibid stanley karnow)

 

 

 

 

7) July 1946

 

(1) July.,1946

After eight weeks of haggling, the Fointaibleau conference yields only a draft accord that reinforced France’s economic prerogatives in northern Vietnam without resolving the Cochinchina problem.

Ho sent his delegation home and stayed on in Paris alone in a last angguished effort to settle what he publicly glossed over as a”family dispute”(D)

 

8)-11) August to November 1946

Not yet information

 

12)December .1946

    

(1)D’argenlieu , back in Saigon , went further  conversation with Ho were “ henceforth imposible”. He asserted ,proposing instead that Vietnam return to its”Traditional monarchy”- in short , Enthrone Bo Dai again, who had by then left Hanoi for Hong Kong.

__________________________________

2.. Frence vs Vietnamese -1947

___________________________________

 

(1) the Photo of  Ho Chi Minh ,seated, incasual attire, flanked by his senior comrades (left to right) Pham van Dong, Truong Chinh, and Vo Nguyen Giap.

(Truong Chinh borrowed his pseudonym, which mean Long March, from the famous exploit of the famous Chinese Communist in 1934-ibid Karnow)

 

(2) The Cao Dai , Hoa Hao, Trot skyites band other , all striving to outbid the Vietminh, had taken as extrimist tack and tension spiraled with the emergence of Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns for hire.(D)

 

(3)Early 1947.

 

(a)Bo Dai might have been a week , unprededictable, corruptable play-boy, but he was no fool.

 When the French sent represen-tatives to Hong Kong in early 1947 to lure him back to the throne , he insisted , as Ho did, that Franch must first accede to Vietnam’s Indepen-dence and unity,

 

(b) His stand heartened anti-communist like Ngo Dinh Diem, who urged him to stick to his position.

(c)He also worried Ho, who ordered  the murder of two Vietnam-ese nationalist engaged in promoting a Bao Dai alternative.

(d)Ho engaged in a more mode-rate maneuver:

 as well reiterating his eagerness to remain within French Union if only French would recognize a free ande Unified Vietnam.

     He spoke sweetly about Bo Dai  , saying that “ he may be far from us in distance , but not in our thought” and lastly , he reshuffled his cabinet, confining its Communist to a handful of keypost and demoting Giap, whom the French considered too aggresive .(D)

     (4) Not yet collections

(4)1947

 

(1)January 1947

Not yet information.

(2)February 1947

 

(a)February,19th.1947

The very rare Haipong Chinese consulate’s ID for Chinese overseas at that city during the Vichy-Vietminh war without Chinese  revenue.

(This the 1947’s only one and very rare card and interesting document collections of Vichy-vietminh war that found at saigon ,best for showed.

My oppinion about this collection:

, (a1)without chinese revenue because that time no revenue issued due to the  Chinese civil war between the Kuomintang nationalist (Chiang)  and the Chinese Communist (Mao ) ,

(a2)The Collections was found at ex Saigon (HCM city)  may be   this  ID was belonged by the immigrant refugee from North, after the Vichy-Vietminh war at Haiphong and  the  the landreform and communist action in the north (D)

(3) – (8) no info

(9)  September 1947

(a)A possible transaction between Ho and Bao Dai  alaramed the French. In September 1947, Emile Bollaert , the French high commisioner, offered to dissolve the saparatist “ Republic of Cochin-China “ invented by Admiral D’Argenlieu and foster a “self –governing” Vietnam, with France responsible  for its defense and diplomacy.

     This was essentially a revival of the nineteenth-century protectorate, and Ho called the proposal “too narrow” yet signaled a willingness to bargain.

 

(10)-(11) no info

 

(12)December 1947

 

(a)December.7th 1947

A group of anti-Communist Nationalist, some on the French payroll, rushed to Hongkong and persuaded Bao dai to talk with Boliert.

     They met on December.7.1947, abroad a French cruiser anchored in the Bay of Along, north of Haiphong, with a spectacular coastline of limestone needless rising from the sea.

     Bo Dai wanted a firm French pledge of Independence, but Bolieret persuaded him to sign a Protocol” that so hedged the magic word with qualification as the render it mea-ningless, Bao Dai had been trapped.

     A comic sequence followed. Trying to escape his commitment to resume his imperial duties, Bao Dai fled to Europe, where he shifted from one city to another, hiding in cinemas by day and cabaret by night as Boliert chased him like a process server.(D)

___________________________________

 d.Prologue Bo Dai regime in 1948

 

1)-4) 1948

Not yet information

5)May 1948

(1)May.7th 1948

The “Quittance De Loyer” receipt ,recu de M Nguy Thuy, 220$ , with Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal revenue 2 x 30 cents (rate 0$60), sign at Cholon le 7e Moes M.Ty. 1948. the receipt with the hand written recu d’M,Nguy Thuy no.161 38$05 ,another receipt without revenue.

(Best quality revenue history collec-tions for showed in France -auth)

 

6) June 1948

(1) June,8th 1948

     (a)Bollaert eventually won, and they return to the Bay of Along on June.8,1948.

 There , in Bo Dai’s presence , Bollaert signed an accord with General Nguyen Van Xuan , former head of the “Republic of Cochin-china” and now chief of a new Vietnamese national government.

     France “solemly” recognized Vietnam ‘s Independence but would keep control its army, finaces and foreig affairs .

     Bao Dai was dissatisfied with this small “ step in the negotiations between Vietnam and France” and wentr back to Europe, asserting that he would not wear the crown until “ true unity and real independence” had been attained.

     French-spomsored Vietnam’s independence regime lacked credibility from the start.

     Nguyen Van Xuan , its prime minister, was a ludicrous choice for the job. Educated at the prestigious Ecole Polytecgnique in paris, he was an exaggrerated product of the mission civilisatrice.  A naturalized French citizen who had spent most of his life in France, he barely spoke Vietnamese.

     The French had promoted him to General, the first Vietnamese ever elevated to that grade. And as head of admiral d’Argenlieu’s pet project, the “Republic of Cochinchina” he had been an active foe of Vietnamese unity.

The Communist branded Xuan a “puppet” he was also anathema to the colonial French.

 

7) July 1948

(1)July.14th 1948

The leaflet of  Chinese memoriable death’s announcement of Mr Lin Pao Lin sent to family or friend in Chinese character language:

“he was passed with peace situa-tion in June.24th 19.40 pm  and all the family and friend have gave the symphatic’s homoured etc,

 The announcement letter were sent to all family and friend abroad.

the rare chinese overseas ‘s tradition with ephemera

(This unique collection  willn’t found anymore in modern times, best historic document for showed in Chinese area  and will discused completely in another book : “Unique Chinese overseas in Asia’s collections “ copyright reserved-auth)

8)August 1948

Not yet information

9) September 1948

 not yet information

10)October 1948

 

(1)October 18th.1948

The Reciept of buying bycycle with the ephemera ‘s Propaganda pictures of Bycicle from Cycles Miror Paris,from Nhut Tang Hung Cholon Furniture Generales Pour Cycles & Pousses, Cholon 18 October 1948. buyed by Mr Nguyen van Hai , Patent No 8336, price 1189.64 , tax 1 % 1189, and timbre (revenue)  250. total 1204,03 with Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal 2x 1Piastres and 60 cent revenue 

.(Unique Revenue and bicycle’s thematic ephemera history collection-auth)

11) November 1948

(1)The postal used cover from Paris rolling prestamped 10.00 franc with  area code =PARIS 24= without the sender adress, to  Monsieur Nguyen Nang Bu. 32-rue Phan Tanh-Gion Saigon (Indochine).

     The letter inside typewritten in France  from Ecole sentrale de T.S. F section electricite & Applications engineer, the Chief of Services Correspondance send salute  to acept his letter  November 19th 1948.  

Il set heureux de  constater que les cours vous donnent entiere satisfaction et il souhaite qur vous en tiriez un bon resultat.

For  the regular corespondent adress ‘a le Librairie technique et Commerecials -28 , rue d’Assas Paris.

(The earlies postal services between Saigon- Paris after the War and during Vichy-Vietminh war to the Cochinchina- please comment –auth)

12) December 1948

 

(1) Late 1948

In Paris, successive christian democratic and Radical Socialist coalitions stalled on granting autonomy to Vietnam. General de Gaulle, pontificating on the sidelines, predicted that “the French solution will accepted sooner or later (D)

 

_____________________________________

3.The State of Vietnam(1949-1955)  

Bo Dai Regime in 1949

1)January 1949

(1)January,7th,1949

The receipt of Xuong –Thang Horlogerie , No ,43,Rue Georges Guynemer ,Saigon ,as Facture non B 26 ,Saigon 7 Janvier 1949, Contant paid  232$90, with Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue 60 cents.

(best Antique watch tematic ‘s collection  for show-auth)

(2)January,17th.1949

     The State Department Officials felt that while the US sought to favor Bao Dai, it could not “ irretievably” support a local administration that “might become virtually a puppet government separated from the people and existing only by the presence of French Military forces”(D)

     (3) January ,22th 1949

The rare inland Francaise cochin-chine postally used cover from CDS VINHLONG COHINCHINE 22.1.1949 TO Monsieur Tran v. Thanh Inspection du Travail 459 boulevard gallieri Saigon, at the back of cover the distination CDS SAIGO  R.P-COCHINECHINE 23.1.1949  WITH 3X10  Indochine stamp and two other stamps off .

     Inside the cover the green paper ‘s letter  in vietnamese :

                Vlong ngay 22 janvier 1949

                Kinh anh than men

Hai tho dta goi dti ma chua

‘’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’

Vay ham moi dtuoc kinh chue

Anh  Lang nam moi dtuoc van su

Binh an.

                             Eru gai anh

                             Mai njo cen

( If someone will help me to translate the letter please comment, I will put the letter at Undindentified collection, please comment-auth)

2) February 1949

(1)After Bo Dai living in Hongkong and China, in 1949 the French persuaded him to returned home in Vietnam.

 

3) March 1949

 

(1)March.8th 1949

     Vietnam’s figurehead Bao Dai and Franch’s figurehead president Vincent Auriol signed the Elysee Agreement , so called for the lavish presidential palace in Paris at which the ceremony took place.

     The Franch reconfirmed Vietnam’s independent (etat du Vietnam ?-auth) and going beyond mere promises, outlined measures to incorporate  Cochinchina in a unified Vietnamese state(Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia?-auth), but France still retained control of Vietnam’s defense, diplomay and fnances.

Helpless and frustrated, Bao dai remarked soon afterward :” What they call a Bao dai solution turns out to be just a French solution”(D)

 

4) not yet information

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5) April 1949

 

(1) May.16th 1949

Postally used covers inland vietnam from CDS  Saigon R.P-Cochine Chine

19.5.49, the adress was broke off , because someone off the stamps to Monsieur Tran van Thanh Inspection du Travial 459 boulevard gallieru a Saigon.

     Hand written letter inside with vietnamese character, saigon 16.5.49

     Anh rat yen Kinh cua em

     Anh che rang muon naim gui hanh ………………………………………….

                Chua and manh ra via

                     Hoi Anh

( if some one will help me to translate , the whole letters will put in the blog as unidentified collection, please com-ment -auth)

 

 

 

6) June 1949

(1)June 12th.1949

The Land house tax paid without revenue , of Cantho Village de Tan  with Cantho Francaise Indochine symbol stamped.

(The latest Francaise Indochine cantho village stamped-auth)

7) July 1949

(1)July 1st 1949

Another state Department report acknowledge that the Vietnam Communist were making progress mainly because the french had been so” niggardly” in their concession that they “have thus far failed to created an effective puppet regime capable of drawing nationalist element away from vietnam”

     The french military effort had “ dwindled to footling punitive campaign” and not only was this sapping France’s strenght, but US equipment sent to French troops in Europe was ‘ being squandered in Indochina on a mission that can only justified in term of Gallic mystique”(D)

August 1949

Not yet information

 

9) September 1949

(1)  September.13th 1949

The receipt of Maison nBan Thanh&Cie,Ameublement, 13-rue Chansseloup-Laubat saigon for paid 2020$00, added Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue 4 x 1 piastres(rate 4$00). For buoght two kind meubeler 1 tu boc mat boing go gia tien 2000$00 and 1 toon qo 20$00, coniem (revenue) 4$00

 (The very high rate revenue , best collection for show-auth)

 

     (2) September, 15 th 1959

The Postally used cover of Ecole Centale de TSF Paris send to Monsieu Nguyen Nang Lu Saigon, with rolling prestamped  5.00 franc with propaganda  =PARIS 24= areal code.

The latter inside typewriter , Section electricite & application Modernes Esigment Techinue “Ecole Central De T.S.F” informed about him to be AGENT TECHNIQUE RADIO-ELECTRI-CIENT ( 2 parties), Livres-Quetioners-Divers  ( the second latter from Ecole Central TSF Paris to Saigon and the postal rate down from 10.00 Franc to 5.00 Franc , may be the situation more favourable and the Factory name on the cover-please comment why ? auth)

10) October 1949

 

(1) October.18th.1949

The Receipt f Maison Dong Nhan,Ameublemet, proprietarare Tran-Duy-Ta, 346 Rue Chasseloup-Laubat Saigon, paid 3050$00, added dtong thi 1 phan tuan 30$5 (?) , but revenue only 2x 50 cent Indochine Francaise timbre tax .

(interesting because  in another receipt five days later the revenue 4$00 for paid 2020$00, but this day 1$00 but with added Dtng Thi 1 phan tuan 30$5, what kind of tax this, please comment-aut)

11) November 1949 no infor

12)December 1949

 

(1)The original black and white private photo at The Tomb of Emepror Kai Dinh in Hue :

 

  1. The Native Vietnamese family seated in the front of dragon at stairs of tomb, man and wife, sister in law and three kids. At back “Dec/1949”
  2. The Nativese Vietnamese  seated on the dragon at the stairs, wiar short traosers with French hat , at the back of photo written in vietnamese :

Chup tai So’ Thu

Hoi hoc jau annie

     Lyce’e P.Ky

           1949

  1. Two kids , one with hat riding  the Horse statue and his younger brother  stayed in the front of the horase statue pull the Horse’s mouth string. Beside the Horse statue, there was the Vietnamese civilian with native hat statue.

(all the photo I have found at Ho Chi Minh city ‘s antique shop during my visit 2007 (a) and (b), (c) during my last visit 200-auth)

____________________________________

f.Bo Dai Saigon Regime in 1950

1) January 1950

(1)early 1950

(a)United States and Britain recognized Bao dai’s government (D).

    

(b) The US only recognized by  only several American Official.

    

(c) Charlton Oghurn,another State Department ‘s Bureau of Far east Eastren Affairs, excoriated the emperor as “ a figure deserving of the redicule and contempr with which he generally regarded by the Vietnamese, and any suppsition that he could succeed or that a french army in Indochina could possibly be an asset to us could be entertained only by one totally ignorant of Asian realities,

Another State Department expert, Raymond B.Fosdick, selivered an even more passionate diatribe in a memorandum that Potrayed the Bao Dai regime as “doomed”  and went on to foretell the future with remarkable prescience :”This shabby business probably represent as improvement over the brutal colonialism of early years, but it is now too late in the history of the world to settle of this cheap substitute” (D)

 

(d) With the recognition of Bo Dai’s regime, The US establised a full-fledge embassy in Saigon headed by Donald Heath , a veteran diplomat entranced by the French cause. They forbade US military advisers to supervise the use of American equipment, and  they barred them from planning sessins. They either refused them intelligence  or fed them misleading information , and they reacted fiercely to sugges-tions that they accord more latitude to Vietnamese nationalist. Top French official even suspected that American’s real aim was not to help them but to supplant French politically and economically.

Nor did the French , despite their’ solemn pledges’ yield more thatn a thin veneer of Independence to Bo Dai’s government.

Though they trained a few Vietnamese officers, they hept control of the army, breweries, and factories as well as imports and exports. They also devised a financial agreement under which piastres, the Vietnamese currency, could be exchanged for French Francs at a radiculously favorable rate, and those with licenses made fortune.

(e)One well-placed figure implicated in the traffic was the son of Vincent Auriol, the president of France.

Not that granting power t Bao dai at this stage mattered. He spent most his time at his lodge in Dalat, having delegated his nominal power to a new prime minister, Tran Van Huu, a rich landowner and Naturalized French Citizen. But the authority in his entourage belong to Nguyen van Tam, his security director, a gnarled creature known as the Tiger of Cailay, his native village in the Mekong Delta, where he had served the French by crushing Communist-led  peasant uprising. The Vietminh had killed two of his sons in retallion, and his speciality in Saigon was tracking down real and inncuos enemies of the French, whom he liquidated brutally.(D)

2) February 1950

     The stamp, a 3-piater value of dullblue color bore the westren attired Chief of State, ex-emperor Bao-Dai (scott#9) along with the stamp on First Day of Issues are the official govern-ment seal and Bao Dai’signature .

The South Vietnam  stamps collection began with the Ex emperor Bao-Dai ‘s return to his country as Chief of State, ranging in value from several hundred dollars to thousands od dollars each.  (Nguyen Bao Tung’s collection)

( I have the mint stamps of dullblue emperor Bo dai 3 piastres faund in HCM city-auth )

3) March 1950

 

(1) March,9th .1950

     Acheson advised Truman to allocate $15 million to France for Indochina.(D)

4)-5) Not yet information

6) June 1950

(1)June.28th 1950

     Three days after the Korean war broke out, Achenson persuaded Truman  to order an “ acceleration”  of assistance to the French.(D)

(2)June,29th.1950

     Eight C-47 cargo aircraft flew across the Pacific to Indochina-  not only time that The US to act illegaly in Vietnam.(D)

     (3)Mid 1950

     Washington’s recognation of Bo dai sparked economic and Military-assistance program (MACP-auth) , began in mid-1950.(IMNAHA report the postal used cover of MACP-auth)

7)-11) not yet info

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12) December 1950

 

(1)December , 4 th 1950

The LAISSEZ-PASSER  ID with native Vietnamese photo,

          LAISSEZ –PASSER

           Valable Jusqu’a nouvei ordo

(Giay thon-ba’nh tam du’ng de’m khi noi linh moi )

(Circulaire No.28 Cir/Mi/Ag du 24-5-46 du Ministre de L’Inte’riem)

                __________________

 

Nome et prenom :  Huynh Ngoc Hoa

________________.  ..ssance: Phu Lun 19 a’Long Chau Vinlong 

.                  . ngay ,than,na’m dao

.        native              .   cua mie : Thai Ti Bich

.    vietnamese        .  Ngieu      : Buon Ban

.         lady’s             .  Village hang : Long cha’u

.  photo      . hai neau : 1” quartier

.                                . Maison  no(na s6) : 46 B Dong Khan.

___________________

                           Vinlong,le 4 December 1950

Lang : Lang-Cheung  4.12..50

        Huong Than               Xuong Truong          Huong-hau

 

          Handsigned            handsigned             handsigned &

  & red squared           round violet stamped

Stamped                DELEGATION DU CHEF -LIEU

    “ SUD VIETNAM-

                                      PROVINCE DE VINLONG

 

(RARE  Document,revenue and postal history collections delegation du Chef-Lieu  Of Sud-Vietnam province Vinlong, the only one ID  found from the year 1950, why?,please comment-auth)
 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Vietnam Bodai War 1951-1956

 

The Vietman Bo Dai  War in 1950

    

1) January 1950

(1)early 1950

(a)United States and Britain recognized Bao dai’s government (D).

    

(b) The US only recognized by  only several American Official.

    

(c) Charlton Oghurn,another State Department ‘s Bureau of Far east Eastren Affairs, excoriated the emperor as “ a figure deserving of the redicule and contempr with which he generally regarded by the Vietnamese, and any suppsition that he could succeed or that a french army in Indochina could possibly be an asset to us could be entertained only by one totally ignorant of Asian realities,

Another State Department expert, Raymond B.Fosdick, selivered an even more passionate diatribe in a memorandum that Potrayed the Bao Dai regime as “doomed”  and went on to foretell the future with remarkable prescience :”This shabby business probably represent as improvement over the brutal colonialism of early years, but it is now too late in the history of the world to settle of this cheap substitute” (D)

 

(d) With the recognition of Bo Dai’s regime, The US establised a full-fledge embassy in Saigon headed by Donald Heath , a veteran diplomat entranced by the French cause. They forbade US military advisers to supervise the use of American equipment, and  they barred them from planning sessins. They either refused them intelligence  or fed them misleading information , and they reacted fiercely to sugges-tions that they accord more latitude to Vietnamese nationalist. Top French official even suspected that American’s real aim was not to help them but to supplant French politically and economically.

Nor did the French , despite their’ solemn pledges’ yield more thatn a thin veneer of Independence to Bo Dai’s government.

Though they trained a few Vietnamese officers, they hept control of the army, breweries, and factories as well as imports and exports. They also devised a financial agreement under which piastres, the Vietnamese currency, could be exchanged for French Francs at a radiculously favorable rate, and those with licenses made fortune.

(e)One well-placed figure implicated in the traffic was the son of Vincent Auriol, the president of France.

Not that granting power t Bao dai at this stage mattered. He spent most his time at his lodge in Dalat, having delegated his nominal power to a new prime minister, Tran Van Huu, a rich landowner and Naturalized French Citizen. But the authority in his entourage belong to Nguyen van Tam, his security director, a gnarled creature known as the Tiger of Cailay, his native village in the Mekong Delta, where he had served the French by crushing Communist-led  peasant uprising. The Vietminh had killed two of his sons in retallion, and his speciality in Saigon was tracking down real and inncuos enemies of the French, whom he liquidated brutally.(D)

2) February 1950

     The stamp, a 3-piater value of dullblue color bore the westren attired Chief of State, ex-emperor Bao-Dai (scott#9) along with the stamp on First Day of Issues are the official govern-ment seal and Bao Dai’signature .

The South Vietnam  stamps collection began with the Ex emperor Bao-Dai ‘s return to his country as Chief of State, ranging in value from several hundred dollars to thousands od dollars each.  (Nguyen Bao Tung’s collection)

( I have the mint stamps of dullblue emperor Bo dai 3 piastres faund in HCM city-auth )

3) March 1950

 

(1) March,9th .1950

     Acheson advised Truman to allocate $15 million to France for Indochina.(D)

4)-5) Not yet information

6) June 1950

(1)June.28th 1950

     Three days after the Korean war broke out, Achenson persuaded Truman  to order an “ acceleration”  of assistance to the French.(D)

(2)June,29th.1950

     Eight C-47 cargo aircraft flew across the Pacific to Indochina-  not only time that The US to act illegaly in Vietnam.(D)

     (3)Mid 1950

     Washington’s recognation of Bo dai sparked economic and Military-assistance program (MACP-auth) , began in mid-1950.(IMNAHA report the postal used cover of MACP-auth)

7)-11) not yet info

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12) December 1950

 

(1)December , 4 th 1950

The LAISSEZ-PASSER  ID with native Vietnamese photo,

          LAISSEZ –PASSER

           Valable Jusqu’a nouvei ordo

(Giay thon-ba’nh tam du’ng de’m khi noi linh moi )

(Circulaire No.28 Cir/Mi/Ag du 24-5-46 du Ministre de L’Inte’riem)

                __________________

 

Nome et prenom :  Huynh Ngoc Hoa

________________.  ..ssance: Phu Lun 19 a’Long Chau Vinlong 

.                  . ngay ,than,na’m dao

.        native              .   cua mie : Thai Ti Bich

.    vietnamese        .  Ngieu      : Buon Ban

.         lady’s             .  Village hang : Long cha’u

.  photo      . hai neau : 1” quartier

.                                . Maison  no(na s6) : 46 B Dong Khan.

___________________

                           Vinlong,le 4 December 1950

Lang : Lang-Cheung  4.12..50

        Huong Than               Xuong Truong          Huong-hau

 

          Handsigned            handsigned             handsigned &

  & red squared           round violet stamped

Stamped                DELEGATION DU CHEF -LIEU

    “ SUD VIETNAM-

                                      PROVINCE DE VINLONG 

 

(RARE  Document,revenue and postal history collections delegation du Chef-Lieu  Of Sud-Vietnam province Vinlong, the only one ID  found from the year 1950, why?,please comment-auth)
 

_____________________________________

g.The last year of Francaise Indochine and the First year Bodai regime in 1951

_____________________________________

 

1)-5)

Not yet info

6) June 1951

(1) June,6th 1951

The first Vietnamese postage stamp issued in this day, less than two year after the country recovered nominal independence. That date marked the anniversary of the national reuni-fication (Hung-Quoc Khanh-niem) decree by Emperor Gia Long, the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty .

     (The design two types, the low nominal value the emperor building and the high nominal the picture of emperor Bo Dai, this stamps rare mint without hing very find condition , 15 pi red brown and 30  pi blue green, -auth)

7) -12) not yet information.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________________

h.1952-FEDERATION OF INDOCHINE OR ETAT DU VIETNAM, AS INDEPENEDENT COUNTRY UNDER FRANCH BEGUN.

_____________________________________

1) January 1952

 

(1)The federation of Indochine consist Republic Vietnam (Annam ,Tonkin ,Cochin China), the Kingdom of Cambodge and Laos.

 The Independence country under the Union of France since 1950.

(2) In 1952 ,

Some of the people want the full free country and they fight against French and their area called “Viet Minh” or Indochine Ho Chi Minh.

 

 

(3) South Vietnam Flag (OP)

(4) National anthem of Viet Nam (Quoc Ca Vietnam (OP)

(5) Vintage Saigon Map & District(Do-Thanh Saigon & Bang Chi Cac Congso) (OP)

(5)In 1952, when Nguyen Van Tam took over as  Bao Dai’s prime minister, he formed a cabinet described by the US consul in Hanoi as composed of “opportunist, nonentities, extreme reactionaries, assassins, hirelings and , finally , men of faded mental powers,”

  

(6)The minister of youth and sports, Vo Hong Khanh, had been responsible for the murder by garrting of no fewer than ten frenchmen some year earlier. Not only would the cabinet serve the vietminh as anindirect “propaganda tool”, the consul concluded , but it was :

“ a poor return for French blood and American money (ibis stenly Karnow ,p-195) 

2)February 1952

    

(1) February,11th 1952

    

(a)The latest used of  Indochine Francaise Timbre Taxes revenue.

Indochine farncaise timbre fiscal revenue, 5 piastres + 4 Piastres used one Hand written “Zuoc gia Vietnam Cho Chia Dat land transaction , the handdrawed map roeu Hin Tri road , R.100.00 Mai v nhan, R 130.00 Phan Mai ran  Louis, R 180.00 Phan Mai lung Chau, 226.00 Phan thai nan Nham, 180.00 Phan Hai thi Kiet.

 Signed  Thai van Nham, Thai San Kie, Mai thi Kiet , Ruong quae Phu, Phan v.Kiem and Chau v,Ruo’ng, fingerprint signed by Dau lang Say ngoui dung Chia dat vu nau ho cac cu con nho moi and Tran thi khuyen Kiu Gu La’ng Nay.

This certificate on double folio writting paper, in the last page

,”Thi Chung”

     Chung toi La Ban quan tri Lang Than Choi Chung

Mai oan Nhan, Mai thi Kiet. Quang quoc Phu Mai ton Luc va Tran thi Khuyuh Ken la Tu dten co Ky te’n va Lang tay truoc

Mat chung toi May nguoi nay dtung lap giao Keo co Khai

Voi chung toi rang hien ro to tren dtay  va ung nhan Y theo

Loi giao Ket trong to Va chung them co 2 nguoi toc nhon la

Phan van Kiem, Chau van Ruong co Ky ten truoc mat chung

Toi va Khai rang su chia dtat dtay vo va con cua Mai

Van Thoi ung thuan nhan.

                                      Thanh  thoi ngay 11.2.1952

          Thuong than                    Xa truong               Thuong hao

Hand signed                 Handsigned             Handsigned

                                      Violet squered stamped

                                      ======================

                    :    NAM-VIET              :

                                :______________________:

:       TINH BENTRE            :

                                :    TONG-MINH HUE       :

                                :   LANG THANH-THOI     :

                           ==================

Hand written          0,6 %  = 162 ‘

Pho beud Naud              11%     = 495   >     837 $

Thue de chung ui dau   4%  = 180  ‘

Red squaered stamped.

            Dong Bang Phan Tai Myto

            Ngay  Thoi ba Shanghai 1952

             Quyen :———–

             Thue : Thau tran ba moi bay dtong bac ,180$

Signed &Red circle stamped :Binh Nam Tha Xuong Mytho. …….not clear…..      

 

(Four same document with same revenue , interseting collection-auth)

 

(b)The earliest Etat du Vietnam Timbre Fiscal revenue

The same document with (a) but  red-green 2×3 Piastres, Etat du Vietnam Timbrefiscal revenue, but signed only by three Dau Ky len cua Ky Lao , Lam thai Lang Banh Thoi ngay 8.2.1952. and the authetication :

               Thi Chung

Chung toi Ban quan tri lang thanh thoi chung

Ong Phan van Kiem-Chau van ruong ho dau

Sach dteu co thy ten truoc mat chung toi ba

Ong Ky Lao Nay la ban than cua gia toc cua

Ngai van Thoi dtung lap to tong chi tren dtay

                            Hanh thoi ngay 11.2.1952

            Houng than     Xa truong   Huong hao

             Signed            Signed        Signen

 

                        Squered black stamped

                               NAM-VIET

                             TINH BENTRE

                        TONG MINH-HUE

                        LANG THAN-HOI

 

( This collections very rare and  best to showed, because four same document with Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue  5 + 4 piastres and one Document with  Etat du vietnam  Timbre fiscal 2 x 3 piastres. The latest and the earliest revenue at the same date february,11th 1952 and with same authentication, will be the historic fact abbout the transition between Indochine Francaises and the unoin France state Vietnam(etat du vietnam), please comment – auth)

3)-7) not yet information

August 1952

(1)August,15th 1952

     The common Empress Nam Phuong multicolour stamps were issued in this day.(I found this stamps in Indonesia-auth)

(2)August.19th 1952

The Receipt of Police D’Abonne-ment A L’eau Portable, Service technique at Saigon, with Indochine Franchaise Timbre Fiscal revenue 5 Piastres. Stamped Prefecture De Saigon Cholon ,Etat Du Vietnam –Suid Vietnam ,signe 19 Aout 1952.

9)September

 not yet info

10) October 1952

(1)18.10.1952

Indochine 40 cent revenue sheet used added Indochine Francaise 10 cent timbre fiscal and Saigon Cholon taxes  Regionales 10$00 –brown –old chinese style building(the cholon market?) , the revenue sheet used as“To ban nha”  (contract?) between Nguyen van Thoai ,carte de service (Car services) n so 4121 ngay 1-8-1950 with Pham Thi Dieuw “Laisser-passer” so 2108 ngay 8.3.1949 tai  ho 4 Saigon. (The very rare revenue history collection  because in one sheet were found three types revenue, Indochina lettter sheet revenue, & revunue timbrefiscal and Taxes Regional Saigon Cholon revenue. Auth)

 

 

11) November 1952

  

(1) November ,9th 1952

   Original vintage private photo, three native vietnamese lady at the bulding near the beach, back  handwritten  Nha’ Beach , 9-11-52.

     (maybe Nha Thrang ?-auth)

 

12) December 1952

 

(1) December.12th 1952

Vintage Photo” A man rode a Mobilete“ in the Saigon road, always seen an antique  car. Behind the photo “ Sur Mobylete de Luxe te sou du 5/12/52 a’la rue Cabina

( Unique vintage picture of vintage mobylete with written motorbike type information ,date and location, biside that The same antique car now put in the left front near entrace of the Ho Chi Min city Museum, during my last visit in July, 2009 I made my own photo in the front of that antique card help the museum guard, look at that photo -auth   )

(2) By 1952,

 according to a secret US report, Bao Dai was recieving an official stipend of more that $4 million a year.

He was not a big spender- his four private airplanes were his majr expense, and his wife and children lived in relative modesty on the Cote d’Azur,

while his own residence in Dalat was no more Lavish than a house in an affluent New York suburb

( I had seen in internet auction the photo of Bao Dai House when he get out of the car and went in the house-auth).

But he was transferring enormous sums to French and Swiss banks and investing extravagantly in real estate in French and Marocco ( I have a letter send from Marocco to Saigon, may be many Rich Vietna-mese stayed at Marocco-auth)

   The annual payment consumed 5 % of the Regime’s total revenue- four times more than the appropriation  for land reform program.

Even so, Bao dai was chronically strapped for funds, and he relied heavily on Bay Vien, the boss of the Binh Xuyen gang, to supplement his finaces handsomely.

He put Bay Vien in charge of Saigon’s casino, bordellos, opium dens, gold  smuggling  and other rackets, and even promoted him to rank of General.

Soon the French sanctioned Bay Vien’s respectability by emplying him hoodlums against the Vietminh and other  nationalist.

The corruption became institutionalizes , making a farce of earnest American hopes for a credible Vietnamese administration that would check the Communist, indeed , the French and Bao dai seemed at that stage to have His reached a tacit understanding : he played the puppet and they indulged his pleasures.

 His inner circle at one point included a spectacular blond French courtesan billed as a : member of the Imperial film unit” Once hearing her disparaged, he remarked “ She is only plying her trade. I’m the real whore”(D)

___________________________________

i. Bo Dai regime in 1953

 

1)-3) no info

 

5) April 1953

(1) 1st  April 1953

Binh Chung Phao Cao Xa, don vi anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng, Vu Trang Nhan Dan

(please tranlate the document-auth)(D)

6) May 1953

(2) May.2nd 1953

The Receipt of electricity “Campagne des Eaux et D’electricite de L’Indochine  52$00, revenue Etat du Viet-nam 30 cent.

(The French electricity compagny still have powered-auth)

5) April  no info

6) May 1953

(1)May 12th 1953

     The latest used Etat du Vietnam  30 cent revenue on The Franch “Compagne des Eaux et D’ellectricity De L’Indochine “ electric recieved  600 $ for instalation (puissance du compteur a instalaller)

Because the same electric recieve in November 1953 the revenue change with Etat du Vietnam Quoc gia –auth)

(2) May.22.1953

The Receipt of Maison WINH-LOI  No 6 rue Minh Mang Dalat, frm Tran Thi Dao for paid 570&00 , used 2 x 20 cent Etat du Vietnam quoc-Gia revenue . (Rare earliest used new second type revenue at Dalat-auth)

 

   (2)May 1953

   The Commander in Chief of French Union Forces in Indochina had prepared  the map, described graphically the actualposition of the French in this month, a position that was to worsen rapidly during the course of the next twelve monts (look at the map , ibid Kahin)

 

7)June 1953

       

(1) Mid 1953

   By mid 1953, Most of Annam was solidly under Vietminh, as were the nothern district of Cochin China almost as far as South as Saigon Itself, with the Camau pennisula as well as much of the Mekong delta administered by the Vietminh.

   The map prepared by teh Commander in Chief of French Union Forces in Indochina, General Henri Navarre, described graphically the actual position of the French in May of 1953

 

7) -8) no info

 

9) September 1953

 

   (1) Navarre Plan

France,with strong American encouragement , essayed one final and disastrous effort to recoup her military defeats and achieve a position of strength from which to negotiate with the Vietminh.

   This  Last major military bid, termed the “Navarre Plan”was undertaken at atime when Franch were able to draw on a total of 517.000 men of these ,369.000 were Indochinese , for the most part Vietnamese ; 48.000 were soldiers from  the French’s North African colonies; 20.000 were members of French Foreign Legion ,  and Total of 80,000 were French.

(from the Kahin’s information, we could found the postal history from every kind of Soldiers who send the letters to their family , Vietnamese in saigon, French North Colonies, and to French at this time, I hope someone comment and report that Postal history that I have never found until this day, only one from Marocco but at the Vietnam Liberation war-auth)

10) no info

 

11) November 1953

 

(1) November 6th 1953

The Indochine electricity receipt form still , but in Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia 20 cent revenue.(RH)

( the French electricity compagny changed to Vietnam electricity compagny – the French stated to loss the power, two revenue collection of the reciept of elevtricity paid fro Mai and November will be best for showed because this transition period from Etat du vietnam france Union , to Etat du Vietanm quoc gia, please comment the exact date the transition between the two date – auth)

 

__________________________________

5)1954

__________________________________

1) January 1954

No info.

 

2)-3) no info

4) April 1950

    

(1) April,6th 1954

     The U.S. announced that its aids to Indochina for  the subsequent fiscal year would run to $ 1.33 billion .This equalled one-third of the entire American foreignaid program and was far its largeres single component.

      Of this amount $800 million was “ allocated through France” for “ direct support” of French Union forces fighting in the Indochina theater, $ 300 million was for economic and tech-nical assistance” (IMNAHA report postal history postal cover from the Technical assistance-auth)

In comparison , this totaled more than eleven time the entire United States economic –aid program   budgeted that year for India (ibid Kahin)

(1)Bao Dai select Ngo Dinh Diem as prime minister

5) May 1954

 

(1) May, 10.1954.

The rare postally cover from V0.v.Luat Elive TC BE 724 Fao (M) , with Marocco stamps 15 F “ Barrage de Bine of OUDANE  CDS Le Noi ELLE Du 8 FES, 10Mai 1954. to  Nguyen Thi Ham Ecole Vo Thanh Phu Nhuon, Sud Vietnam, int the bach destination  postal stamped SAIGON R.P.-VIETNAM 13-5-1954  . Handwritten “Geleco communication”

(many vietnamese have the villa in the French colony like algeria , and also near that country Marocco-auth)

 

6) June 1954

(1)June 1954

     Diem returned to Vietnam as prime minister, he was met at Saigon airport by only a handful of enthusiasts, mosy of them Catholics like himself. Though a veteran nationalist, he was a virtually unknown figure (P)

(2)     June,15th 1954

The crown prince Bao Long with native vietnamese ware’s stamps were issued, the rare stamps  the high nominal value 50 &100 piastres in mint condition or used condition.

(I have found the mint without hings at Hoat Kiem Hanoi during visit 2007, and the used low nominal value found in used condition in Indonesia.-auth)

     (3) June,30th 1954

     The Etat Du Vietnam “Sursis Exeptionnel” card of Air-Vietnam  used during Vietnam Cong Hoa this day with  the change of Exceptionel to Professionel

ETAT DU VIET-NAM

        __________                         SURSIS PROFESSIONNEL

                     Valable du 1er/7/1954 au 1er/Ier/1955                                              ______________

REFERENCE : Arrete No.600-VP/QP du 15 Mai 1954 et Decision

                     de la Commission Centrale des Sursis du 19 juin 1954

                                      _________________________

Nom et Prenoms du beneficiance : NGUYEN HUU TAM

Date et lieu de naissance : 21-2-1925 a’Cantho

Emploi occupe :  Comptable

Designation du service employeur : AIR_VIETNAM

                     Saigon, le  30  Juin   1954

                           Le Directeur general des servive de Police

                                             .et de Surete National du Vietnam

Le Chef  du Tu Hoan

Red double circle Stamped                        Violet circle stamped

QUOC PUONG *NHA NHAN-VIEN      “ MYRE VILLERS SAIGON.

                   HAM BAC                            VIETNAM HANG-KHONG

                                                                             AIR VIETNAM”

( The rare “Air Vietnam “ cursus/training ID card , best for thematic of air-pilot-auth)

7)July 1954

(1) Diem returns to Saigon

(2)General J.Lawton Collins, Eisen-hower’s special envoy . arrives in Saigon to affirm American Support for Diem, including USD 100 millions in aid. Hundred of thousand Refugees flee from the North to the South with help of US Navy.(Some collections from the refugees have found in South Vietnam like pasport,ID Card , Diploma etc-auth)(D)

(3) In a house in Indochine where the enemies skull were collected for up the famnily power (P)

(4) The Indochine’s student study in Al Azhar University with the albain and Syrian ‘s student(P)

8)-9) no info

10) October 1954

 

(1)October,11th 1954

THE “QUITANCE DE LOYER” paying ’s Receipt 12834$ for August 1954,with 1 piastre and 40 cents revenue Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia

(the rare 1 piastres Quoc-Gia of Etat du Vietnam revenue on Medicine transaction’s receipt ?-auth)

(2)  Nearly a million a large preportion of them Catholic, fleeing from Nothern Vietnam in late 1954 as the Vietminh prepared their take over. In many instances,as here, the evacuation was handled by the US Navy

(I have found Chinese consulat’s Haiphong north Vietnam  passport in HCM city, belong to the Chinese ‘s North Vietnam refugee to Cholon-Saigon, from Chinese overseas(Hoa Kiao) harbor Haiphong in the north flea to Hoa Kiao harbor Cholon Saigon in the South, I will write special book about them in the next times-auth (P)

(3) Not long after his return to Vietnam as prime minister, Ngo Dinh Diem organized a referendum to oust Bao Dai. Diem recieved almost all the votes, and the Bo Dai picture put down in  court’s meeting room (P)

(4) Diem consolidated his power by  defeating the Binh Xuyen, a private gang supporeted by the French’s forces clashed with the Binh Xuyen in the street of Saigon, devasting the city(P)

(5) October ,19th 1954

Original vintage photo, chinese women  with vietnamese gown , seated at the rock near beach, in the back handwritten

nKy ara’n o’ ca’p gnya 19-10-54

(Li van vi).

 

11) November 1954

 

(1)     November,11th 1954

Original small clear Vintage photo of two vietnamese soldier in the ront of statue, in the back handwritten :

“Than Tang Chi em anh, nay dte ky niem dtoi song cui bap cua em, Thang ben.Kia La Nec Toi. Nimy Le 20/11/54.

 

12) December 1954

No info

 

 

_____________________________________

4.2.3.Republic Of Vietnam(Vietnam Cong Hoa )1955-1975

_____________________________________

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­___________________________________

a. the transition Bo Dai-Diem regime in 1955

___________________________________

1)Jan 1955

  

(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army

(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were  send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang  (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan,  in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)

  (2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945,  were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.

2)February 1955

Not yet info

 

3) March  1955

(1)March.4th 1955

     After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.

     (2) Ngo Dinh diem stamps were issue in this year but the date not known, the rare stamps were the hign nominal in mint condition 35 pi and 100 pi ( I have found the common used stamps in Indonesia-auth)

(4) April 1955

    

(a) April 1955

Diem crush Binh Xuan sect. The period  end of French forces and their auxillaries to deployed South and for Vietminh  troops to regroup the north,

(5) May & (6) June 1955

No info

(7) July 1955

(a)July.11th 1955

The man of action formally extend-ed Phillipine recognation in a diplo-matic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col .Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969)

 

(b)July,1955

The late used Etat du Vietnam  thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60.

 

(c)July.16th 1955

Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States

(d) July,20th 1955

The mythology turtle (read at the Ancient Vietnam war-auth) stamped issued ( uncommen  in mint condition., I have only the used one found in Indonesia-auth)

(e) July 22th 1955

Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem

He proceeded to prove the following contentions :

(*)”That  South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”

(**) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese nto support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriedly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”

(***)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and com-munism is to indulge in fiction.

True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more profitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dan-gerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnam-ese people.

In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.

Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnamese people”

Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’

(ibid ,constantino,1969)

(8)August & (9) September 1955

No info.

(10) October 1955,

 

(a) October 11th 1955

The refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day, the rare mint high nominal value stamps 55 pi and 100 pi.

(b)October 22th,1955

The last day of Bo Dai regime

_______________________________

7) Republic Vietnam Cong Hoa (South Vietnam) 1955-1975.

_______________________________

b.The first year Diem Regime-1955

________________________________

 

(A) Ngo Dinh Regime (1955-1963)

( October 23th 1955-  1963)

(1) October 1955

(a)23th October 1955

Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum  and Bo dai official was through down to the floor. (P)

(b) October,26th  1955

(1.1)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.

(1.2) Magsasay (Phillipine president ‘s recognation of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime the opposition Recto attack  on his recognations which according to him had been done in obedience to American dictates.

 

(c) October,29th 1955

           Three days after his attack on Magsaysay for the recognition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime,  

Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.

(2) November 1955

(a) Novermber,23th 1955

The information  about Magsasay recieved Campaind fund from America had appeared in the today issue of Time Magazine.

Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.

     (The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information

 The  Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang  with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam  ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also  another type ship like  High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST  at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505. auth)

(b)Ca Ve Cu Booklet

 The small Booklet ’s Covers with red Photo illustration

Ca Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955” and in the back propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)

In This cover, handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac”

Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.

Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.

La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.

Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.

Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.

Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.

Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.

Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu  chung toi cho khoi chet chim,  thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.

Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.

Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD)

_______________________________

 Diem’s South Vietnam in1956

_________________________________

1) January 1956

(1)in 1955 and 1956, thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North. The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether  nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.

(2)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)  

2)-4) no info

5) May 1956

 

(1)May.10th 1956

The very rare  Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956. (the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where location ? please comment-auth)

(2)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections  scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.

6) -7) no info

August 1956

     (1) August 6th 1956

     The common overprint “Chaou Tu Bu Dien” or Gouverment Post Office building” stamps were issued ( I found this stamps in Indonesia).

9) September no info

10) October 1956

    

(1)  Children stamps were issued , the rare was the violet  35 pi in mint condition ( I found the used one in Indonesia , and the mint 75 cent in Ho Chi Minh city-auth)

(5) 5th October 1956

     Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN (OD)

(6) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and  their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Chinese Nobel Prize Winner Gao Xingjian’s Book :”Soul Mountain” and Painting Exhibition(Buku Karangan Penulis Tiongkok Yang memperoleh Hadiah Nobel tahun 2000)

 

 
 
 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

FRAME ONE :The Chinese Nobel Prize writter Gao Xingjian’s Book:”Soul Mountain”the amizing book

Gao Xingjian

Gao Xingjian

Soul Mountain

Chapter One

This piece is 2,600 words or about seven printed pages long

THE OLD BUS is a city reject. After shaking in it for twelve hours on the potholed highway since early morning, you arrive in this mountain county town in the South.In the bus station, which is littered with ice-block wrappers and sugar cane scraps, you stand with your backpack and a bag and look around for a while. People are getting off the bus or walking past, men humping sacks and women carrying babies. A crowd of youths, unhampered by sacks or baskets, have their hands free. They take sunflower seeds out of their pockets, toss them one at a time into their mouths and spit out the shells. With a loud crack the kernels are expertly eaten. To be leisurely and carefree is endemic to the place. They are locals and life has made them like this, they have been here for many generations and you wouldn’t need to go looking anywhere else for them. The earliest to leave the place travelled by river in black canopy boats and overland in hired carts, or by foot if they didn’t have the money. Of course at that time there were no buses and no bus stations. Nowadays, as long as they are still able to travel, they flock back home, even from the other side of the Pacific, arriving in cars or big air-conditioned coaches. The rich, the famous and the nothing in particular all hurry back because they are getting old. After all, who doesn’t love the home of their ancestors? They don’t intend to stay so they walk around looking relaxed, talking and laughing loudly, and effusing fondness and affection for the place. When friends meet they don’t just give a nod or a handshake in the meaningless ritual of city people, but rather they shout the person’s name or thump him on the back. Hugging is also common, but not for women. By the cement trough where the buses are washed, two young women hold hands as they chat. The women here have lovely voices and you can’t help taking a second look. The one with her back to you is wearing an indigo-print headscarf. This type of scarf, and how it’s tied, dates back many generations but is seldom seen these days. You find yourself walking towards them. The scarf is knotted under her chin and the two ends point up. She has a beautiful face. Her features are delicate, so is her slim body. You pass close by them. They have been holding hands all this time, both have red coarse hands and strong fingers. Both are probably recent brides back seeing relatives and friends, or visiting parents. Here, the word xlfu means one’s own daughter-in-law and using it like rustic Northerners to refer to any young married woman will immediately incur angry abuse. On the other hand, a married woman calls her own husband laogong, yet your laogong and my laogong are both used. People here speak with a unique intonation even though they are descendants of the same legendary emperor and are of the same culture and race.
You can’t explain why you’re here. It happened that you were on a train and this person mentioned a place called Lingshan. He was sitting opposite and your cup was next to his. As the train moved, the lids on the cups clattered against one another. If the lids kept on clattering or clattered and then stopped, that would have been the end of it. However, whenever you and he were about to separate the cups, the clattering would stop, and as soon as you and he looked away the clattering would start again. He and you reached out, but again the clattering stopped. The two of you laughed at the same instant, put the cups well apart, and started a conversation. You asked him where he was going.”Lingshan””What?””Lingshan, ling meaning spirit or soul, and shanmeaning mountain.”You’d been to lots of places, visited lots of famous mountains, but had never heard of this place.

Your friend opposite had closed his eyes and WAS dozing. Like anyone else, you couldn’t help being curious and naturally wanted to know which famous places you’d missed on your travels. Also, you liked doing things properly and it was annoying that there was a place you’ve never even heard of. You asked him about the location of Lingshan.

“At the source of the You River,” he said, opening his eyes.

You didn’t know this You River either, but was embarrassed about asking and gave an ambiguous nod which could have meant either “I see, thanks” or “Oh, I know the place”. This satisfied your desire for superiority, but not your curiosity. After a while you asked how to get there and the route up the mountain.

“Take the train to Wuyizhen, then go upstream by boat on the You River.”

“Whats there? Scenery? Temples? Historic sites?” you asked, trying to be casual.

“It’s all virgin wilderness.”

“Ancient forests?”

“Of course, but not just ancient forests.”

“What about Wild Men?” you said, joking.

He laughed without any sarcasm, and didn’t seem to be making fun of himself which intrigued you even more. You had to find out more about him.

“Are you an ecologist? A biologist? An anthropologist? An archaeologist?”

He shook his head each time then said, “I’m more interested in living people.”

“So you’re doing research on folk customs? You’re a sociologist? An ethnographer? An ethnologist? A journalist, perhaps? An adventurer?”

“I’m an amateur in all of these.”

The two of you started laughing.

“I’m an expert amateur in all of these!”

The laughing made you and him cheerful. He lit a cigarette and couldn’t stop talking as he told you about the wonders of Lingshan. Afterwards, at your request, he tore up his empty cigarette box and drew a map of the route up Lingshan. In the North it is already late autumn but the summer heat hasn’t completely subsided. Before sunset, it is still quite hot in the sun and sweat starts running down your back. You leave the station to have a look around. There’s nothing nearby except for the little inn across the road. It’s an old-style two-storey building with a wooden shopfront. Upstairs the floorboards creak badly but worse still is the grime on the pillow and sleeping mat. If you wanted to have a wash, you’d have to wait till it was dark to strip off and pour water over yourself in the damp and narrow courtyard. This is a stopover for the village peddlers and craftsmen.

 THE BUS TUA adalah sebuah kota menolak. Setelah gemetar di dalamnya selama dua belas jam di jalan raya berlubang-lubang sejak pagi, Anda tiba di kota ini wilayah gunung di Selatan.

Di stasiun bis, yang penuh dengan pembungkus es-blok dan skrap gula tebu, Anda berdiri dengan ransel dan tas dan melihat sekitar untuk sementara waktu. Orang-orang turun dari bus terakhir atau berjalan, laki-laki dan perempuan menjunjung karung sambil membawa bayi. Sekelompok pemuda, dihalangi oleh karung atau keranjang, memiliki tangan mereka bebas. Mereka mengambil biji bunga matahari keluar dari kantong mereka, melemparkannya  satu per satu ke dalam mulut mereka dan dimuntahkan kerang. Dengan retak keras kernel adalah ahli dimakan. Untuk menjadi santai dan riang adalah endemik untuk menempatkan. Mereka adalah penduduk setempat dan kehidupan telah membuat mereka seperti ini, mereka telah di sini selama beberapa generasi dan Anda tidak perlu pergi mencari tempat lain untuk mereka. Paling awal untuk meninggalkan tempat bepergian dengan perahu sungai di kanopi hitam dan darat di gerobak disewa, atau dengan kaki kalau mereka tidak punya uang. Tentu saja pada waktu itu tidak ada bis dan tidak ada stasiun bis. Saat ini, selama mereka masih dapat melakukan perjalanan, mereka kawanan kembali ke rumah, bahkan dari sisi lain Pasifik, tiba di mobil atau pelatih ber-AC besar. Orang kaya, yang terkenal dan tidak terburu-buru khususnya semua kembali karena mereka mulai tua. Setelah semua, yang tidak menyukai rumah nenek moyang mereka? Mereka tidak berniat untuk tinggal sehingga mereka berjalan di sekitar tampak santai, berbicara dan tertawa keras, dan curahan kecintaan dan kasih sayang untuk tempat itu. Ketika teman-teman bertemu mereka tidak hanya memberikan mengangguk atau jabat tangan dalam ritual berarti orang kota, melainkan mereka berteriak nama orang atau berdebar-debar dia di belakang. Memeluk juga umum, tetapi tidak untuk wanita. Oleh palung semen tempat bus dicuci, dua perempuan muda berpegangan tangan saat mereka bercakap-cakap(chatting). Para wanita di sini memiliki suara indah dan Anda tidak dapat membantu mengambil melihat kedua. Yang satu dengan kembali kepada Anda adalah mengenakan jilbab nila-cetak. Jenis syal, dan bagaimana hal itu diikat, tanggal kembali generasi banyak tapi jarang terlihat hari ini. Anda menemukan diri Anda berjalan ke arah mereka. syal ini rajutan di bawah dagu dan kedua ujung titik atas. Dia memiliki wajah cantik. fitur nya adalah halus, sehingga tubuh ramping. Anda melewati dekat oleh mereka. Mereka telah memegang tangan selama ini, keduanya memiliki tangan kasar merah dan jari-jari yang kuat. Keduanya mungkin pengantin baru-baru ini kembali melihat kerabat dan teman-teman, atau mengunjungi orang tua. Di sini, kata xlfu berarti satu putri-sendiri di-hukum dan menggunakannya seperti utara pedesaan untuk merujuk kepada semua wanita yang menikah muda segera akan dikenakan penyalahgunaan marah. Di sisi lain, seorang wanita yang sudah menikah panggilan Laogong suaminya sendiri, namun Laogong Anda dan Laogong saya keduanya digunakan. Orang di sini berbicara dengan intonasi yang unik meskipun mereka adalah keturunan dari kaisar legendaris yang sama dan budaya yang sama dan ras.

Anda tidak dapat menjelaskan mengapa Anda di sini. Itu terjadi bahwa Anda berada di kereta dan orang ini disebutkan tempat yang disebut Lingshan. Dia duduk berlawanan dan cangkir Anda di samping nya. Saat kereta bergerak, penutup pada cangkir berdentang terhadap satu sama lain. Jika tutup terus gemerincing atau terjatuh dan kemudian berhenti, yang seharusnya akhir itu. Namun, setiap kali Anda dan dia hendak memisahkan cangkir, derap akan berhenti, dan segera setelah Anda dan dia memalingkan muka dengan gemerincing akan mulai lagi. Dia dan Anda mengulurkan tangan, tapi sekali lagi gemerincing itu berhenti. Anda berdua tertawa pada saat yang sama, baik meletakkan cangkir terpisah, dan mulai percakapan. Anda bertanya padanya di mana ia akan pergi.

“Lingshan”

“Apa?”

“Lingshan, ling berarti roh atau jiwa, dan gunung yang berarti shan.”

Kau pernah ke banyak tempat, mengunjungi banyak gunung terkenal, tetapi belum pernah mendengar tentang tempat ini.

berlawanan Teman Anda telah menutup matanya dan WS tertidur. Seperti orang lain, Anda tidak bisa menahan rasa penasaran dan ingin tahu yang terkenal dengan tempat-tempat kau ketinggalan pada perjalanan anda. Juga, Anda suka melakukan hal-hal baik dan itu menjengkelkan bahwa ada tempat yang belum pernah dengar. Anda bertanya tentang lokasi Lingshan.

“Pada sumber Anda Sungai,” katanya, membuka matanya.

Kau tidak tahu ini Anda Sungai baik, tapi merasa malu tentang meminta dan memberikan mengangguk ambigu yang bisa berarti baik “Saya melihat, terima kasih” atau “Oh, aku tahu tempat”. Puas ini keinginan Anda untuk keunggulan, tetapi tidak rasa ingin tahu Anda. Setelah beberapa saat Anda bertanya bagaimana untuk sampai ke sana dan rute atas gunung.

“Naik kereta api ke Wuyizhen, kemudian pergi hulu dengan perahu di Sungai Anda.”

“Pemandangan apa yang ada?? Candi? Situs Bersejarah?” Anda bertanya, mencoba untuk bersikap santai.

“Ini semua padang belantara perawan.”

“Kuno hutan?”

“Tentu saja, tetapi bukan hanya kuno hutan.”

“Bagaimana Liar Pria?” Anda berkata, bercanda.

Dia tertawa tanpa sarkasme apapun, dan tampaknya tidak akan membuat olok dirinya sendiri yang tertarik Anda bahkan lebih. Anda harus mencari tahu lebih banyak tentang dia.

“Apakah Anda seorang ahli ekologi biologi A?? Antropolog An? Arkeolog An?”

Dia menggeleng setiap kali lalu berkata, “Saya lebih tertarik pada kehidupan orang.”

“Jadi kau melakukan penelitian tentang adat rakyat Kau? Sosiolog? Etnograf An? Etnolog An? Jurnalis, mungkin? Petualang An?”

“Aku seorang amatir dalam semua.”

Anda berdua mulai tertawa.

“Saya ahli amatir dalam semua ini!”

The tertawa membuat Anda dan dia ceria. Dia menyalakan rokok dan tidak dapat berhenti berbicara ketika ia memberitahu Anda tentang keajaiban Lingshan. Setelah itu, atas permintaan Anda, ia merobek kotak rokok kosong dan menggambar peta rute Facebook Lingshan. Di Utara itu sudah akhir musim gugur namun musim panas belum sepenuhnya surut. Sebelum matahari terbenam, masih cukup panas di bawah sinar matahari dan keringat mulai membasahi punggung. Anda meninggalkan stasiun untuk melihat-lihat. Tidak ada di dekatnya kecuali untuk penginapan kecil di seberang jalan. Ini sebuah bangunan dua lantai gaya lama dengan shopfront kayu. Di lantai atas papan lantai berderit buruk tapi lebih buruk masih merupakan kotoran di atas bantal dan tikar tidur. Jika Anda ingin memiliki mencuci, Anda harus menunggu sampai hari sudah gelap untuk strip off dan menuangkan air di atas diri Anda di halaman lembab dan sempit. Ini adalah persinggahan bagi pedagang asongan desa dan pengrajin.

 
 

2.Gao Xingjian’s  poem:

1.you can remember the words of the ditty:

In moonlight thick as soup , I ride out to burn incense. For Luo Dajie who burnt to death.For Dou Sanniang who died in a rage.Sanniang picked beans.but the pods were empty,she married master Ji. but master Ji was short.So she married  a crab, the crab crossed a ditch.trod on an cel.The eel complained, it complained to a monk.The monk said a prayer, a prayer to Guanyin,So Guanyin pissed,The piss hit my son,his belly hurt.So I got an exorcist to dance.The dance didn’t work.But still cost heaps of money

Anda dapat mengingat kata-kata lagu pendek ini:
Dalam cahaya bulan setebal sup, aku naik keluar untuk membakar dupa. Untuk Luo Dajie yang dibakar untuk kematian.Untuk  Dou Sanniang yang meninggal dalam sebuah rage.Sanniang mengambil kacang hijau.Tetapi polongnya kosong, Ia menikah dengan master Ji. tapi master Ji pendek.So ia menikah kepiting, kepiting menyeberangi ditch.trod pada belut cel.Mengeluh, mengeluh kepada seorang biarawan pendeta.Pendeta  mengucapkan doa, doa untuk Guanyin, Jadi Guanyin marah dan kencing, kencingnya  mengenai  anak saya.Sehingga  perutnya cedera, sehingga saya menari untuk  mengusir setan .Tarian tersebut tidak berhasil .Tetapi  masih membutuhkan biaya setumpukan uang

2.I can see the people ,hear their voices, the sound of a gong and the  beat of drum.however outside the windows is only the sound of the  mountain and the lapping of water

There are three hundreed and sixty pole loads of songs,which load do you carry on your pole?There  are thirty -six thousand books of songs,Which book do you carry in your hand?Address me as master singer for I know,The first book is the script born within us, I understand  when I hear.The amster singer is an expert.to know the principle of Earth and Heaven.I venture to ask him. In which month of which year was song born? On which day of which month was song born?

Aku bisa melihat orang-orang, mendengar suara mereka, suara gong dan irama genderang .Kendatipun diluar jendela hanya suara gunung dan memukul-mukul air
Ada tiga ratus dan beban tiang enam puluh lagu, dengan beban yang Anda melanjutkan tiang Anda? Ada tiga puluh enam ribu buku lagu, buku yang Anda bawa di tangan Anda? Alamat saya sebagai penyanyi master karena aku tahu, pertama buku adalah script lahir dalam diri kita, aku memahami ketika aku dengar.The penyanyi master adalah sebuah expert.Untuk  mengetahui prinsip Bumi dan usaha Surga.Saya  bertanya padanya. Di mana bulan yang tahun lagu ini lahir? Pada hari yang bulan apa lagu ini  lahir ?

Frame Two :

The Gao xingjian Paintings

1. Museo Wurth La Rioja hosts ‘After the Flood’ an Exhibition by Gao Xingjian

  1.  

    artwork: Gao Xingjian - Lightning, 2006 - Ink on canvas, 200 x 300 cm. - Courtesy of  Museo Wurth La Rioja 

    AGONCILLO-LA RIOJA, SPAIN – Museo Wurth La Rioja presents the exhibition ‘After the Flood’, which brings together the work by the prestigious Chinese artist Gao Xingjian (Ganzhou, China, 1940), 2000 Nobel Prize in Literature. A selection of 80 recently created artworks, including ink paintings on canvas and paper. Regarded as one of the most important Chinese writers at present, Gao Xingjian still is not well known as a painter in Spain, although he is recognized by the international art scene and his oeuvre was previously exhibited at the Reina Sofia Museum (Madrid, 2002). His work has been presented in several solo and group exhibitions in Europe, Asia and the United States, and is included in important art collections around the world

    Gao’s art emerges from an unique fusion of Oriental and Western cultures. His painting is characterized by the dominant use of traditional Chinese means –such as rice paper, Chinese ink and brushes-, but his technique reveals to be thoroughly modern. Through his comprehensive study of modern Western art, Gao has finely appreciated the importance given to the physical act of painting, the exploration on pictorial materiality, and specially, the autonomous status of painting.

    artwork: Gao Xingjian, The Auspices, 2006 192 x 200 cm. -  Ink on canvasThe exhibition After the Flood comprises large and medium-scale canvases and works on rice paper rendered in Chinese ink, carried out in 2008 and is fully representative of Gao’s style. The artworks exude a fluid technique and spontaneous overflow, with lightly brushstrokes, by means of which he explores the painterly possibilities of ink. White and black, light and shadow, achieve a great variety of tonalities, giving a sensual and poetic effect full of texture. The pictures fluctuate between figurative and abstract painting, depicting images that in a broader sense remind of landscapes and inner worlds, as well as cosmic processes inspired by the artists’ reflections on the complexity of the human existence.

    Gao Xingjian was born in 1940, in the Chinese province of Jianxi. Novelist, dramatist, theatre director, literary critic, stage director and painter, he studied French literature, worked as translator and, later, as scriptwriter at the Theatre of Popular Art in Beijing. The theatrical debut of the plays Signal Alarm (1982) and Bus Stop (1983) was condemned by the Chinese authorities and, in 1986, his work was definitely banned. A year later, Gao went into exile in Paris, where he has lived since then, and became French citizen in 1998. In France, he published Soul Mountain (1990), one of his most famous and acclaimed novels. Amongst other International awards, in 2000 Gao Xingjian received the Nobel Prize in Literature and was also named Chevalier de l’Ordre de la Légion d’ Honneur by the President of the Republic of France.

2.Gao Xinjian ‘s Painting :”Lonely atmospheric and melancholic beauty”

 


.

 3.Gao Xingjian Painting:”La Dispersion”

 

  Gao Xingjian, La Dispersion

TITLE:  La Dispersion
ARTIST:  Gao Xingjian
WORK DATE:  2008
CATEGORY:  Paintings
MATERIALS:  Ink on canvas
SIZE:  h: 60 x w: 81 cm / h: 23.6 x w: 31.9 in
REGION:  Chinese
STYLE:  Contemporary (ca. 1945-present)
   
GALLERY:  +34 93 487 6759    Send Email
ONLINE CATALOGUE(S):  Gao Xingjian ‘Después del diluvio’  Oct 23 – Dec 31, 2008
 
 

 

Frame Three:

The Gao Xingjian Profile During Nobel Prize Award Ceremony.

 

Gao Xingjian

The Nobel Prize in Literature

 
Gao Xingjian and His Majesty the King
Gao Xingjian receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000.

 

Gao Xingjian
Gao Xingjian after receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty the King at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000.

 

Award Ceremony
The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000. Gao Xingjian sits in the middle of the front row.

 

Nobel Laureate in Literature Gao Xingjian at the table of
Gao Xingjian at the table of honour at the Nobel Banquet at the Stockholm City Hall, 10 December 2000.

FRAME FOUR :

The Biography of Chinese Noble Prized Literature Gao Xingjian

 
 
 
 
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Gao.
Gao Xingjian
Born January 4, 1940 (1940-01-04) (age 71)
Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China
Occupation novelist, playwright, critic, translator, screenwriter, director, painter
Citizenship China (1949-1996)
France (since 1997)
Alma mater Beijing Foreign Studies University
Period since 1982
Notable award(s) Nobel Prize in Literature
2000

Gao Xingjian (Chinese: 高行健; pinyin: Gāo Xíngjiàn; Wade–Giles: Kao Hsing-chien, pronounced [kɑ́ʊ ɕǐŋtɕjɛ̂n]; born January 4, 1940) is a Chinese-born novelist, playwright, critic, and painter. An émigré to France since 1987, Gao was granted French citizenship in 1997. He is a noted translator (particularly of Samuel Beckett and Eugène Ionesco), screenwriter, stage director, and a celebrated painter.

Gao was the recipient of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Literature “for an œuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”.[1] Gao’s drama is considered to be fundamentally absurdist in nature and avant-garde in his native China. His prose works tend to be less celebrated in China but are highly regarded elsewhere in Europe and the West. He once burnt a suitcase packed with manuscripts during the Cultural Revolution to avoid persecution.[2]

Contents

 

Life

Gao’s original home town is Taizhou, Jiangsu. Born in Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China, Gao has been a French citizen since 1997. In 1992 he was awarded the Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government.

Early years in Jiangxi and Jiangsu

Gao’s father was a clerk in the Bank of China, and his mother was a member of the Young Men’s Christian Association. His mother was once a playactress of Anti-Japanese Theatre during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Under his mother’s influence, Gao enjoyed painting, writing and theatre very much when he was a little boy. During his middle school years, he read lots of literature translated from the West, and he studied sketching, ink and wash painting, oil painting and clay sculpture under the guidance of painter Yun Zongying (simplified Chinese: 郓宗嬴; traditional Chinese: 鄆宗嬴; pinyin: Yùn Zōngyíng).

In 1950, his family moved to Nanjing, the capital city of Jiangsu Province. In 1952, Gao entered the Nanjing Number 10 Middle School (南京市 第十 中学; later renamed Jinling High School (zh:金陵中学) which was the Middle School attached to Nanjing University.

Years in Beijing and Anhui

In 1957 Gao graduated, and, following his mother’s advice, chose Beijing Foreign Studies University (BFSU, 北京外国语大学) instead of the Central Academy of Fine Arts (中央美术学院), although he was thought to be talented in art.

In 1962 Gao graduated from the Department of French, BFSU, and then entered the Chinese International Bookstore (中国国际书店), where he became a professional translator. During the 1970s, because of the Down to the Countryside Movement, he went to and stayed in the countryside and did farm labour in Anhui Province. He taught as a Chinese teacher in Gangkou Middle School (港口中学), Ningguo Xian (宁国县), Anhui Province for a short time. In 1975, he was allowed to go back to Beijing and became the group leader of French translation for the magazine Construction in China (《中国建设》).

In 1977 Gao worked for the Committee of Foreign Relationship, Chinese Association of Writers (中国作家协会对外联络委员会). In May 1979, he visited Paris with Chinese writers including Ba Jin (巴金), and served as a French-Chinese translator in the group. In 1980, Gao became a screenwriter and playwright for the Beijing People’s Art Theatre (北京人民艺术剧院).

Gao is known as a pioneer of absurdist drama in China, where Signal Alarm (《绝对信号》, 1982) and Bus Stop (《车站》, 1983) were produced during his term as resident playwright at the Beijing People’s Art Theatre from 1981 to 1987. Influenced by European theatrical models, it gained him a reputation as an avant-garde writer. His other plays, The Primitive (1985) and The Other Shore (《彼岸》, 1986), all openly criticised the government’s state policies.

In 1986 Gao was misdiagnosed with lung cancer, and he began a 10-month trek along the Yangtze, which resulted in his novel Soul Mountain (《灵山》). The part-memoir, part-novel, first published in Taiwan in 1989, mixes literary genres and utilizes shifting narrative voices. It has been specially cited by the Swedish Nobel committee as “one of those singular literary creations that seem impossible to compare with anything but themselves.” The book details his travels from Sichuan province to the coast, and life among Chinese minorities such as the Qiang, Miao, and Yi peoples on the fringes of Han Chinese civilization.

Years in Europe and Paris

By 1987, Gao had shifted to Bagnolet, a city adjacent to Paris, France. The political Fugitives (1989), which makes reference to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, resulted in all his works being banned from performance in China.

Works

Selected works:

Dramas and performances

  • 《绝对信号》 (Signal Alarm, 1982)
    • 1982, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1992, in Taiwan
  • 《车站》 (Bus Stop, 1983)
    • 1983, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1984, in Yugoslavia
    • 1986, in Hong Kong
    • 1988, in Britain
    • 1992, in Austria
    • 1999, in Japan
  • 《野人》 (Wild Men, “Savages”, 1985)
    • 1985, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1988, in Hamburg, Germany
    • 1990, in Hong Kong
  • 《彼岸》 (The Other Shore, 1986)
  • 《躲雨》 (Shelter the Rain)
    • 1981, in Sweden
  • 《冥城》 (Dark City)
    • 1988, in Hong Kong
  • 《声声慢变奏》 (Transition of Sheng-Sheng-Man)
    • 1989, in United States
  • 《逃亡》 (Escape)
    • 1990, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1990, in Sweden
    • 1992, in Germany, Poland
    • 1994, in France
    • 1997, in Japan, Africa
  • 《生死界》 (Death Sector / Between Life and Death)
    • 1991, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1992, in France
    • 1994, in Sydney, Italy
    • 1996, in Poland
    • 1996, in US
  • 《山海经传》 (A Tale of Shan Hai Jing)
    • 1992, published by Hong Kong Tian & Di Book Press (香港天地图书公司)
  • 《对话与反诘》 (Dialogue & Rhetorical / Dialogue and Rebuttal)
    • 1992, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1992, in Vienna
    • 1995, 1999, in Paris
  • 《周末四重奏》 (Weekends Quartet / Weekend Quartet)
    • 1999, published by Hong Kong New Century Press (香港新世纪出版社)
  • 《夜游神》 (Nighthawk / Nocturnal Wanderer)
    • 1999, in France
  • 《八月雪》 (Snow in August)
    • 2000, published by Taiwan Lianjing Press (台湾联经出版社)
    • 19 Dec 2002, in Taipei
  • 《高行健戏剧集》 (Collection)
  • 《高行健戏剧六种》 (Collection, 1995, published by Taiwan Dijiao Press (台湾帝教出版社))
  • 《行路难》 (Xinglunan)
  • 《喀巴拉山》 (Mountain Kebala)
  • 《独白》 (Soliloquy)

Fiction

  • 《寒夜的星辰》 (“Constellation in a Cold Night”, 1979)
  • 《有只鸽子叫红唇儿》 (“Such a Pigeon called Red Lips”, 1984) – a collection of novellas
  • 《给我老爷买鱼竿》 (Buying a Fishing Rod for My Grandfather, 1986–1990) – a short story collection
  • 《灵山》 (Soul Mountain, 1989)
  • 《一个人的圣经》 (One Man’s Bible, 1998)

Poem

While being forced to work as a peasant – a form of ‘education’ under the Cultural Revolution – in the 1970s, Gao Xingjian produced many plays, short stories, poems and critical pieces that he had eventually to burn to avoid the consequences of his dissident literature being discovered.[3] Of the work he produced subsequently, he published no collections of poetry, being known more widely for his drama, fiction and essays. However, one short poem exists that represents a distinctively modern style akin to his other writings:

天葬台
宰了 / 割了 / 烂捣碎了 / 燃一柱香 / 打一声呼哨 / 来了 / 就去了 / 来去都干干净净
Sky Burial
Cut / Scalped / Pounded into pieces / Light an incense / Blow the whistle / Come / Gone / Out and out

(13 April 1986, Beijing)[4]

Other texts

  • 《巴金在巴黎》 (Ba Jin in Paris, 1979, essay)
  • 《现代小说技巧初探》 (“A Preliminary Examination of Modern Fictional Techniques”, 1981)
  • 《谈小说观和小说技巧》 (1983)
  • 《没有主义》 (Without -isms, translated by W. Lau, D. Sauviat & M. Williams // Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia. Vols 27 & 28, 1995–96
  • 《对一种现代戏剧的追求》 (1988, published by China Drama Press) (中国戏剧出版社))
  • 《高行健·2000年文库——当代中国文库精读》 (1999, published by Hong Kong Mingpao Press) (香港明报出版社)

Paintings

Gao is a renowned painter, especially for his ink and wash painting. His exhibitions have included:

  • Le goût de l’encre, Paris, Hazan 2002
  • Return to Painting, New York, Perennial 2002
  • “无我之境·有我之境”, Singapore, 17 Nov 2005 – 7 Feb 2006
  • The End of the World, Germany, 29 Mar – 27 May 2007

Works in English

  • Buying a Fishing Rod for my Grandfather, short stories, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, London, 2004, ISBN 0-00-717038-6
  • Soul Mountain, novel, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, London, 2001, ISBN 0-00-711923-2
  • One Man’s Bible, novel, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, ISBN 0-06-621132-8
  • The Other Shore, plays, trans. G. Fong, Chinese University Press, ISBN 962-201-862-9
  • The Other Side, play, trans. Jo Riley, in An Oxford Anthology of Contemporary Chinese Drama, 1997, ISBN 0-19-586880-3
  • Silhouette/Shadow: The Cinematic Art of Gao Xingjian, film/images/poetry, ed. Fiona Sze-Lorrain, Contours, Paris, ISBN 978-981-05-9207-3

Reception

Official response from mainland China

The Premier Zhu Rongji delivered a congratulatory message to Gao when interviewed by the Hong Kong newspaper East Daily (《东方日报》):

  • Q.: What’s your comment on Gao’s winning Nobel Prize ?
  • A.: I am very happy that works written in Chinese can win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Chinese characters have a history of several thousand years, and Chinese language has an infinite charm, (I) believe that there will be Chinese works winning Nobel Prizes again in the future. Although it’s a pity that the winner this time is a French citizen instead of Chinese, I still would like to send my congratulations both to the winner and the French Department of Culture. (Original words: 我很高兴用汉语写作的文学作品获诺贝尔文学奖。汉字有几千年的历史,汉语有无穷的魅力,相信今后还会有汉语或华语作品获奖。很遗憾这次获奖的是法国人不是中国人,但我还是要向获奖者和法国文化部表示祝贺。)

Comments from Chinese writers

Gao’s work has led to fierce discussion among Chinese writers, both positive and negative.

Many Chinese writers[who?] comment that Gao’s “Chinoiserie”, or translatable works, have opened a new approach for Chinese modern literature to the Swedish Academy, and that his winning the Nobel Prize in its 100th anniversary year is a happy occasion for Chinese literature.

In his article on Gao in the June 2008 issue of Muse, a now-defunct Hong Kong magazine, Leo Lee Ou-fan (李歐梵) praises the use of Chinese language in Soul Mountain: ‘Whether it works or not, it is a rich fictional language filled with vernacular speeches and elegant 文言 (classical) formulations as well as dialects, thus constituting a “heteroglossic” tapestry of sounds and rhythms that can indeed be read aloud (as Gao himself has done in his public readings).’[5]

Before 2000, a dozen Chinese writers and scholars already predicted Gao’s winning the Nobel Prize for Literature, including Hu Yaoheng (Chinese:胡耀恒) [6] Pan Jun (潘军)[7] as early as 1999. Chinese literature (characters, language, etc.) has heavily influenced East Asian literature, and Chinese language elements are widely used in several languages including Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese. In addition, with 20th-century Japanese writers having already won the Prize, many Chinese writers had predicted before 2000 that soon there would be a Literature winner with a Chinese background.

 Honors

 Trivia

  • Gao Xingjian’s Swedish translator Göran Malmqvist, is a member of the Swedish Academy and was responsible for the translation to Swedish for Nobel Prize consideration. Ten days before the award decision was made public, Gao Xingjian changed his Swedish publisher (from Forum to Atlantis), but Göran Malmqvist has denied leaking information about the award [1].
  • Gao is one of the two Nobel laureates to give an Nobel acceptance speech in Chinese so far (after Samuel C. C. Ting in 1976).
  • Gao has been the center of an artistic piece of video art. The art exhibit is entitled ‘Voom’ and was presented at the University of Iowa art museum in March 2008.

References

  1. ^ “The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000”. Nobelprize. October 7, 2010. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2000/. Retrieved October 7, 2010. 
  2. ^ Alex Duval Smith (2005-10-14). “A Nobel Calling: 100 Years of Controversy”. The Independent (news.independent.co.uk). http://news.independent.co.uk/europe/article319509.ece. Retrieved 2008-04-26. “2000: During the Cultural Revolution, Xingjian burnt a whole suitcase full of manuscripts to avoid punishment. Sent to a re-education camp where he was brutally treated, he continued to live in China and remained a party member. Only when L’autre Rive (The Other Shore) was banned in 1987 did he leave his country of birth and apply for asylum in France” 
  3. ^ Mabel Lee, ‘Nobel Laureate 2000 Gao Xingjian and his Novel Soul Mountain’ in CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture: A WWWeb Journal, September, 2003, Accessed 14 August 2007
  4. ^ Published on the website Ba Huang’s Art Studio
  5. ^ Lee, Leo Ou-fan (6 2008). “The happy exile”. Muse Magazine (17): 93. 
  6. ^ http://culture.163.com/edit/001013/001013_42352.html
  7. ^ http://news.21cn.com/today/2006/09/14/2973393.shtml

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

 

The Article in Rare German Book 1895:” The Toumbuluh tribe in Minahasa Nort Celebes.”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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Showcase:

The Article in Rare German Book 1895 :

Alte Gebrauche Bei Hetrathen,Geburt und Sterberfallen Bei Dem TOUMBULUH STAMM In Der Minahasa North Celebes. von Dr JGF Riedel.

Old Used For Hetrathen, birth and Sterberfallen In The TOUMBULUH Minahasa tribe in the North Celebes

 

1. True padi the crop, the most appropriate time for the Anknupfen a more or less intimate acquaintance will agree the young people to live together or umu gewonhnlich as they print their own manner, Heerdgenossen to be.
 After the sign of assent, besttehend of finely cut tobacco and a worn garment, each entrusted with, and subordinate to the Jungling its proposal to the decision taking his parents and a’testen Blutsverwandtten.2. Part of a Maltese of red, and black gel barrels( Tenun IKat).
 
3.After have older you Sirih-chewed pinang, is the girl in Patola Tucher dressed and KELANA behangt, like those of WALIAN ( 
religious leaders)Plate X Fig 1
 
 
 
 from the for them some room to light and gives the young Ling implied taste of a vase Pinang, Sirih, lime and tobacco BEITEN to hear, while they at the same.4.Hiernach eat, although this is not a constraint, the young people, even with the most common fig WALIAN, Plate X 25.After distribute the food to the young Verwandtten compact little presents and provides the Walian-sacrifice for the wewene Empungs, from rice, a boiled rice with a new tub Plate X Fig 3 as a base6.When  they do in the middle of the night one of the main pillars of the house has settled law, waving to the estate Walians, Plate X Fig 2 and Walian-wewene the jumgen sounds close to him, glad she stand before the victim and let them hold both the ends of the WOKA and the hands of the two Walian.
 This SILANAN Genant, AFFIRMING the ceremony is for the beidderseitingen SIRIH_PINANG.
 
After the WALIAN gave the signal for silence, he speaks in a loud voice:
 “O Walians, your Empungs, Beschirmgeister ours, come down here and eat the rice and meat that you will be sacrificed by this Heerdgenossen; their prayer a high old and happy , stay away from all evil ihmen, tiredness and bad dream same things we ask of you also empungs that inhabit the house, our Empung their Kalahwakan to you, Kasosoran, Kasedukan Karondoran and may stop. empung her in the sky and on ground are, let these young heerdgenossen live a long and happy, have o walian. Walians both are then as the evidence of young people considered to have voluntarily agreed about heerdgenossen gegenseiting to be,
 
  

1. Wahren der pafi-Ernte, der passendsten Zeit fur das Anknupfen einer mehr oder minder intimen Bekanntschaft, verabreden die jungen Leute gewonhnlich um zusammenzuwohnen oder umu,wie sie es eigennartig ausdrucken,Heerdgenossen zu werden. Nachdem das Zeichen der Zustimmung,besttehend aus feingeschnittenem Tabak und einem abgetragenen Kleidungsstuck,einander anvertraut ist, unterwirft der Jungling sein Vorhaben der Beschlussnahme seiner Eltern und a’testen Blutsverwandtten.

2. Theil einer Malte von roth,gel und schwarzer Fasser.

3.Nachdem die alteren ihr Sirih-pinang gekaut haben,kommt das Madchen, in PATOLA Tucher gekleidet und mit KDELANA behangt,gleich denen der WALIAN_WEWENE, Tafel X Fig 1 aus dem fur sie bestimmten Gemach zum Vorschein und bietet dem Jungling stillschweigend aus einem geschmackvoll hearbeiten Gefass Pinang,Sirih,Kalk und Tabak an,wahrend sie zu gleicher.

4.Hiernach essen,obgleich dies kein ZWANG ist, die jungen Leute,auch wohl gemeinschaftlich mit dem WALIAN ,Tafel X fig 2.

5.Nach dem Essen vertheilen die Verwandtten des Junglings kleine Geschenke und bereit die Walian-wewene  das Opfer fur die Empungs,aus Reis,einem gekochten mit einer neuen Reiswanne Tafel X Fig 3. als Unterlage

6.Wenn sie dies in dder Mitte des Hauses nacht einem der Hauptpfeiler niedergesetz hat,winkt einer der anwesen Walians,Tafel X fig 2. und die Walian-wewene die jumgen Laute zu sich heran,heissen sie vor dem Opfer stehn und lassen sie zugleich die Enden der WOKA und die Hande der beiden Walian festhalten. Diese< SILANAN genante,Feierlichkeit dient zur Bekraftigung des beidderseitingen des SIRIH_PINANG. Nachdem der WZLIAN das Zeichen zum Schweigen gegeben hat, spricht er mit erhobener Stimme :” O Walians,Ihr Empungs,Beschirmgeister der unseren,kommt hienieden und esst vom Reis und Fleische dass Euch durch diese Heerdgenossen geopfert wird; gebet ihnen ein hohes alter und gluck,haltet fern von ihmen alle uebel, Mudigkeit und schlecte Traume,dasselbige fragen wir auch von auch ihr empungs, die dieses haus bewohnen, ihe empung die ihr euch zu kalahwakan,kasosoran,kasedukan und karondoran aufhaltet. ihr empung die im im himmel und auf erden seid,lasset diese jungen heerdgenossen ein langes leben und gluck haben, o walian . beide wAlians werden danach als die zeugen der jungen leute betrachtet,die freiwillig ubereingekommen sind um gegenseiting heerdgenossen zu werden,

Ethnic group of Minahasa Tribes

1. Malesung (Min Nan Tou)


 
Ethnic group Minahasa is the majority tribe who inhabited the city of Manado, the customary law is an area of Minahasa tribe or also known as “Malesung”. Own origins from the opinion of a linguist and the Ancient Chinese characters, called Tandean in 1997 came to examine the “Watu Pinawetengan” through the words “Min Nan Tou” contained in the rock, he reveals, tou Minahasa is derived from the land of Mongolia’s King Ming King who came to immigrate to Minahasa. Meaning of Min Nan Tou are “derived from the island’s  King Ming

2.Related Minahasa People Terms

Minahasa

Minahasa

The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia (in past called by Portuguese as North Selebes). The Minahasa speak Minahasan languages and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language. (read more)

Tompaso

Tompaso is a highland subdistrict located about 45 km southwest of Manado in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It also refers to a sub-tribe as part of larger Tontemboan tribe in the Minahasa ethnic group.

According to history, Tompaso is believed to be the origin of Minahasa people before they spread all over the land of Minahasa. One of its villages, Pinabetengan, inherited a megalithic stone about 4 m long and 2 m high tagged with full of carved pictures. The pictures portray some kind of lifetime covenant of how Minahasans were supposed to divide their territory and live peacefully.

Sam Ratulangi

Dr. Gerungan Saul Samuel Yacob Ratulangi or Ratu Langie (November 5, 1890 – June 30, 1949), usually known as Sam Ratulangi, was a Minahasa politician, journalist and teacher from North Sulawesi, Indonesia. His famous saying in the Tondano language ‘Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou’ is translated as ‘man lives to educate others’.

3. Minahasa Kabasan Dance

Kabasaran Dance, a War Dance, traditional dance Minahasa – North Sulawesi, which tells how to maintain soil Minahasa Minahasa tribe from enemies who want to occupy it. Dance Kabasaran or this war dance demonstrated the Sword Shield and Spear. This Kabasaran dance danced for special occasions such as reception room or in different events and cultural tourism.

Kabasaran Dance 2 Kabasaran Dance

Kabasaran Dance 1 Kabasaran Dance

Dancing with the dress all in red, bulging eyes, fierce face, accompanied by drums, carrying swords and sharp spears, making dance kabasaran very different from other dances in Indonesia where they spit smile with graceful movements.

This dance is a dance traditional Minahasa military, who are appointed from the said; Wasal, which means rooster comb is cut so that the chicken becomes more fierce in battle.

This dance is accompanied by the sound of drums and / or a small gong. Percussion instruments like Gong, Tambour or Kolintang called “Pa ‘Wasalen” and the dancers called Kawasalan, which means the dance by imitating the movements of two roosters who are fighting.

Kawasalan word was later developed into Kabasaran which is a combination of two words “ni Kawasal Sarian” “Kawasal” means to accompany and follow the movements of dance, while “Sarian” is a war leader who led traditional Minahasa military dance. Manado Malay language development and then change the letter “W” to “B” so that the word was changed to Kabasaran, which really does not have any connection with the word “great” in Indonesian, but eventually became the dance penjemput for the dignitary-magnifying.

In ancient times the dancers Kabasaran, just as a dancer in traditional ceremonies. However, in their daily life they were farmers. If Minahasa was in a state of war, then the dancers kabasaran be Waranei (warrior). The basic form of this dance is nine sword (santi) or nine spear (wengkouw) with horses step 4 / 4 which consists of two steps to the left, and two steps to the right.

Each dancer kabasaran have a sharp weapon which is the legacy of his old ancestors, because the dancers are dancers who kabasaran hereditary. This dance is generally composed of three parts (in fact there are more than three, only now they are very rarely done). Round – round consists of:

  • 1. Cakalele, which comes from the word “saka” which means fight, and “catfish” means chasing jump – jump. This round was once danced when the soldiers would go to war or returning from war. Or, this round showed great ferocity to fight on the guest, to give a sense of security on the great guest who came to visit us that even Satan the great fear of disturbing guest dancer escort Kabasaran.
  • 2. The second act is called Kumoyak, which comes from the word “torn” means, swung his sharp sword or spear gun down ride, back and forth to calm himself from the sense of anger when fighting. The word “tear” itself can mean persuading the spirit of the enemy or opponent who has been killed in battle.
  • 3. Lalaya’an. In this section the dancers dance free and delighted to escape from feeling angry like dancing “Lionda” by hand dipinggang and other dances of delight. This whole dance is based on cue or command of the leader of a dance called “Tumu-tuzuk” (Tombulu) or “Sarian” (Tonsea). Cue given in the language of sub-ethnic Tombulu, Tonsea, Tondano, Totemboan, Ratahan, Tombatu and Bantik. In this dance, all dancers must be allowed to express Garang without a smile, except at half lalayaan, where the dancers are allowed to spit cheerful smile.

Clothing used in this dance is made of woven fabric and Minahasa original fabric “Patola”, ie red woven fabric of Tombulu and not available in other areas in Minahasa, as written in the book Alfoersche Legenden in writing by the PN. Wilken 1830, where kabasaran Minahasa has basic wear pants and red shirt, then wrapped bond woven fabric. In this case each sub-ethnic Minahasa had a special way of weaving cloth. Special Kabasaran of Remboken and Pareipei, they are more like fashion instead of war and ceremonial clothing, namely by means of moss-lichen trees as camouflage war.

It is unfortunate that since the 1950s, native woven cloth began to disappear so kabasaran Minahasa eventually wear woven cloth Kalimantan and East because of the shape, color and motif resembled Minahasa woven fabrics such as: Kokerah, Tinonton, Pasolongan, Bentenen. Kabasaran hats made of native cloth headband yag ornate rooster feathers, bird feathers and bird Taong Paradise. There is also a flower decoration or Tiwoho canoes. Other decorative ornaments used are “lei-lei” necklaces or neck, “wongkur” cover calf foot, “rerenge’en” or the bells bells (bells made of brass).

In the past the Dutch colonial era, there are local laws regarding Kabasaran contained in the Government Gazette No. 104 B, in 1859 which stipulates that

1. Funeral ceremony the leaders of the country (Law Basar, Kadua Law, Old Law) and public figures, obtained under guard Kabasaran. Also on the country’s leaders a family wedding.
2. Customary celebrations, ceremonies pick up great guest dignitaries Dutch Resident, controller by Kabasaran.
3. Kabasaran assigned as “Opas” (village police).
4. A Kabasaran served to maintain the security checkpoint for 24 days a year.

Kabasaran which has been designated as the village policeman in the Government Gazette of the above, finally forced by the Dutch should be abolished in 1901 because at that time there are 28 prisoners who escaped from prison Manado. To recapture all the prisoners who escaped them, the Dutch police ordered the village, in this case Kabasaran, to arrest those prisoners. But the unfortunate fate of the prisoners, because they were not taken alive but all of them were killed, chopped up by Kabasaran. The Kabasaran at that time located in the village organizations led by the Old Law. Each country or village had ten Kabasaran one of them was the leader of the team is called “Pa’impulu’an ne Kabasaran”. With status as an employee of the village, they would receive benefits in the form of rice, white sugar, and cloth.

It was horrible the Kabasaran at the time, because although only paid with rice, white sugar, and cloth, they were able to slaughter 28 people who all died with terrible injuries.

4. mysteri Kiowa tribe

 
 


Si-sisil-en
e Apo-Apo’

im Banua
Ka-senduk-an
K I O W A

“Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”So-Petor!Preparation of “Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa” (Si-en-sisil e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa) is, based on a chain stories, narrated from the mouth kemulut hereditary among ethnic Kiowa, which is still stored or recorded in the public memory of Ka-Senduk KiowaPu-purengkey-en (a chain of mouth stories kemulut similar legend), the collected and edited and summarized, then poured in the form of a written form of stories, written as it is by the editors / authors, based on oral stories from the speakers, as well as findings findings and the formulation of “Meeting the public culture of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa”, which is supported by the evidence in the form of heritage objects and inscriptions and archaeological sites that were around the Ka-Senduk Wanua of Kiowa (Kiawa), which is a witness life history of the past that can provide inspiration to reveal the veil of mystery, which pervade the “Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”.Inputs from various parties who are credible sources, particularly the legend and legacy of stories and cultural history of Ka-Senduk communities of Kiowa spoken by “Tumu-said Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian”, is an extremely literature precious and high value for the preparation of this paper (paper is not based on written literature diperpustakaan, therefore there is no official papers which tell of the legend or pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa).The late-Tumu said Ute ‘Rakian is the last elderly speakers are still to hear directly from the Pa-ma’tu’an and the Wali’an and Tona’as, and Te-keep-an and the Ki’i-ki’i- im about Banua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa who lived with the order of life and governance-how as well as rules and the rules of life Ka-Senduk’s, according to the tradition of the elders and the ancestors.Although since the nineteenth century society Ka-Senduk of Kiowa in general have embraced Christianity, both Protestant and Catholic, but most of them, there are those who embrace and maintain the traditions and customs and ancestral cult, so that their spiritual life remains influenced by the “Ka-Senduk cult’s and lifestyle” Mem-pa’ando of “Kiowa.According to accounts from the remnants of cult followers and ancestral traditions and customs here, Tumu-Ute said ‘listen and learn and understand and know about many things related concerning the religious life, spiritual and physical and social life, economy, welfare, leadership, security and order, especially the traditions and customs, and culture of ethnic Kiowa ancestors.Of those parents and observers as well as observers and lovers of Kiowa culture that is still alive or dead, is also obtained valuable inputs are valuable history and high culture, especially after increased efforts and activities of O-an-oak in Aramaic e Kiowa (Kiowa Cultural Institute), the excavation business development and cultural preservation of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, more and more directed and more stable.
 
 

“Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”

Maka-Petor !

Penyusunan “Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa” (Si-sisil-en e Apo-Apo’ e Kiowa) ini, bersumber pada ceritera-ceritera berantai, yang dituturkan dari mulut kemulut secara turun-temurun dikalangan etnis Kiowa, yang masih tersimpan atau tercatat dalam ingatan masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa

Pu-purengkey-en (ceritera berantai dari mulut kemulut sejenis legenda) ini, dikumpulkan dan disunting serta dirangkum, kemudian dituangkan dalam bentuk suatu tulisan berupa ceritera, yang ditulis apa adanya oleh penyunting/penyusun, berdasarkan ceritera lisan dari para penutur, maupun temuan-temuan dan rumusan “Sarasehan budaya masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa”, yang didukung dengan bukti-bukti berupa peninggalan benda-benda dan prasasti serta situs-situs purbakala yang berada disekitar Wanua Ka-senduk-an Kiowa (Kiawa), yang merupakan saksi hidup sejarah masa lalu yang dapat memberikan inspirasi untuk mengungkapkan selubung misteri, yang menyelimuti “Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”.

Masukan-masukan dari berbagai pihak yang merupakan nara sumber yang layak dipercaya, terutama sekali warisan legenda serta ceritera-ceritera sejarah dan budaya masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa dituturkan oleh “Tumu-tutur Wangko’ Ute’ Rakian”, adalah merupakan literatur yang sangat berharga dan bernilai tinggi bagi penyusunan tulisan ini (Tulisan ini tidak didasarkan pada literatur tertulis diperpustakaan, oleh karena belum ada tulisan resmi yang menceriterakan tentang legenda atau pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa).

Almarhum Tumu-tutur Ute’ Rakian adalah penutur tua terakhir yang masih mendengar langsung dari para Pa-ma’tu’an serta para Wali’an dan Tona’as, maupun Te-terus-an serta para Ki’i-ki’i-ten im Banua Ka-senduk-an Kiowa yang hidup dengan tatanan hidup dan tata-cara serta aturan dan kaidah-kaidah hidup Ka-senduk-an, sesuai dengan adat istiadat nenek moyang dan para leluhur.

Walaupun sejak abad kesembilan belas masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa pada umumnya sudah memeluk agama Kristen, baik Protestan maupun Katolik, namun sebagian dari antara mereka, masih ada yang menganut dan mempertahankan tradisi serta adat istiadat dan aliran kepercayaan leluhur, sehingga kehidupan rohani mereka tetap dipengaruhi oleh “aliran kepercayaan Ka-senduk-an dan pola hidup “Mem-pa’ando-an” Kiowa.

Menurut penuturan dari sisa-sisa penganut aliran kepercayaan dan tradisi serta adat istiadat leluhur inilah, Tumu-tutur Ute’ mendengarkan dan mempelajari serta memahami dan mengetahui, tentang banyak hal yang berkaitan tentang kehidupan religius, rohani dan jasmani serta hidup bermasyarakat, perekonomian, kesejahteraan, kepemimpinan, keamanan dan ketertiban, terutama tradisi dan adat istiadat, maupun kebudayaan leluhur etnis Kiowa.

Dari orang-orang tua dan pemerhati serta pengamat dan pencinta budaya Kiowa yang masih hidup maupun yang sudah meninggal, diperoleh juga masukan-masukan berharga yang bernilai sejarah dan budaya yang tinggi, apalagi setelah ditingkatkannya usaha dan kegiatan O-oak-an in Aram e Kiowa (Lembaga Budaya Kiowa), maka pengembangan usaha penggalian dan pelestarian budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, semakin lebih terarah dan semakin mantap.

O-an-oak in Aramaic e Kiowa (Kiowa Cultural Institute), which was pioneered by Tunu-speech Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian who was accompanied by Tumu, said Drs. Palar Nico together with the observer and the observer as well as lovers and figures as well as people who never wrestled and participated in cultural rituals Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, Old alUkung Jopie Worotitjan, Ukung Tua Piri Hein, Anthony Nayoan , Nayo Tumober, Adoloph Assa, Albert Salanti, Alex Worotitjan, Narsisus Talumantak, Gustaf Palar, Felix S. Kauanang SE, Drs. Wempie Worotitjan, Jantje A Polii, Ferry Salanti, Hans Worotitjan etc., become a very useful tool for extracting Senduk Ka-cultural roots of Kiowa

From among the oldest sources, the late apo ‘Klaas L. Sajow, who was born and raised in the village Kiawa (which is always called “Puser in Tana ‘Ka-Senduk-an”) and as adults wander (lumantak) to make a living in South Minahasa. later married and settled even Janunri died in 1996 at the age of 100 years, Kroit village, district Motoling, has provided a real participation in the form of feedback about stories “Puser in Tana ‘ancient’ is demonstrated also by the legacy of the ancestral heritage of ethnic Kiowa, that before he died promised to restore it to Puser heritage in Tana ‘, al flag (wirus im banua), the banner of war (wirus tu-turu ‘im Custody e Waraney), weapons (santi, wentir, tu-Tura’), po-Porong, etc., is also an invaluable contribution to the excavation of cultural roots Ka- Senduk-anKiowa. Tumu-Palar said Drs Nico, who has decades of accompanying Tumu-speech Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian (deceased), has a lot of vocabulary and a collection of stories and personal accounts gathered from the old speakers tentenag Ka-Senduk culture of Kiowa, so it helps the business inventory of the necessary data.

The young generation lover and observer and observer of culture, which actively involve themselves and voluntarily explore, learn, examine, examines, traces and relics make the preparation of documentation for the purposes of writing and preserving the cultures of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, among others:

Alex Salanti S.E., Julius Talumantak STH, Drs. Dantje Tumober, Dra Sientje Rondonuwu, Ir. Vivepri Lumanaw, Drs. Max Piri, Drs. Victory Palar, Olly Karinda SH, Grace Worotitjan SE, Dra. Syane Karinda. Dra. Evelyn Kawung, Dra. Jane Karinda etc., is a young generation successor to the ideals of ethnic Kiowa ancestors.

Concrete manifestation of the business re-excavation of cultural roots Ka-Senduk’s, namely the implementation of “Ka-Senduk Cultural Meeting of Kiowa” initiated by the lovers and observers and observers Kiowa culture, with the intent and purpose to explore the cultural roots and customs and traditions of ethnic ancestry Kiowa ancestors.

Meeting was conducted from early 1992 until now, as the realization of observer agreement realization that the secret art and mystery “KASENDUKAN Kiowa” needs to be extracted after seeing “KAROT-KAROT” (scratches) on the rocks in the river and around the WATU TU’US IM-PA-AN PEPA’AR Ranowangko river edge (near the lake Tona’as Wellem Rakian) on September 9, 1991, led by Tumu-speech WANGKO ‘UTE’ RAKIAN; the implementation is done routinely and regularly, including the establishment of team- small team, a team of research and development, verification and monitoring team, formulator and author manuscripts and special teams as required for purposes of repair, rectification and adjustment to the new accurate data found.

To complement the data and supporting evidence, also held a review and field research on heritage sites and archaeological sites around Wanua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, as well as interviews and dialogues with the “tu’a im-tu’a banua “and the charcoal-man known as a lover and observer and observer of culture.

Confirmation of the truth of the findings in the field, as well as inputs as well as stories and narrative a person, done with a special interview and exchange ideas and opinions, and dialogue with people who are already quite old and is considered the master and learn the ins and outs and cultural customs and traditions Ka -Senduk’s, then posed as a discussion in the workshop, to then be studied and studied again the truth and authenticity, and then requested to be formulated and made the writing.

Workshop activities and study a special group and small team meetings, as well as review and field research, conducted since mid-1992 to 1999, still continue and run continuously to obtain the findings of a more complete, to enrich the cultural repertory khasana Ka-Senduk of Kiowa.

It is regrettable because the input of workshop participants in the form of original papers from the workshop participants, about what they know or hear or see for yourself from their parents or their ancestors, especially also the resume of the workshop, nearly everything is destroyed and can not be saved, due to because of stagnant water due to floods that hit the residential penyususn, where archives are stored resumme workshop results. Floods that hit Jakarta Metropolitan city on 10 to 13 Februai 1996, has also checked out the house in the area of ​​Green Ville compiler Block T No. 1 Jakarta, where the flood reached a height of approximately 100 centimeter, so the cupboard and filing cabinet located in the Room part below, where the notes and writings as well as casette tape recorded conversations and interviews with the elders, especially Tumu-Ute said ‘that is a résumé archive Senduk Ka-cultural gatherings of Kiowa, and dozens of cassette tape recorder hidden recording ( recorderder tape is stored in a bag) Salanti Ferry interview about the roots of cultural arts Kasendukan Kiowa, the Ute Tumututur ‘Rakian, Anton Nayoan, Welem Rakian, Endie Ponamon, Mark Tinangon, Ansi Lumanaw, Andri Ponamon, Welem Lombok, Peter Walukow, Alex Worotitjan, Ampel Karinda, Eyebrows Karinda, Okta Pioh, Adoloph Assa, Nayo Tumober and other people who were interviewed in secret by Ferry Salanti, also flooded and submerged in water for 4 days, including a collection of “conversations” penyusu with the elders of the Kiowa , including stories that had the “compiler” heard by community leaders, among others, by the late Derek mistaken ex Old Law when he was still alive, who happens to have neighbors with the authors about the year 1962/1963, also with Apo ‘Melius Walukow father from Tuwa ‘Peter Walukow often watched him mix of drugs, Apo’ Tertius Piri (where my brother and I Yull often below by Ito ‘Alex Worotitjan looking concoction of drugs), the late Passport Alphius Wowor, the late Endie Rakian, Deceased singon Alo,, Grandma Dora Walukow, Amarhuma Discard Rimper, especially too late and the late HM Taulu Tona’as Sokoman John Malonda, FS Watuseke, cultural-other culture, especially also Rietje Rawung aunt and uncle Buyung pemiilik Manguni TOMOHON BOOK HOUSE (Importers book Eastern Indonesia’s largest school books and college in the 1950s are still many published and printed in Holland, in addition to books already published and printed in Indonesia) in 1956-1958, where I live and help them maintain bookstore while in school and read books of art and culture, history and other knowledge that there is no guest / customer, including notes I summarize the story that never are told by the late Justus Worotitjan (tete ‘sergeant) badminton field, about Worotitjan village (now named Kapitu), so the total damaged and destroyed by standing water, which can not be rescued by the maids who kept the house, including the aunt and cousin Yetje Assa Dra Siska Worotitjan compiler can not save casette and archives workshops and other goods because of overflow water occurs at night while they lay on the floor above and find out later the house was flooded the next day. But still lucky because the inputs and resume the essentials workshop, an outline has been included by the author in the diskette / computer.

The data and materials written about the culture of the Ka-Senduk remaining Kiowa and stored on disks / computers this reason, the materials the words “Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”.

Stories about the village or Ro’ong Kiawa Kiowa (Wanua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa), found also in some literature, written and published in the Dutch colonial era, but its content is very much deviated from the actual situation and reality.

Apparently the experts and cultural researcher and writer who authored certtera about the situation and what is related to the history and customs and traditions of society Kiawa (Ka-Senduk of Kiowa), not knowing at all or never perform or review research and field observations, but only heard from the speakers of a third party who only heard from the second party (the adventurous amateurs, which incidentally, to explore the outback “Wanua Kasendukan”), who only knew vaguely about the state of culture and art center Kasendukan Kiowa (Kiawa). The authors do not or have never visited the “national and cultural origins Kasendukan Kiowa, because it was difficult due to go into” navel in tana “, due to its natural condition is still remote and difficult to visit because of natural conditions and terrain that is still covered with dense forest and factors reluctance of the researchers / writers to visit the expedition and the area is still very remote pengungungan time; Moreover, people’s stories about berkunjungnya Whites (SE TOUW Kulo ‘, which is estimated stranded on the beach around Tumpaan Maruasey around the mouth of the river, then their sailors and merchant adventurers who accompanied the missionaries wandered down the river kepegunungan with Maruasey, Nimanga and reached the river and into Wanua Ranowangko Kiowa, Kiowa Wanua because in there are places called TINO’TOKKAN CULO SI (where whites chopped , who estimated a PASTOR because CULO SI ‘referred to, called and calling people with the title “Padre”), including terms as CASTELA, Santa Cruz, TA’SIC ELA (TASIKELA) who used the name of several locations in the plantations and settlements Wanua Kiowa, signaling and indicate that there were people “white skin, which never stopped even settle in Wanua Kiowa, carrying the seeds of plants cloves, cocoa, nutmeg, coffee, and spices and other plants, still exist in Wanua Kiowa It also includes words and terms such as sapeo, kadera, kawayo, nyora, sinyo etc., are still used by residents until now ..

 
 

O-oak-an in aram e Kiowa (Lembaga Budaya Kiowa) yang dipelopori oleh Tunu-tutur Wangko’ Ute’ Rakian yang didampingi oleh Tumu-tutur Drs. Nico Palar bersama-sama dengan para pemerhati dan pengamat serta pencinta maupun tokoh-tokoh serta orang-orang yang pernah bergelut dan ikut dalam ritual-ritual budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, a.l.Ukung Tua Jopie Worotitjan, Ukung Tua Hein Piri, Anthon Nayoan, Nayo Tumober, Adoloph Assa, Albert Salanti, Alex Worotitjan, Narsisus Talumantak, Gustaf Palar, Felix S. Kauanang SE, Drs. Wempie Worotitjan, Jantje A Polii, Ferry Salanti, Hans Worotitjan dll, menjadi sarana yang sangat bermanfaat bagi penggalian akar budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa

Dari antara nara sumber yang paling tua, Almarhum apo’ Klaas L. Sajow, yang dilahirkan dan dibesarkan di desa Kiawa (yang selalu disebutnya “Puser in Tana’ Ka-senduk-an”) dan setelah dewasa merantau (lumantak) untuk mencari nafkah di Minahasa Selatan. kemudian kawin dan menetap bahkan meninggal pada bulan Janunri 1996 dalam usia 100 tahun, didesa Kroit, kecamatan Motoling, telah memberikan partisipasi nyata berupa masukan tentang ceritera-ceritera “Puser in Tana’ purbakala” yang dibuktikannya juga dengan pusaka peninggalan milik para leluhur etnis Kiowa, yang sebelum beliau meninggal menjanjikan untuk mengembalikan pusaka itu ke Puser in Tana’, a.l. bendera (wirus im banua), panji peperangan (wirus tu-turu’ im balak e waraney), senjata (santi, wentir, tu-tura’), po-porong, dll, merupakan sumbangan tak ternilai pula untuk penggalian akar budaya Ka-senduk-anKiowa. Tumu-tutur Drs Nico Palar, yang sudah puluhan tahun mendampingi Tumu-tutur Wangko’ Ute’ Rakian (almarhum), memiliki banyak perbendaharaan dan kumpulan ceritera dan catatan-catatan pribadi yang dikumpulkannya dari para penutur tua tentenag kebudayaan Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, sehingga sangat membantu usaha inventarisasi tentang data-data yang diperlukan.

Generasi muda pencinta serta pemerhati dan pengamat budaya, yang melibatkan diri secara aktip dan sukarela menggali, mempelajari, menelaah, meneliti, menelusuri peninggalan-peninggalan dan membuat dokumentasi untuk keperluan penyusunan tulisan serta melestarikan kultur budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, antara lain :

Alex Salanti S.E., Julius Talumantak STH, Drs. Dantje Tumober, Dra Sientje Rondonuwu, Ir. Vivepri Lumanaw, Drs. Max Piri, Drs. Victory Palar, Olly Karinda SH, Grace Worotitjan S.E, Dra. Syane Karinda. Dra. Evelyn Kawung, Dra. Jane Karinda dll, adalah merupakan generasi muda penerus cita-cita leluhur etnis Kiowa.

Wujud nyata dari usaha penggalian kembali akar budaya Ka-senduk-an, yaitu pelaksanaan “Sarasehan Budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa” yang diprakarsai oleh para pencinta dan pemerhati serta pengamat budaya Kiowa, dengan maksud dan tujuan untuk menggali kembali akar budaya dan adat istiadat serta tradisi nenek moyang leluhur etnis Kiowa.

Sarasehan itu dilakukan sejak awal tahun 1992 sampai sekarang ini, sebagai realisasi pewujudan kesepakatan pemerhati seni budaya bahwa rahasia dan misteri “KASENDUKAN KIOWA” perlu digali setelah melihat “KAROT-KAROT” (GORESAN-GORESAN) pada batu-batu di sungai dan disekitar di WATU TU’US IM PA-PEPA’AR-AN ditepi sungai Ranowangko (dekat telaga Tona’as Wellem Rakian) pada 9 September 1991, dipimpin TUMU-TUTUR WANGKO’ UTE’ RAKIAN; yang pelaksanaannya dilakukan secara rutin dan berkala, termasuk pembentukan tim-tim kecil, tim penelitian dan pengembangan, tim verifikasi dan pengawasan, perumus dan penyusun naskah serta tim-tim khusus sesuai kebutuhan untuk keperluan perbaikan, pembetulan serta penyesuaian dengan data-data akurat baru yang ditemukan.

Untuk melengkapi data serta bukti-bukti pendukung, diadakan pula peninjauan dan penelitian lapangan di lokasi-lokasi peninggalan serta situs-situs purbakala disekitar Wanua Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, maupun wawancara dan dialog dengan para “tu’a-tu’a im banua” dan arang-orang yang dikenal sebagai pencinta serta pemerhati dan pengamat budaya.

Konfirmasi tentang kebenaran temuan-temuan dilapangan, maupun masukan serta ceritera dan penuturan seseorang, dilakukan dengan wawancara khusus serta tukar pikiran dan pendapat, maupun dialog dengan orang-orang yang sudah cukup berumur dan dianggap menguasai dan mengetahui seluk beluk dan adat istiadat serta tradisi budaya Ka-senduk-an, kemudian dilontarkan sebagai bahan diskusi dalam sarasehan, untuk kemudian dikaji dan diteliti kembali kebenaran dan keotentikannya, baru kemudian dimintakan untuk dirumuskan dan dibuatkan tulisan.

Kegiatan sarasehan serta studi kelompok khusus dan rapat-rapat tim kecil, maupun peninjauan dan penelitian lapangan, dilakukan sejak medio 1992 sampai tahun 1999, masih dilanjutkan dan berjalan terus menerus untuk memperoleh temuan-temuan yang lebih lengkap, untuk memperkaya khasana perbendaharaan budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa.

Sangat disesalkan karena masukan para peserta sarasehan dalam bentuk tulisan asli dari para peserta sarasehan, tentang apa yang mereka ketahui atau dengar atau lihat sendiri dari orang tua atau para leluhur, terutama juga resume dari hasil sarasehan, hampir semuanya sudah musnah dan tidak dapat diselamatkan, disebabkan oleh karena tergenang air akibat banjir besar yang melanda rumah tinggal penyususn, tempat arsip resumme hasil sarasehan disimpan. Banjir yang melanda kota Metropolitan Jakarta pada tanggal 10 sampai dengan 13 Februai 1996, telah menimpah juga rumah penyusun di daerah Green Ville Block T No 1 Jakarta, dimana banjir mencapai ketinggian kurang lebih 100 Centi Meter, sehingga almari serta filling cabinet yang terletak didalam kamar bagian bawah, tempat penyimpanan catatan dan tulisan-tulisan maupun casette tape recorder rekaman pembicaraan serta hasil wawancara dengan para tua-tua terutama Tumu-tutur Ute’ yang merupakan arsip resume sarasehan budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, serta puluhan cassette tape recorder rekaman tersembunyi (tape recorderder disimpan dalam kantong) wawancara Ferry Salanti tentang akar seni budaya Kasendukan Kiowa, dengan Tumututur Ute’ Rakian, Anton Nayoan, Welem Rakian, Endie Ponamon, Markus Tinangon, Ansi Lumanaw, Andri Ponamon, Welem Lombok, Petrus Walukow, Alex Worotitjan, Ampel Karinda, Alis Karinda, Okta Pioh, Adoloph Assa, Nayo Tumober dan orang-orang lainnya yang diwawancarai diam-diam oleh Ferry Salanti, turut tergenang dan terendam air selama 4 hari, termasuk kumpulan “percakapan-percakapan “penyusu dengan para tua-tua Kiowa, termasuk ceritera-ceritera yang pernah “penyusun” dengar dengan tokoh-tokoh masyarakat, antara lain dengan almarhum Derek Silap ex Hukum Tua ketika beliau masih hidup, yang kebetulan pernah bertetangga dengan penyusun sekitar tahun 1962/1963, juga dengan Apo’ Melius Walukow ayah dari Tuwa’ Petrus Walukow sering menyaksikan beliau meramu obat-obatan , Apo’ Tertius Piri (dimana saya dan adik saya Yull sering dibawah oleh Ito’ Alex Worotitjan melihat-lihat ramuan obat-obatan), Almarhum Paspor Alphius Wowor, Almarhum Endie Rakian, Almarhum Alo Singon,, Nenek Dora Walukow, Amarhuma Buang Rimper, terutama juga Almarhum H.M Taulu dan Almarhum Tona’as Sokoman John Malonda, F.S Watuseke, budayawan-budayawan lainnya, terutama juga tante Rietje Rawung dan Oom Buyung pemiilik GEDUNG BUKU MANGUNI TOMOHON (Pengimpor buku terbesar di Indonesia Timur yang buku-buku pelajaran sekolah dan perguruan tinggi pada tahun 1950an masih banyak diterbitkan dan dicetak di Negeri Belanda, selain buku-buku yang sudah diterbitkan dan dicetak di Indonesia) pada tahun 1956-1958, dimana saya tinggal dan membantu mereka menjaga toko buku sambil bersekolah dan membaca buku-buku seni budaya, sejarah dan pengetahuan lainnya kalau tidak ada tamu/langganan, termasuk catatan yang saya rangkum dari ceritera yang pernah diceriterakan oleh Almarhum Yustus Worotitjan (tete’ sersan) dilapangan badminton, tentang desa Worotitjan (sekarang bernama Kapitu), sehingga rusak total dan hancur karena genangan air, yang tidak dapat diselamatkan oleh para pembantu rumah tangga yang menunggui rumah, termasuk Tante Yetje Assa dan sepupu penyusun Dra Siska Worotitjan tidak dapat menyelamatkan casette serta arsip sarasehan dan barang barang lainnya karena luapan air terjadi pada malam hari sedangkan mereka tidur dilantai atas dan nanti mengetahui rumah sudah digenangi air pada keesokan harinya. Namun masih beruntung karena masukan-masukan serta resume sarasehan yang penting-penting, secara garis besar telah dimasukkan oleh penyusun dalam disket/komputer .

Data-data dan bahan-bahan tulisan mengenai budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa yang masih tersisa dan tersimpan dalam disket/komputer itulah, yang menjadi bahan tulisan “Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”.

Ceritera tentang desa Kiawa atau Ro’ong Kiowa (Wanua Ka-senduk-an Kiowa), ditemukan juga dalam beberapa literatur, yang ditulis dan diterbitkan pada zaman penjajahan kolonial Belanda, tetapi isinya sangat jauh menyimpang dari keadaan serta kenyataan sebenarnya.

Rupanya para ahli serta peneliti budaya dan penulis yang mengarang certtera tentang keadaan dan apa yang berhubungan dengan sejarah dan adat istiadat serta tradisi masyarakat Kiawa (Ka-senduk-an Kiowa), tidak mengetahui sama sekali atau tidak pernah melakukan penelitian serta pengamatan atau peninjauan lapangan, tetapi hanya mendengar dari para penutur pihak ketiga yang hanya mendengar dari pihak kedua (para petualang amatiran yang secara kebetulan, menjelajahi pedalaman “Wanua Kasendukan”), yang hanya mengetahui secara samar-samar tentang keadaan pusat budaya dan seni Kasendukan Kiowa (Kiawa). Para penulis tidak atau belum pernah berkunjung ke “pusat dan asal muasal budaya Kasendukan Kiowa, disebabkan karena saat itu sulit masuk ke “puser in tana”, karena kondisi alamnya yang masih terpencil dan sulit dikunjungi karena kondisi alam dan medannya yang masih ditumbuhi hutan lebat dan factor-faktor keengganan dari para peneliti/penulis untuk mengunjungi dan mengadakan ekspedisi didaerah pengungungan yang masih sangat terpencil saat itu; Apalagi ceritera rakyat tentang berkunjungnya Orang Kulit Putih (SE TOUW KULO’, yang diperkirakan terdampar di Pantai sekitar Tumpaan disekitar muara sungai Maruasey, lalu mereka para pelaut dan saudagar petualang yang didampingi misionaris mengembara kepegunungan dengan menyusuri sungai Maruasey, Nimanga dan sampai di hulu sungai Ranowangko dan masuk ke Wanua Kiowa, sebab di Wanua Kiowa ada tempat-tempat yang disebut TINO’TOKKAN SI CULO (tempat orang kulit putih dicincang, yang diperkirakan seorang PASTOR karena SI CULO’ yang dimaksud, dipanggil orang dengan sebutan dan panggilan “PADRE”), termasuk juga istilah-istilah sebutan CASTELA, SANTA CRUZ, TA’SIC ELA (TASIKELA) yang dijadikan nama beberapa lokasi perkebunan dan pemukiman di Wanua Kiowa, menandakan serta mengindikasikan bahwa pernah ada orang “kulit putih, yang pernah mampir bahkan bermukim di Wanua Kiowa, sambil membawa benih-benih tanaman cengkeh, coklat, pala, kopi, dan rempah-rempah serta tanaman lainnya, masih ada di Wanua Kiowa, termasuk juga kata-kata serta istilah-istilah seperti sapeo, kadera, kawayo, nyora, sinyo dll, masih digunakan oleh penduduk sampai sekarang..

In our effort to get the data written at the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, (Royal Institute Voor Taal, Land, en Volkenkunde), KITLV, Reuvensplaats 2. P.O. Box 9515.2300 RA, Leiden, Holland, editors who accompanied Po’ouw Tumober Juice, Po’ouw Martin van Broukhoven and Yeyen Liemando, who repeatedly visited kelemaga, we do not or may not have been found, evidence of research or direct search farm sites and archaeological peningglan in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa by experts and researchers from the Dutch archaeological, about archaeological sites and cultural roots as well as indigenous customs and beliefs flow Kasendukan Kiowa, including our search, in the literature that we’ve carefully together in Bibliptheek van het Missiehuis der Missionarisen “Sacre Coeur” Bredaseweg 204, Tilburg Netherlands.
(Last we heard from Pastor Renwarin and his father, who visited La’un Dano, Kiowa, that the files in Tilburg has been taken to Pineleng, by an expert and researcher of ancient art and culture Esa Mina, origin, Father Renwarin Kakaskasen in Seminary Pineleng).

The evidence that a review or research on customs and traditions and the Kiowa culture is not deeply researched and written for not carrying in the literature about the existence of sites and relics of prehistoric prbakala in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa:
Watu So-sio-siouw in La’un Dano
• Tu’us i Loweng e Apo ‘e We-wene.wo Amut the Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuama,
• Pa-an-cone La’un Dano Ma-wara ‘
• Toy Touw Wangko-‘Me-an-upus
• Toy Touw Wiwing-an-
• Toy Touw Sondek i Rorot an arch,
• Toy Touw other-scattered in several places,
• Timbukar (waruga) which amounts to approximately 300 pieces in the ancient times (which is scattered from front of house Family Pieter Walukow arrived at the cemetery on the western village of Kiowa).
• Timbukar Sengkona Wowor (youngest citizens)
• Watu Tumo-Towa, which exist in some places,
• Watu Amian, (justified by a Japanese husband of a woman lecturer in UNSRAT and Mr. HYODO Cs from Japan Tobacco who installed the machines Cigarettes factory in the foothills of navel IN TANA ‘,, who visited WATU AMIAN
• Watu-ta’di Pa-an,
• Pa-peku’an,
• Pa-putung’s,
• Tombara’an.
• Pa-an-soring.
• Kentur Puser in Tana ‘
• Pa-an i-ra’da SOKOPE ‘an Lengko’an. (Paradiso)
• etc..

Including the data or materials that tell of:
• Angouw e Touw ASIC Amian (Alien Cave of the North).
• Wo-leley.
• Kastela,
• Ta’sic-ell,
• Santana,
• Guantanamera
• Santa Cruz,
• Rio Grande,
• Tino’tok of the Culo ‘
• San Salvador,
• San Padre,
• Ma-gho’gho ‘
• Ti-nincas’s,
• and other ancient relics and sites as well as pre-history that lie in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa. as well as sacred objects and other historical widespread around Wanua Kiowa.

The things mentioned above show and prove, that the writer on matters Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa (now Kiawa) in those days, did not have knowledge about the cultural roots of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, so the writing is much different from the circumstances and the reality and human remains ancient and pre-history that is in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa.

Even the impression that the author did not conduct a review and field research, let alone communicate and dialogue with the elders of the Kiowa tradition, perhaps even directly, or do not visit or the introduction of environmental adaptation to feel and explore in depth the approaches and dialogue straight from the heart of what precautionary believed, trusted and felt and known by the Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, even more than that, probably do not know or never saw the sites and ancient relics Kiawa village.

“Mystery of Pu-en-purebgkey e Kiowa” or “Si-en-sisil e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa”, which are told by the ancestors of the ancestors to the parents until the child-great-great-grandchildren for generations, provides a snapshot , on the state and society of ancient life Ka-Senduk of Kiowa as derived Apo ‘Amut e We-Wene and Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuawa under the guidance of Wali’an La’un Dano.

To all participants Ka-Senduk Cultural Meeting of Kiowa, and the persons-source, Tumu-Tumu-said-said, observers and analysts as well as lovers of Kiowa culture and individuals, who have been involved in search and preparation of this paper, the authors ingim express appreciation to the expression of gratitude and a sincere apology, if his name is not or has not been recorded in writing in this paper, even more than that please forgive if this paper is still too far away or less effective.

A strange event occurred in Watu Tu’us I Loweng e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa in Kentur La’un Dano, where the trees’ Tawa’ang “show daunya terikat’teranyam nine strands into one (siouw nga-lalay daung in Laughter’ ang had begun esa pules ma-nga-pules), although attempted to be degraded or open braid / knot, still re-woven and bound by nature, these events took place over several months and witnessed by many people.

Strange and bizarre events that happen over and over again ie inside the track and doing research on ancient heritage sites in the Kiowa area, by chance, without any planned or arranged and engineered, the person who collected always consist of nine people, this is beginning on the date 9 September 1993 at Sondek arch (the former site of PA-AN E-PEPA’AR WALI’AN WO WO SE SE TONA’AS IM TETERUSAN Banua KASENDUKAN and once lived APO ‘INA’ ROROT), in which nine people under the leadership Tona’as Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian plug-li’us Watu Tundek Pa-an (nine men who gathered this is by chance).

 
 

Dalam usaha kami untuk mendapatkan data-data tertulis di Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology,( Koninklijk Institut Voor Taal, Land, en Volkenkunde), KITLV, Reuvensplaats 2. P.O. Box 9515.2300 RA, Leiden, Holand, penyunting yang didampingi Po’ouw Jus Tumober, Po’ouw Martin van Broukhoven serta Yeyen Liemando, yang berulang-ulang berkunjung kelemaga tersebut, kami tidak atau mungkin belum menemukan, bukti adanya penelitian atau penelusuran secara langsung kelokasi situs-situs dan peningglan purbakala di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa oleh para ahli dan peneliti purbakala dari Belanda, tentang situs-situs purbakala serta akar budaya serta adapt istiadat dan aliran kepercayaan Kasendukan Kiowa, termasuk juga penelusuran kami, dalam literature yang kami pernah teliti bersama-sama di Bibliptheek van het Missiehuis der Missionarisen “Sacre Coeur” Bredaseweg 204, Tilburg Nederland.
(Terakhir kami dengar dari Pastor Renwarin dan ayahnya, yang pernah berkunjung ke La’un Dano, Kiowa, bahwa berkas-berkas di Tilburg sudah dibawa ke Pineleng, oleh seorang ahli dan peneliti seni dan budaya purbakala Mina Esa, asal Kakaskasen yaitu Pastor Renwarin di Seminari Tinggi Pineleng ).

Bukti-bukti bahwa peninjauan atau penelitian tentang adat istiadat serta tradisi dan budaya Kiowa tidak diteliti dan ditulis secara mendalam karena tidak tercatatnya dalam literatur tentang adanya situs-situs prbakala dan peninggalan pra sejarah di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa:
Watu Maka-sio-siouw di La’un Dano
• Tu’us i Loweng e Apo’ Amut e We-wene.wo si Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuama,
• Pa-tumpeng-an La’un Dano Ma-wara’
• Toy-Touw Wangko’ Me-upus-an
• Toy-Touw Wiwing-an
• Toy Touw i Rorot an Sondek Aret,
• Toy-Touw lainnya yang tersebar dibeberapa tempat,
• Timbukar (waruga) yang berjumlah kurang lebih 300 buah pada zaman dahulu (yang tersebar mulai dari depan rumah Keluarga Pieter Walukow sampai di pekuburan disebelah barat desa Kiowa).
• Timbukar Sengkona Wowor (Warga termuda)
• Watu Tumo-towa, yang ada dibeberapa tempat,
• Watu Amian,(dibenarkan oleh seorang Jepang suami dari seorang dosen wanita di UNSRAT dan Mr HYODO Cs dari Japan Tobacco yang memasang mesin-mesin pabrik Rokok Kretek di kaki bukit PUSER IN TANA’,, yang pernah berkunjung ke WATU AMIAN
• Watu Pa-ta’di-an,
• Pa-peku’an,
• Pa-putung-an,
• Tombara’an.
• Pa-soring-an.
• Kentur Puser in Tana’
• Pa-ra’da-an i SOKOPE’ an Lengko’an. (PARADISO)
• dll.

Termasuk data-data atau bahan-bahan yang menceriterakan tentang :
• Angouw e Touw Asic Amian (Gua Orang Asing dari Utara ).
• Wo-leley.
• Kastela,
• Ta’sic-ela,
• Santana,
• Guantanamera
• Santa Cruz,
• Rio Grande,
• Tino’tok-an si Culo’
• San Salvador,
• San Padre,
• Ma-gho’gho’
• Ti-nincas-an,
• dan lain-lain situs serta peninggalan purbakala dan pra sejarah yang bertebaran di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa. maupun obyek keramat dan bersejarah lainnya yang tersebar luas disekitar wanua Kiowa.

Hal-hal tersebut diatas menunjukkan dan membuktikan, bahwa penulis tentang hal ikhwal Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa (sekarang Kiawa) pada zaman itu, tidak memiliki pengetahuan tentang akar budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, sehingga penulisannya jauh berbeda dengan keadaan serta realita dan peninggalan-peninggalan purbakala dan pra sejarah yang ada di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa.

Bahkan terkesan bahwa penulisnya tidak melakukan peninjauan dan penelitian lapangan, apalagi berkomunikasi dan berdialog dengan para tua-tua adat Kiowa, bahkan mungkin tidak berkunjung langsung atau melakukan adaptasi atau pengenalan lingkungan untuk merasakan dan menyelami secara mendalam melalui pendekatan dan dialog langsung dari hati kehati apa yang diyakini, dipercayai serta dirasakan dan diketahui oleh masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, bahkan lebih dari itu, mungkin tidak mengetahui atau tidak pernah melihat situs-situs dan peninggalan purbakala didesa Kiawa.

“Misteri Pu-purebgkey-en e Kiowa” atau “Si-sisil-en e Apo-Apo’ e Kiowa”, yang diceriterakan oleh nenek moyang leluhur kepada orang tua sampai pada anak-cucu-cicit secara turun-temurun, memberikan gambaran sekilas, tentang keadaan dan kehidupan purbakala masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa sebagai turunan Apo’ Amut e We-wene dan Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuawa dibawah bimbingan dari Wali’an La’un Dano.

Kepada seluruh peserta Sarasehan Budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, serta para nara-sumber, tumu-tutur-tumu-tutur, pemerhati dan pengamat serta pencinta budaya Kiowa serta pribadi-pribadi, yang pernah terlibat dalam penelusuran serta penyusunan tulisan ini, penyusun ingim menyampaikan penghargaan dalam ungkapan terima kasih serta permohonan maaf yang ikhlas, apabila namanya tidak atau belum tercatat secara tertulis dalam tulisan ini, bahkan lebih dari itu mohon dimaafkan pula apabila tulisan ini masih jauh atau kurang mengena .

Satu peristiwa aneh terjadi di Watu Tu’us I Loweng e Apo-Apo’ e Kiowa di Kentur La’un Dano, dimana pohon ‘TAWA’ANG” memperlihatkan sembilan helai daunya terikat’teranyam menjadi satu (siouw nga-lalay daung in Tawa’ang me-pules ma-muali esa nga-pules), walaupun dicoba untuk diuraikan atau dibuka anyaman/ikatannya, tetap kembali teranyam dan terikat secara alamiah, peristiwa ini terjadi selama beberapa bulan dan disaksikan oleh banyak sekali orang.

Peristiwa aneh dan ganjil yang terjadi berulang-ulang yaitu didalam menelusuri dan melakukan penelitian atas situs-situs peninggalan purbakala di kawasan Kiowa, secara tak disengaja, tanpa direncanakan atau diatur dan direkayasa, orang yang terkumpul selalu terdiri dari sembilan orang, hal ini dimulai pada tanggal 9 September 1993 di Sondek Aret (bekas tempat PA-PEPA’AR-AN E WALI’AN WO SE TONA’AS WO SE TETERUSAN IM BANUA KASENDUKAN dan sekaligus tinggal APO’ INA’ ROROT), dimana sembilan orang dibawah pimpinan Tona’as Wangko’ Ute’ Rakian menancapkan Watu Tundek Pa-li’us-an (sembilan orang yang terkumpul ini adalah secara kebetulan).

Khusus untuk Pendeta V. Rumondor serta Drs. Alex Rumondor, maupun Bapak Jan Menayang dan Drs. Lexy Rumengan MBA dari Yayasan Maka Wanua Jakarta, yang selalu mendorong kami untuk menerbitkan tulisan ini, tak lupa pula kami ucapkan banyak terima kasih.

Pada kesempatan khusus dalam Seminar Budaya Kasendukan Kiowa, yang diadakan di ruang pertemuan KIR MANDALA, yang dihadiri Profesor DR Lucky Sondakh serta DR Oscar Rompis Phd dan tokoh-tokoh budaya Mina Esa di Kiowa, diusulkan untuk mengadakan penelitian dan pengkajian tentang hubungan serta kaitan tentang WATU TIMBUKAR serta situs-situs purbakala di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa dengan WATU PINAWETENGAN di desa Pinabetengan dan WATU peninggalan DOTU-DOTU KANONANG dimana terdapat batu berbentuk meja dan tempat duduk disekeliling meja batu, yang ada didalam satu GUA didesa KANONANG.

Penelitian dan pengkajian yang dimaksud dikaitkan dengan ceritera dari Tumututur Wangko Ute’ Rakian dan Tumututur Drs Nico Palar selaku Ketua Umum Lembaga Budaya Kiowa, bahwa dari hasil penelitian seorang Profesor asal Jerman yang ahli purbakala, ditemukan bahwa WATU PINAWETENGAN dperkirakan sudah ada sekitar abad ke 7 sesudah Masehi (+- tahun 650); Sedangkan ada WATU TIMBUKAR dan WATU TUMOTOWA serta TOY TOUW di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa yang jauh lebih tua, sebab diperkirakan dibuat pada abad ke 5 (lima) sebelum Masehi.

Dalam seminar tentang Budaya Kasendukan Kiowa pada tahun 1996 di ruang pertemuan KIR MANDALA, yang dihadiri oleh Bapak Kolonel Wim Tenges yang banyak mengetahui dan menguasai tentang akar Seni dan Budaya Mina Esa dengan timnya, terutama pula seorang ahli yang menerjemahkan Bahasa Tountemboan kedalam Bahasa Indonesia yaitu Prof A.B.G. Ratu, termasuk kakak beradik pemerhati ahli yang meneliti dan menelusuri Budaya Mina Esa yaitu Pendeta V Rumondor dan Drs Alex Rumondor (Dosen Universitas Indonesia), termasuk beberapa pemerhati Budaya Minahasa, serta masyarakat umum lainnya yang mengikuti seminar yang dimaksud.

Pertemuan itu dihadiri pula oleh Nyonya Rumondor yang sudah berusia 100 tahun (ibu kandung Pendeta V. Rumondor dan Drs Alex Rumondor) yang dalam percakapan banyak meneriterakan tentang ikatan hubungan kekeluargaan antara masayakat Sonder dan Kiawa, yang sangat erat persaudaraannya, hal mana terkait pula dengan pernyataan-pernyataan Tokoh masyaraka Sonder Bapak Jan Sendouw yang selalu mengeskan bahwa “orang Sonder aslinya berasala dari Kiowa. dan beberapa tokoh Budaya Mina-Esa, Wim Tenges menyatakan bahwa: dengan bukti bahwa adanya TIMBUKAR sebanyak lebih dari 300 buah belum termasuk yang sudah terbenam dalam tanah, dan adanya salah satu TIMBUKAR termudah dari Apo’ SENGKONA WOWOR, membuktikan bahwa Wanua Kiowa dahulu kala bermukim banyak KOLANO ( dalam arti bangsawan atau golongan ningrat, namun bukan berarti RAJA; sebab masyarakat Kasendukan Kiowa hanya mengenal WALI’AN dan TONA’AS sebagai PEMIMPIN atau KEPALA yang dipilih secara demokratis oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat, dari antara CENDEKIAWAN dan TOKOH-TOKOH masyarakat yang sakti, memiliki ilmu dan pengetahuan serta pengalaman yang sangat luas, memiliki kepercayaan dan kredibilitas dan akuntabilitas serta bijaksana, cerdas, cakap pandai, berwibawa, panutan yang memiliki wibawa dan kemampuan serta dapat memimpin masyarakat, untuk bergotong royong dan bersama-sama dalam kebersamaan dan kerukunan serta kesatuan hati, pikiran dan perasaan untuk mencapai maksud dan tujuan umum, untuk, membangun masyarakat yang adil makmur dan sejahtera, rukun, tolong menolong, aman damai dan sentausa rohani dan jasmani), apalagi TIMBUKAR TERTUA umurnya lebih tua dari Watu Pinawetengan (hasil penelitian sorang Profesor dari Jerman, diperkirakan abad ke 5 sebelum Masehi sudah ada Timbukar di Kiowa, membuktikan pula bahwa Wanua Kiowa adalah WANUA paling Tua dibumi Kasendukan Kiowa).

Teristimewa kepada Tumu-tutur Drs. Nico Palar dan Ukung Tua Pieter Hein Piri serta Pendeta Julius Talumantak STH, yang secara aktip memberi masukan serta membantu melakukan koreksi dan perbaikan maupun penyempurnaan seperlunya, diucapkan terima kasih sebanyak-banyaknya.

Usaha pemerhati muda Alex Salanti SE serta rekan-rekannya, yang memprakarsai kegiatan-kegiatan napak tilas akar budaya Kiowa, lewat lintas alam serta usaha festival kesenian dan kebudayaan melalui “Ma’ando Maka-Petor”, sangat mendukung aktualisasi penyusunan tulisan ini.

Bagi Dr. Mieke Schouten, yang pernah bermukim di Tincep dan berlanglang buana keliling daerah Tountemboan, terutama di Wanua Kiowa, sebagai seorang expert yang melakukan penelitian bahasa dan budaya Tountemboan serta penulis buku-buku budaya a.l. Minahasa and Bolaang Mongondow, an annotated Bibliography 1800-1942 (The Hague – Martinus Nijhoff – 1981) dan sekarang mengajar di Departamento de Sociologia e Comunicacao Social, Universidade Da Beira Interior, Rua Marques d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilha – Portugal.

Pada pertemuan dan perbincangan dengan penulis pada bulan Maret 1997 di kota Leiden, Negeri Belanda, DR. Mieke Schouten menyatakan bahwa : dalam penelitian lapangan selama berada di Minahasa, beliau menemukan bahasa dan budaya Tountemboan yang asli tersisa sekarang hanya terdapat didesa Kiawa (Kiowa), sedangkan di Tincep dan Sonder sudah dipengaruhi sedikit oleh bahasa Toumbulu sebab berdekatan dengan desa Sawangan dan Rambunan (yang berbahasa Toum-bulu’), yang sangat erat hubungan dalam pergaulan sehari-hari bahkan kawin-mawin, sehingga hubungan kekeluargaannya sangat dekat dan akrab, menyebabkan perkawinan dua bahasapun tak terelakkan. Bahasa Tountemboan di Kiowa masih dituturkan secara asli dalam pergaulan sehari-hari, dalam acara-acara khusus, kumpulan-kumpulan, yang masih diwarnai oleh bahasa dan adat istiadat dan prilaku serta budaya Tountemboan asli.

Beliau juga mengenal Tumu-tutur “Ute Marthin Luther Rakian almarhum serta Felix Rakian alm. serta anak-anak (bahkan ada tulisan tangan budaya Kiowa oleh alm Felix Rawung Rakian yang ada ditangan beliau), juga kenal dengan ex Ukung Tu’a Jopie Rondonuwu, Stans Raintung yang pernah menjamu beliau, Guru-guru sekolah-sekolah a.l. Encik Ross Kilisan dan murid-murid SD- RK yang pada waktu itu, terkenal dengan Maengketnya, Drs. Nico Palar dll. Kesan beliau tentang Kiawa cukup luar biasa, sebab katanya beliau juga suka mengikuti ibadah religius dalam KOLOM-KOLOM GEREJANI yang secara khas beribadah dengan bahasa doa dan kothbah serta nyanyian maka-tana’ Tountemboan, termasuk didalam kumpulan “ma’ando”( hal-hal tersebut diceriterakann belaiu kepada penyunting saat bertemu dengan beliau di Leiden Negeri Belanda).

DR. Mieke Schouten menyarankan agar “Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”, sebaiknya ditulis apa adanya, sesuai dengan masukan daripada para Tumu-tutur maupun ceritera dan legenda yang beredar dan diceriterakan secara turun-temurun dikalangan masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, supaya isi dari pada tulisan ini betul-betul ceritera dan tulisan asli Kiowa, untuk memelihara keaslian dan keotentikan legenda Kiowa.

Dari Dr. David Henley (Englishman beristerikan seorang Indonesia asli asal Solo, yang kenal dekat dengan budayawan F.S. Watuseke yang menjadi nara sumber beliau terkait survey dalam penulisan disertasi tentang akar sejarah dan budaya Timur khusunya budaya Minahasa, untuk memperoleh gelar Doktor di Sydney), yang diperkenalkan oleh Dr. Mieke Schouten pada bulan Maret 1977, penulis memperoleh saran dan petunjuk istimewa tentang penulisan budaya Minahasa. ( beliau adalah “Researcher”, yang juga banyak menulis buku, a.l Nationalism and Regionalism in a Colonial Context, Minahasa in the Dutch East Indies, Verhandlingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal, Land en Volkenkunde, 1996 KITLV Press Leiden, sangat tertarik dengan tulisan Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa) .

Dalam pertemuan dan perbincangan antara penyusun/penulis dengan DR. MIEKE SCHOUTEN dan DR. DAVID HENLY (yang juga didampingi para ahli lainnya, disaksikan Po’ouw Jus Tumober, Po’ouw Martin van Broekhouven, Yeyen Liemando, di Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology,( Koninklijk Institut Voor Taal, Land, en Volkenkunde), KITLV, Reuvensplaats 2. P.O. Box 9515.2300 RA, Leiden, Nederland, tempat beliau bekerja sebagai “researcher”, beliau-beliau menyarankan kepada penyusun , agar penulisan buku ini sebaiknya ditulis apa adanya, sesuai cerita dan legenda masyarakat Kiowa, tanpa dipengaruhi argumentasi dari orang-orang yang merasakan, memperaktekkan, bahkan merasakan serta mengalami langsung, apalagi mengerti dan menghayati akar budaya Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa, karena tidak pernah bersentuhan dengan akar budaya serta kehidupan sehari-hari, termasuk juga jangan disesuaikan atau diadaptasikan dengan tulisan lain.

Usulan dan saran beliau-beliau bertjuan supaya terpelihara otentisitas keaslian ceriteranya, termasuk juga disarankan pada kami, untuk tidak memperdedatkan keotentikan penulisan, sebab sumber ceriteranya kebanyakan ceritera dari mlut kemulut secara turun temurun, sehingga vasiasinya berbeda-beda cara penyajiannya, bahkan mungkin ada perkembangan serta perobahan versi yang berubah-ubah, sebab itu disarankan supaya tidak perlu mempermasalahkan kontroversi data dan sumber serta asal usul, gaya, versi, corak ceritera dan legenda, termasuk perbedaan pengertian dan pandangannya.

Berulang-ulang beliau-beliau menyarankan supaya perbedaan pandangan dan pendapat orang lain, tidak perlu dipermasalahkan dan diperdebatkan atau dijadikan polemic, terutama pula jangan berusaha mempertemukan atau menyesuaikan dengan legenda dan ceritera-ceritera yang beredar atau berkembang dimasyarakat terutama pemikiran serta pendapat yang berbeda tentang seni budaya Minahasa, sebab tidak ada atau belum ada “bukti tertulis” yang ditemukan selaku rujukan pembuktian dan pembenaran atau penolakan, karena sangat sulit sekali mencari dan menemukan keaslian dan keotentikan sumber ceriteranya melalui prasasti atau peninggalan-peninggalan dan tulisan-tulisan purbakala dalam situs-situs pra sejarah purbakala di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa, tetapi lebih baik gunakan narasumber yaitu “orang-orang lanjut usia” dengan mengusahakan menyebutkan sebanyak mungkin para “penutur” yang kurang lebih pernah mendengar legenda “Kasendukan Kiowa” dari Tona’as-tona’as serta kakek nenek buyut yang pernah mendengar tentang legenda-legenda yang berasal dari ceritera dari mulut kemulut secara turun temurun sebagai nara sumbernya.

Tak lupa pula disampaikan terima kasih kepada Mr. Martin van Broekhouven (Suami dari Jetje Lamonge), Sekretaris Bond van Minahasa Nederland, juga Sdra. Jus Tumober (seorang putera kelahiran asli Kiowa), anak dari Pangukur August Tumober dan Pengurus Bond Minahasa di Belanda, yang dibesarkan dan menjadi dewasa di Kiowa, seorang pemerhati dan pencinta sejarah, budaya dan nilai-nilai seni Kasendukan Kiowa, yang banyak memberikan, masukan dan tambahan-tambahan CERITERA DAN LEGENDA tentang seni budaya dan sejarah dan tradisi masyarakat Kasendukan Kiowa (beliau sudah menetap selama kurang lebih 37 tahun di Nederland), yang kedua-duanya mendampingi dan membantu kami selama +- 3 bulan bolak-balik berkunjung ke beberapa pusat arsip budaya dan seni serta museum benda-benda purbakala yang tersimpan di museum-museum purbakala di Belanda dan pusat-pusat arsip serta bibliotik seni budaya dan sejarah “Wanua Kasendukan” di Nederland, kami haturkan banyak terima kasih.

Bantuan berupa kesediaan untuk koreksi dan pengetikan naskah oleh Dra. Veronica Yeyen Liemmando dan Dra. Siska Worotitjan, membantu pula kelancaran penyusunan tulisan ini.

Adanya tulisan tentang akar budaya maupun adat istiadat, serta seritera tentang kehidupan dan kebudayaan masyarakat Kiowa, maupun peninggalan-peninggalan dan situs-situs purbakala serta seni-budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, teristimewa pula keadaan alam dan lingkungannya, menjadikan tulisan ini sebagai panduan pengetahuan tentang adat istiadat, kehidupan dan kebudayaan masyarakat Kiowa, maupun juga pengetahuan tentang wisata dan obyek wisata Kiowa.

Tulisan ini masih jauh dari kesempurnaan, karena kemungkinan banyak kekurangan dan kekeliruan, apalagi masih jauh dari harapan, selera dan keinginan yang dicita-citakan, karena masih jauh sekali dari bentuk dan mutu penyusunan serta penulisan dan penyajian yang memadai dan sempurna, sehingga membutuhkan uluran tangan untuk menambah atau memperbaiki serta penyempurnaannya.

Mohon maaf atas segala kekurangan, kekeliruan, kekilafan serta kesalahan atau hal-hal yang kurang tepat serta tidak sesuai dengan pandangan atau selera dan keinginan pembaca, oleh sebab itu kami sangat terbuka terhadap kritik, saran dan usul-usul perbaikan, bila ada temuan-temuan dalam tulisan ini, yang menyimpang, salah pengertian, atau keliru pengetikannya, bahkan berulang-ulang disebutkan dan lain-lain persoalan yang kurang berkenan dihati pembaca atau sulit dimengerti, seperti pepatah yang menyatakan bahwa : “Tak ada gading yang tidak ada retaknya”.

Tulisan ini, dipersembahkan sebagai warisan bagi generasi muda dan untuk masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa khususnya, teristimewa juga bagi Saudara-saudara atau keturunan yang masih berdarah atau titisan dotu-dotu yang berasal dari Wanua Ka-senduk-an atau Ma-lesung atau Mina-Esa (Minahasa), yang tersebar diseluruh penjuru dunia, bahkan lebih dari itu pula, teristimewa bagi bangsa dan negara Panca Sila yaitu Republik Indonesia tercinta, uuntuk memperkaya khasanah perbendaharaan budaya nasional warisan nenek moyang kepada anak cucunya.

Semoga tulisan ini bermanfaat pula bagi pengembangan dan pelestarian budaya bangsa dan negara Indonesia.

Wanua Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, 9 – 9 – 1999.
Paka-tu’an wo Paka-lowir-en kita im baya !

Maka-Petor !

4.Minahasa Information

 (1)Tona’as im pa’seke’an Minahasa 1890

 
Seorang priester (walian/religious ) Minahasa (Tona’as im pa’seke’an) dalam pakaian kebesarannya berkain patola (tahun 1890an).

(2)  The second Law of Large in Afdeling Manado 1880s

 
Para Hukum Besar/Hukum Kedua se-Minahasa dalam Afdeling Manado sekitar tahun 1880-an di Tikala – Manado.

 3.The history of Minahasa

Minahasa
Minahasan.JPG
Minahasan tribesman in a parade in Surabaya, East Java.
Total population
ca. 1 million in North Sulawesi
Regions with significant populations
Indonesia
(predominantly North Sulawesi)
   
Languages
Minahasan languages, Manado Malay, Indonesian language
Religion
Protestantism (89%), Roman Catholicism (10,5%), Islam (0,5%)
Related ethnic groups
Bolaang Mongondow people, Gorontalo people

The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia, formerly known as North Celebes. The Minahasa speak Minahasan languages and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language.

Minahasa Raya is the area covering Bitung City, Manado City and Minahasa Regency, which are three of the seven regional administrations in the province of North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Originally inhabited by Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages-speaking peoples, the region was colonized in the 16th century by the Portuguese and Spanish, then the Dutch. In the Dutch East Indies the Minahasa people identified strongly with the Dutch language, culture and the Protestant faith — so strongly, in fact, that when Indonesia became independent in 1945 factions of political elites of the region pleaded with the Dutch to let it become a province of the Netherlands.[1] There is a considerable number of people from the Minahasa living in the Netherlands, as part of the Indo community.[2]

Contents

 

 History

Kabasaran Minahasa.

The name of the land of Minahasa has been changed several times: Batacina-Malesung-Minaesa and then finally the current name Minahasa, meaning “becoming one united”. This name dates from the war against the Kingdom of Bolaang Mangondow. However, other sources cite that the original name of Minahasa was Malesung, meaning “paddy rotary”, then changed to Se Mahasa, meaning “they that unite,” and finally Minahasa, meaning “becoming one united.”[3]

North Sulawesi never developed any large empire. In 670, the leaders of the different tribes, who all spoke different languages, met by a stone known as Watu Pinawetengan. There they founded a community of independent states, who would form one unit and stay together and would fight any outside enemies if they were attacked.[4]

The Origin of Minahasa People

It is unknown when the land of Minahasa was first occupied by humans. The Minahasans believe that they are descendants of Toar and Lumimuut. Initially, the descendants of Toar-Lumimuut were divided into 3 groups: Makatelu-pitu (three times seven), Makaru-siuw (two times nine) and Pasiowan-Telu (nine times three). They multiplied quickly. But soon there were disputes among these people. Their leaders (Tona’as) then decided to meet and talk about this. They met in Awuan (north of the current Tonderukan hill). That meeting was called Pinawetengan u-nuwu (dividing of language) or Pinawetengan um-posan (dividing of ritual). At that meeting the descendants were divided into three groups named Tonsea, Tombulu, and Tontemboan corresponding to the groups mentioned above. At the place where this meeting took place a memorial stone called Watu Pinabetengan (Stone of Dividing) was then built. It is a favourite tourist destination.

The groups Tonsea, Tombulu, and Tontemboan then established their main territories which were Maiesu, Niaranan, and Tumaratas respectively. Soon several villages were established outside these territories. These new villages then became a ruling center of a group of villages called puak, later walak, comparable to the present-day district.

Subsequently a new group of people arrived in Pulisan peninsula. Due to numerous conflicts in this area, they then moved inland and established villages surrounding a large lake. These people were therefore called Tondano, Toudano or Toulour (meaning water people). This lake is now the Tondano lake.

Minahasa Warriors.

In the following years, more groups came to Minahasa. There were:

  • people from the islands of Maju and Tidore who landed in Atep. These people were the ancestors of the subethnic Tonsawang.
  • people from Tomori Bay. These were the ancestors of the subethnic Pasam-bangko (Ratahan dan Pasan)
  • people from Bolaang Mangondow who were the ancestors of Ponosakan (Belang).
  • people from the Bacan archipelago and Sangi, who then occupied Lembeh, Talisei Island, Manado Tua, Bunaken and Mantehage. These were the subethnic Bobentehu (Bajo). They landed in the place now called Sindulang. They then established a kingdom called Manado which ended in 1670 and became walak Manado.
  • people from Toli-toli, who in the early 18th century landed first in Panimburan and then went to Bolaang-Mangondow
  • and finally to the place where Malalayang is now located. These people were the ancestors of the subethnic Bantik.

These are the nine subethnic groups in Minahasa (which explains the number 9 in Manguni Maka-9): Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan, Tondano, Tonsawang, Pasan Ratahan, Ponosakan, Babontehu and Bantik.

The name Minahasa itself arose at the time the Minahasans fought against Bolaang Mangondow. Among the Minahasan heroes in these wars against Bolaang Mangondow are: Porong, Wenas, Dumanaw and Lengkong (in the war near Lilang village), Gerungan, Korengkeng, Walalangi (near Panasen, Tondano), Wungkar, Sayow, Lumi, and Worotikan (in the war along Amurang Bay).

Until the dominance of Dutch influence in the 17th and 18th century the Minahassans lived in warrior societies that practised headhunting.[5]

 The European Era

Minahasa Wedding.

In the second half of the 16th century, both Portuguese and the Spanish arrived in North Sulawesi. Half-way though the 17th century there was a rapprochement between the Minahasan chiefs and the Dutch VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), which was given concrete form in the treaty of 1679 (which can be found in the Corpus Diplomaticus Neerlando-Indicum 1934, vol. III, no 425). From 1801-1816, the Netherlands were occupied by the French imperial forces of Napoleon and the Minahasa came under English control. In 1817 Dutch rule was re-established until 1949.

At the time of the first contact with Europeans the sultanate of Ternate held some sway over North Sulawesi, and the area was often visited by seafaring Bugis traders from South Sulawesi. The Spanish and the Portuguese, the first Europeans to arrive, landed in Minahasa via the port of Makasar, but also landed at Sulu Island (off the north coast of Borneo) and at the port of Manado. The abundance of natural resources in Minahasa made Manado a strategic port for European traders sailing to and from the spice island of Maluku. Although they had sporadic contacts with Minahasa, the Spanish and Portuguese influence was limited by the power of the Ternate sultanate.

The Portuguese and Spaniards left reminders of their presence in the north in subtle ways. Portuguese surnames and various Portuguese words not found elsewhere in Indonesia, like garrida for an enticing woman and buraco for a bad man, can still be found in Minahasa. In the 1560s the Portuguese Franciscan missionaries made some converts in Minahasa.

The Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain to become the center of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado, so that eventually Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century.[6] The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo. [7]

Spain renounced to her possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats.[8] Minahasan rulers sent Supit, Pa’at dan Lontoh (their statues are located in Kauditan, about 30 km to Bitung) where they made an alliance treaty with the Dutch. Together eventually gained the upper hand in 1655, built their own fortress in 1658 and expelled the last of the Portuguese a few years later.

By the early 17th century the Dutch had toppled the Ternate sultanate, and then set about eclipsing the Spanish and Portuguese. As was the usual case in the 1640s and 50s, the Dutch colluded with local powers to throw out their European competitors. In 1677 the Dutch occupied Pulau Sangir and, two years later, the Dutch governor of Maluku, Robert Padtbrugge, visited Manado. Out of this visit came a treaty with the local Minahasan chiefs, which led to domination by the Dutch for the next 300 years.

The Dutch helped unite the linguistically diverse Minahasa confederacy, and in 1693 the Minahasa scored a decisive military victory against the Bolaang to the south. The Dutch influence flourished as the Minahasans embraced the European goods and Christian religion. Missionary schools in Manado in 1881 were among the first attempts at mass education in Indonesia, giving their graduates a considerable edge in gaining civil service, military and other positions of influence.

Relations with the Dutch were often less than cordial (a war was fought around Tondano between 1807 and 1809) and the region did not actually come under direct Dutch rule until 1870. The Dutch and the Minahasans eventually became so close that the north was often referred to as the 12th province of the Netherlands. A Manado – based political movement called Twaalfde Provincie even campaigned for Minahasa’s integration into the Dutch state in 1947.

Portuguese activity apart, Christianity became a force in the early 1820s when a Calvinist group, the Netherlands Missionary Society, turned from an almost exclusive interest in Maluku to the Minahasa area. The wholesale conversion of the Minahasans was almost complete by 1860. With the missionaries came mission schools, which meant that, as in Ambon and Roti, Western education in Minahasa started much earlier than in other parts of Indonesia. The Dutch government eventually took over some of these schools and also set up others. Because the schools taught in Dutch, the Minahasans had an early advantage in the competition for government jobs and places in the colonial army. Minahasans remain among the educated elite today.

Armed Forces

Minahasa reserve troops, Tondano Landstorm, 1948.

A relatively large number of Minahasans pursued professional military careers in the colonial army (KNIL). Next to the South Moluccan Ambonese, the Minahasa Menadonese were also considered a martial race and therefore particularly competent and trustworthy as soldiers. As KNIL soldiers the Minahasans fought alongside the Dutch to subdue rebellions in other parts of the archipelago, such as for instance the Java War of 1825-30.

As a large percentage of Minahasans was formally equalised to the European legal class, young men were also obliged to serve as conscripts when mandatory military service for Europeans was introduced in 1917. Older men (as off 32) were obliged to join the Home guard (Dutch: Landstorm).

During the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies in WWII many Menadonese soldiers were held captive as POW‘s.

They seemed to gain a special role in the Dutch scheme of things and their loyalty to the Dutch as soldiers, their Christian religion and their geographic isolation from the rest of Indonesia all led to a sense of being ‘different’ from the other ethnic groups of the archipelago.[clarification needed]

Republic of Indonesia

The Japanese occupation of 1942-45 was a period of deprivation, and the Allies bombed Manado heavily in 1945. During the Revolution for independence that followed, there was bitter division between pro-Indonesian Unitarians and those favoring Dutch-sponsored federalism. The appointment of a Manadonese Christian, Sam Ratulangi, as the first republican governor of eastern Indonesia, was decisive in winning Minahasan support for the republic.

As the young republic lurched from crisis to crisis, Jakarta‘s monopoly over the copra trade seriously weakened Minahasa’s economy. Illegal exports flourished and in June 1956 Jakarta ordered the closure of Manado port, the busiest smuggling port in the republic. Local leaders refused and Jakarta backed down. Soon Permesta rebels confronted the central government with demands for political, economic and regional reform. Jakarta responded in Manado by bombing the city in February 1958, and then invading in June 1958.

The Minahasan sense of being different quickly became a problem for the central government after independence. As in Sumatra, there was a general feeling that the central government was inefficient, development was stagnating and money was being plugged into Java. Circumstances favored the spread of communism.

In March 1957, the military leaders of both southern and northern Sulawesi launched a confrontation with the central government, with demands for greater regional autonomy. They demanded more local development, a fairer share of revenue, help in suppressing the Kahar Muzakar rebellion in Southern Sulawesi, and a cabinet of the central government led jointly by Soekarno and Hatta. At least initially the ‘Permesta’ (Piagam Perjuangan Semesta Alam) rebellion was a reformist rather than a separatist movement.

Negotiations between the central government and the Sulawesi military leaders prevented violence in southern Sulawesi, but the Minahasan leaders were dissatisfied with the agreements and the movement split. Inspired, perhaps, by fears of domination by the south, the Minahasan leaders declared their own autonomous state of North Sulawesi in June 1957. By this time the central government had the situation in southern Sulawesi pretty much under control but in the north they had no strong local figure to rely upon and there were rumors that the USA, suspected of supplying arms to rebels in Sumatra, was also in contact with the Minahasan leaders.

The possibility of foreign intervention finally drove the central government to seek military support from southern Sulawesi. Permesta forces were driven out of central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Sangir island and from Morotai in Maluku (from whose airfield the rebels had hoped to fly bombing raids on Jakarta). The rebels’ few planes (supplied by the USA and flown by Filipino, Taiwanese and US pilots) were destroyed. US policy shifted, favoring Jakarta, and in June 1958 central government troops landed in Minahasa. The Permesta rebellion was finally put down in mid-1961.

The effect of both the Sumatran and Sulawesi rebellions was to strengthen exactly those trends the rebels had hoped to weaken. Central authority was enhanced at the expense of local autonomy, radical nationalism gained over pragmatic moderation, the power of the communists and Soekarno increased while that of Hatta waned, and Soekarno was able to establish guided democracy in 1959.

Recently, the Indonesian government has adopted policies to strengthen local autonomy, the very idea that Permesta fought for.

[9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

Culture

Religion

Tontemboan Bible, by M. Adriani-Gunning and J. Regar, published in 1907 by Firma P.W.M Trap, Leiden, Holland.

At 97% of the population, the Minahasa Regency has one of highest proportions of Christianity in Indonesia. It has the highest density of church buildings in Indonesia, with approximately one church for every 100m road.[citation needed] This is due to a successful missionary campaign by European Christians in Northern Sulawesi.

In 1907, Firma P.W.M Trap, Leiden, Holland published a bible in the Tontemboan language, a language of Minahasa. It was edited by M. Adriani-Gunning and J. Regar.

Jehovah’s Witnesses begin their first preaching activity in this province in 1932. The first Minahasa to be baptized was Brother Theo Ratu; he is also claimed as the first Indonesian to be baptized. His son Vicky Ratu was also one of the Jehovah’s Witnesses, now joined in Tangerang Kota Congregation. In the 2007 Service Year in North Sulawesi their peak publisher figures were 2,500 publishers.

 Cuisine

Minahasan cuisine is very spicy, and can feature ingredients not typically found in other parts of Indonesia. For example, dog (RW, short for rintek wuuk, or “fine hair” in Tontemboan), cat (tusuk, also known as eveready because of the cat logo used by the battery), forest rat, and fruit bat (paniki) are commonly eaten. The provincial capital Manado is often referred to as Kota Tinutuan, in reference to a popular local dish: a rice porridge made with corn, smoked fish, greens, and chilies. Known outside the province as Bubur Manado, tinutuan is supposed to improve health and vitality.

Dance

Kabasaran war dance, performed at a parade on August 17, 2006

Kabasaran is the fierce and famous Minahasan wardance which reminds of the old Minahasa warrior societies. The dancers wear red garments which in the old times was a color exclusive for the accomplished headhunter. This dance is similar to the Moluccan Cakalele wardance.[15]

 Music

Minahasa music is highly influenced by that of the European colonials; their festivals feature large marching ensembles made up of clarinets, saxophones (source), trumpets, trombones, and tubas, all constructed out of local bamboo.[16]

Languages

In the Minahasa, 5 distinct languages are spoken: Tonsawang, Tontemboan, Toulour, Tonsea and Tombulu. In 1996, the Summer Institute of Linguistics in Dallas, published the North Sulawesi Language Survey by Scott Merrifield and Martinus Salea. It gives an overview of the classification and distribution of the languages, based on a detailed study of the phonology and vocabulary.[17]

Influences of Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch can be found in the Indonesian dialect of the Minahasa (Manado Malay or Minahasa Malay):

Chair in Indonesian is kursi, in the Minahasa its called kadera (cadera – Spanish word for hip; cadeira – Portuguese word for chair).

Horse in Indonesian is kuda, a word of Sanscrit origin. In the town of Tomohon, a horse is called kafalio (caballo – Spanish, cavalo – Portuguese).

There is not much known yet about the ideogramatical Minahasa writing system, its origin or translation.[18]

Cultural revival

Ever since the overall de-centralisation following the end of Suharto’s New Order era the Minahasa is bolstering its regional autonomy scheme, among others by positioning itself to profile a unique cultural entity & identity. The three main Minahasa NGO’s active in the cultural revival movement are: ‘Yayasan Suara Nurami’ (The Voice from Within Foundation); ‘Minahasa Wangko’ (Minahasa the Great) both founded by Bert Supit and ‘Peduli Minahasa’ (Take care of Minahasa).[19]

National Heroes of Indonesia from Minahasa

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The Article In rare German Book 1895″The Rage Night to The ethnography of Otong Java”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

Showcase:

The Article in Rare German Book 1895 :

Nachtrage zur Ethnographie der Otong Java Inseln. von E.Parkinson . 

Rage night to the ethnography of Otong Java islands By E.Parkinson

1. Die Ueberlieferungen der Otong Java Insulaner melden, dass Lolo der Erschaffer und zulgleich der erste Bewohner der Inselgruppe war. Auf dem Meeresgrunde wohned,haute er die Korallenriffe empor; zu einer Zeit, als diese noch nicht uber die Meeresfla’ che gestigen, kam von ferner eine Kanoe und darin SIVA.Dieser sah den Kops LOLO.s aus dem Sande hervorragen und er ergriff ihn an den Haaren,die von den Wellen hin und her bewegt wurden und zaerrte daran. LOLO rief ihm zu recht kra’tig zu ziehen und es gelang dem SIVA ihn ganz ans Licht zu bringen. LOLO jedoch bedeutete dem Siva  wieder fortzuziehen ,denn seine Insel sei noch nicht fertig, auch sei dieselbe zu seinem eigenen Gebrauch und nicht fur fremdlinge bestimmt, worauf siva weiter zog. lolo baute nun fleissig weiter und brachte bald das riff so hoch uber wasser,dass die wellen nicht daruber hin spulen konnten; alsdann begann er das gestein mit gras und krautern zu bekleiden, dann mit buschen und gestrupp und endlich mit grossen baumen.

 
The traditions of the islanders Otong Java report that Lolo was the creator and zulgleich the first inhabitants of the archipelago. Wohned on the sea bed, he cut up the coral reefs, at a time as this term is not disturbed over the Meeresfla ‘che, also came from a canoe, and it looked SIVA.
The  LOLO.s his head from the sand stand out and he took by the hair, which were moved by the waves back and forth and zaerrte it. LOLO called him to pull rather kra’tig and succeeded in SIVA bring it all to light. LOLO but meant to Siva move away again, for his island was not yet finished, also the same for his own use and not for strangers is determined what went siva on. lolo now built more diligently and soon brought the riff so high above water that the waves could not even consider writing coils, then he began to rock with grass and herbs to hold, then bushes and trees and finally admit rupp with large
 
2. The Ancient Javanese Singing
(1)GESANG BEI DEM TODE EINES TU’U (SINGING IN THE DEATH OF A Tu’u)
E a ke marigo u ko kaiau
e i aro iho gae o i loko keovo
 
E a makari’i u ko kalau,
e i aro lho oga kuga i loko keovo
 
E a ke masaga u kou kaga,
e i aro iho oga i loko keovo
 
E a ke aiku i kalau ke makagi,
e i aro iho oga i loko keovo
 
E a ke he’o i kaeau, ke sauri’i,
e i aro iho oga i loko keovo
 
Schones Wetter am Morgen,nehme Kanoe,gehe nach Mitte der Passage.
Morgenstern lat in der Mitte der Passage, halte Wind ab.
Schildkrote sitzt under Seegras, in der Mitte de Passage
Aiku, halte Wind ab am Morgen in der Mitte der Passage.
Tintenflach,halte Wind ab am Morgen in der Mitte der Passage.
 
 

Fine weather in the morning, take canoe, go to the middle passage.
Morning star  in the middle of the passage, hold the wind.
Turtle sits under sea grass in the middle de Passage
Aiku think, from wind in the morning in the middle of the passage.
Ink Flat think, from wind in the morning in the middle of the passage
(2) VA SIRI KAMAGA
 
Ku’e ku’e Werfe es fort Wo ist dein Vater
Antwort : Mein Vater ist todt, er hatte mich lieb
Chor:Ku’e ,ku’e Werfe es fort Wo ist deine mutter?
Antwort: Meinde Mutter ist todt.sie hat mich gross gezogen.
 Chor: ku’e ku’e Wete es fort Wo ist dein Grossvater.
Antw.: Mein Grossvater, isch sehe ihn nicht mehr.
Chor:Ku’e ku’e Wete es fort.Wo ist deine Grossmutter
Antw.: Meine mGrossmutter , sie hat nicht stets getragen.
Chor.Ku’e ku’e Werfe es fort Wo ist deins Schwester ?
Antw.: Meine Schwawester is allein im hause
Chor.: Ku’e ku’e Werfe es fort. Wo ist dein Bruder
Antw.: Mein Bruder ist nacht einen andern Haus gegangen
Chor.: Ku’e Ku’e Wete es fort SWo ist dein Land (Grundstuck)
Antw.: Ich gehe nach meinrem Land, Ich werde dort sterben,ich werde immer dorty bleiben
 

 

Ku’e ku’e throw it away Where is your father
Answer: My father is dead, he loved me
Chorus: Ku’e ku’e, throw it away Where’s your mother?
Answer: todt.sie municipality mother pulled me great.
  Chorus: ku’e ku’e throw it away Where is your grandfather.
Ans: My grandfather, severally can not see him.
Chorus: Ku’e ku’e throw it away.Wo it is your Grandmother
Ans: My grandmother , she has not worn at all times.
Chor.Ku ‘e ku’e throw it away Where is your sister?
Ans: I don’t have Sister, I am   alone in the home
Chorus. Ku’e ku’e throw it away. Where is your brother
Ans: My brother is another night gone home
Chorus. Ku’e Ku’e throw it away Where  is your land (plot)
Ans: I am going to my country, I will die there, I will always remain do

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