The Chinese Nobel Prize Winner Gao Xingjian’s Book :”Soul Mountain” and Painting Exhibition(Buku Karangan Penulis Tiongkok Yang memperoleh Hadiah Nobel tahun 2000)














The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

FRAME ONE :The Chinese Nobel Prize writter Gao Xingjian’s Book:”Soul Mountain”the amizing book

Gao Xingjian

Gao Xingjian

Soul Mountain

Chapter One

This piece is 2,600 words or about seven printed pages long

THE OLD BUS is a city reject. After shaking in it for twelve hours on the potholed highway since early morning, you arrive in this mountain county town in the South.In the bus station, which is littered with ice-block wrappers and sugar cane scraps, you stand with your backpack and a bag and look around for a while. People are getting off the bus or walking past, men humping sacks and women carrying babies. A crowd of youths, unhampered by sacks or baskets, have their hands free. They take sunflower seeds out of their pockets, toss them one at a time into their mouths and spit out the shells. With a loud crack the kernels are expertly eaten. To be leisurely and carefree is endemic to the place. They are locals and life has made them like this, they have been here for many generations and you wouldn’t need to go looking anywhere else for them. The earliest to leave the place travelled by river in black canopy boats and overland in hired carts, or by foot if they didn’t have the money. Of course at that time there were no buses and no bus stations. Nowadays, as long as they are still able to travel, they flock back home, even from the other side of the Pacific, arriving in cars or big air-conditioned coaches. The rich, the famous and the nothing in particular all hurry back because they are getting old. After all, who doesn’t love the home of their ancestors? They don’t intend to stay so they walk around looking relaxed, talking and laughing loudly, and effusing fondness and affection for the place. When friends meet they don’t just give a nod or a handshake in the meaningless ritual of city people, but rather they shout the person’s name or thump him on the back. Hugging is also common, but not for women. By the cement trough where the buses are washed, two young women hold hands as they chat. The women here have lovely voices and you can’t help taking a second look. The one with her back to you is wearing an indigo-print headscarf. This type of scarf, and how it’s tied, dates back many generations but is seldom seen these days. You find yourself walking towards them. The scarf is knotted under her chin and the two ends point up. She has a beautiful face. Her features are delicate, so is her slim body. You pass close by them. They have been holding hands all this time, both have red coarse hands and strong fingers. Both are probably recent brides back seeing relatives and friends, or visiting parents. Here, the word xlfu means one’s own daughter-in-law and using it like rustic Northerners to refer to any young married woman will immediately incur angry abuse. On the other hand, a married woman calls her own husband laogong, yet your laogong and my laogong are both used. People here speak with a unique intonation even though they are descendants of the same legendary emperor and are of the same culture and race.
You can’t explain why you’re here. It happened that you were on a train and this person mentioned a place called Lingshan. He was sitting opposite and your cup was next to his. As the train moved, the lids on the cups clattered against one another. If the lids kept on clattering or clattered and then stopped, that would have been the end of it. However, whenever you and he were about to separate the cups, the clattering would stop, and as soon as you and he looked away the clattering would start again. He and you reached out, but again the clattering stopped. The two of you laughed at the same instant, put the cups well apart, and started a conversation. You asked him where he was going.”Lingshan””What?””Lingshan, ling meaning spirit or soul, and shanmeaning mountain.”You’d been to lots of places, visited lots of famous mountains, but had never heard of this place.

Your friend opposite had closed his eyes and WAS dozing. Like anyone else, you couldn’t help being curious and naturally wanted to know which famous places you’d missed on your travels. Also, you liked doing things properly and it was annoying that there was a place you’ve never even heard of. You asked him about the location of Lingshan.

“At the source of the You River,” he said, opening his eyes.

You didn’t know this You River either, but was embarrassed about asking and gave an ambiguous nod which could have meant either “I see, thanks” or “Oh, I know the place”. This satisfied your desire for superiority, but not your curiosity. After a while you asked how to get there and the route up the mountain.

“Take the train to Wuyizhen, then go upstream by boat on the You River.”

“Whats there? Scenery? Temples? Historic sites?” you asked, trying to be casual.

“It’s all virgin wilderness.”

“Ancient forests?”

“Of course, but not just ancient forests.”

“What about Wild Men?” you said, joking.

He laughed without any sarcasm, and didn’t seem to be making fun of himself which intrigued you even more. You had to find out more about him.

“Are you an ecologist? A biologist? An anthropologist? An archaeologist?”

He shook his head each time then said, “I’m more interested in living people.”

“So you’re doing research on folk customs? You’re a sociologist? An ethnographer? An ethnologist? A journalist, perhaps? An adventurer?”

“I’m an amateur in all of these.”

The two of you started laughing.

“I’m an expert amateur in all of these!”

The laughing made you and him cheerful. He lit a cigarette and couldn’t stop talking as he told you about the wonders of Lingshan. Afterwards, at your request, he tore up his empty cigarette box and drew a map of the route up Lingshan. In the North it is already late autumn but the summer heat hasn’t completely subsided. Before sunset, it is still quite hot in the sun and sweat starts running down your back. You leave the station to have a look around. There’s nothing nearby except for the little inn across the road. It’s an old-style two-storey building with a wooden shopfront. Upstairs the floorboards creak badly but worse still is the grime on the pillow and sleeping mat. If you wanted to have a wash, you’d have to wait till it was dark to strip off and pour water over yourself in the damp and narrow courtyard. This is a stopover for the village peddlers and craftsmen.

 THE BUS TUA adalah sebuah kota menolak. Setelah gemetar di dalamnya selama dua belas jam di jalan raya berlubang-lubang sejak pagi, Anda tiba di kota ini wilayah gunung di Selatan.

Di stasiun bis, yang penuh dengan pembungkus es-blok dan skrap gula tebu, Anda berdiri dengan ransel dan tas dan melihat sekitar untuk sementara waktu. Orang-orang turun dari bus terakhir atau berjalan, laki-laki dan perempuan menjunjung karung sambil membawa bayi. Sekelompok pemuda, dihalangi oleh karung atau keranjang, memiliki tangan mereka bebas. Mereka mengambil biji bunga matahari keluar dari kantong mereka, melemparkannya  satu per satu ke dalam mulut mereka dan dimuntahkan kerang. Dengan retak keras kernel adalah ahli dimakan. Untuk menjadi santai dan riang adalah endemik untuk menempatkan. Mereka adalah penduduk setempat dan kehidupan telah membuat mereka seperti ini, mereka telah di sini selama beberapa generasi dan Anda tidak perlu pergi mencari tempat lain untuk mereka. Paling awal untuk meninggalkan tempat bepergian dengan perahu sungai di kanopi hitam dan darat di gerobak disewa, atau dengan kaki kalau mereka tidak punya uang. Tentu saja pada waktu itu tidak ada bis dan tidak ada stasiun bis. Saat ini, selama mereka masih dapat melakukan perjalanan, mereka kawanan kembali ke rumah, bahkan dari sisi lain Pasifik, tiba di mobil atau pelatih ber-AC besar. Orang kaya, yang terkenal dan tidak terburu-buru khususnya semua kembali karena mereka mulai tua. Setelah semua, yang tidak menyukai rumah nenek moyang mereka? Mereka tidak berniat untuk tinggal sehingga mereka berjalan di sekitar tampak santai, berbicara dan tertawa keras, dan curahan kecintaan dan kasih sayang untuk tempat itu. Ketika teman-teman bertemu mereka tidak hanya memberikan mengangguk atau jabat tangan dalam ritual berarti orang kota, melainkan mereka berteriak nama orang atau berdebar-debar dia di belakang. Memeluk juga umum, tetapi tidak untuk wanita. Oleh palung semen tempat bus dicuci, dua perempuan muda berpegangan tangan saat mereka bercakap-cakap(chatting). Para wanita di sini memiliki suara indah dan Anda tidak dapat membantu mengambil melihat kedua. Yang satu dengan kembali kepada Anda adalah mengenakan jilbab nila-cetak. Jenis syal, dan bagaimana hal itu diikat, tanggal kembali generasi banyak tapi jarang terlihat hari ini. Anda menemukan diri Anda berjalan ke arah mereka. syal ini rajutan di bawah dagu dan kedua ujung titik atas. Dia memiliki wajah cantik. fitur nya adalah halus, sehingga tubuh ramping. Anda melewati dekat oleh mereka. Mereka telah memegang tangan selama ini, keduanya memiliki tangan kasar merah dan jari-jari yang kuat. Keduanya mungkin pengantin baru-baru ini kembali melihat kerabat dan teman-teman, atau mengunjungi orang tua. Di sini, kata xlfu berarti satu putri-sendiri di-hukum dan menggunakannya seperti utara pedesaan untuk merujuk kepada semua wanita yang menikah muda segera akan dikenakan penyalahgunaan marah. Di sisi lain, seorang wanita yang sudah menikah panggilan Laogong suaminya sendiri, namun Laogong Anda dan Laogong saya keduanya digunakan. Orang di sini berbicara dengan intonasi yang unik meskipun mereka adalah keturunan dari kaisar legendaris yang sama dan budaya yang sama dan ras.

Anda tidak dapat menjelaskan mengapa Anda di sini. Itu terjadi bahwa Anda berada di kereta dan orang ini disebutkan tempat yang disebut Lingshan. Dia duduk berlawanan dan cangkir Anda di samping nya. Saat kereta bergerak, penutup pada cangkir berdentang terhadap satu sama lain. Jika tutup terus gemerincing atau terjatuh dan kemudian berhenti, yang seharusnya akhir itu. Namun, setiap kali Anda dan dia hendak memisahkan cangkir, derap akan berhenti, dan segera setelah Anda dan dia memalingkan muka dengan gemerincing akan mulai lagi. Dia dan Anda mengulurkan tangan, tapi sekali lagi gemerincing itu berhenti. Anda berdua tertawa pada saat yang sama, baik meletakkan cangkir terpisah, dan mulai percakapan. Anda bertanya padanya di mana ia akan pergi.



“Lingshan, ling berarti roh atau jiwa, dan gunung yang berarti shan.”

Kau pernah ke banyak tempat, mengunjungi banyak gunung terkenal, tetapi belum pernah mendengar tentang tempat ini.

berlawanan Teman Anda telah menutup matanya dan WS tertidur. Seperti orang lain, Anda tidak bisa menahan rasa penasaran dan ingin tahu yang terkenal dengan tempat-tempat kau ketinggalan pada perjalanan anda. Juga, Anda suka melakukan hal-hal baik dan itu menjengkelkan bahwa ada tempat yang belum pernah dengar. Anda bertanya tentang lokasi Lingshan.

“Pada sumber Anda Sungai,” katanya, membuka matanya.

Kau tidak tahu ini Anda Sungai baik, tapi merasa malu tentang meminta dan memberikan mengangguk ambigu yang bisa berarti baik “Saya melihat, terima kasih” atau “Oh, aku tahu tempat”. Puas ini keinginan Anda untuk keunggulan, tetapi tidak rasa ingin tahu Anda. Setelah beberapa saat Anda bertanya bagaimana untuk sampai ke sana dan rute atas gunung.

“Naik kereta api ke Wuyizhen, kemudian pergi hulu dengan perahu di Sungai Anda.”

“Pemandangan apa yang ada?? Candi? Situs Bersejarah?” Anda bertanya, mencoba untuk bersikap santai.

“Ini semua padang belantara perawan.”

“Kuno hutan?”

“Tentu saja, tetapi bukan hanya kuno hutan.”

“Bagaimana Liar Pria?” Anda berkata, bercanda.

Dia tertawa tanpa sarkasme apapun, dan tampaknya tidak akan membuat olok dirinya sendiri yang tertarik Anda bahkan lebih. Anda harus mencari tahu lebih banyak tentang dia.

“Apakah Anda seorang ahli ekologi biologi A?? Antropolog An? Arkeolog An?”

Dia menggeleng setiap kali lalu berkata, “Saya lebih tertarik pada kehidupan orang.”

“Jadi kau melakukan penelitian tentang adat rakyat Kau? Sosiolog? Etnograf An? Etnolog An? Jurnalis, mungkin? Petualang An?”

“Aku seorang amatir dalam semua.”

Anda berdua mulai tertawa.

“Saya ahli amatir dalam semua ini!”

The tertawa membuat Anda dan dia ceria. Dia menyalakan rokok dan tidak dapat berhenti berbicara ketika ia memberitahu Anda tentang keajaiban Lingshan. Setelah itu, atas permintaan Anda, ia merobek kotak rokok kosong dan menggambar peta rute Facebook Lingshan. Di Utara itu sudah akhir musim gugur namun musim panas belum sepenuhnya surut. Sebelum matahari terbenam, masih cukup panas di bawah sinar matahari dan keringat mulai membasahi punggung. Anda meninggalkan stasiun untuk melihat-lihat. Tidak ada di dekatnya kecuali untuk penginapan kecil di seberang jalan. Ini sebuah bangunan dua lantai gaya lama dengan shopfront kayu. Di lantai atas papan lantai berderit buruk tapi lebih buruk masih merupakan kotoran di atas bantal dan tikar tidur. Jika Anda ingin memiliki mencuci, Anda harus menunggu sampai hari sudah gelap untuk strip off dan menuangkan air di atas diri Anda di halaman lembab dan sempit. Ini adalah persinggahan bagi pedagang asongan desa dan pengrajin.


2.Gao Xingjian’s  poem: can remember the words of the ditty:

In moonlight thick as soup , I ride out to burn incense. For Luo Dajie who burnt to death.For Dou Sanniang who died in a rage.Sanniang picked beans.but the pods were empty,she married master Ji. but master Ji was short.So she married  a crab, the crab crossed a ditch.trod on an cel.The eel complained, it complained to a monk.The monk said a prayer, a prayer to Guanyin,So Guanyin pissed,The piss hit my son,his belly hurt.So I got an exorcist to dance.The dance didn’t work.But still cost heaps of money

Anda dapat mengingat kata-kata lagu pendek ini:
Dalam cahaya bulan setebal sup, aku naik keluar untuk membakar dupa. Untuk Luo Dajie yang dibakar untuk kematian.Untuk  Dou Sanniang yang meninggal dalam sebuah rage.Sanniang mengambil kacang hijau.Tetapi polongnya kosong, Ia menikah dengan master Ji. tapi master Ji pendek.So ia menikah kepiting, kepiting menyeberangi ditch.trod pada belut cel.Mengeluh, mengeluh kepada seorang biarawan pendeta.Pendeta  mengucapkan doa, doa untuk Guanyin, Jadi Guanyin marah dan kencing, kencingnya  mengenai  anak saya.Sehingga  perutnya cedera, sehingga saya menari untuk  mengusir setan .Tarian tersebut tidak berhasil .Tetapi  masih membutuhkan biaya setumpukan uang

2.I can see the people ,hear their voices, the sound of a gong and the  beat of drum.however outside the windows is only the sound of the  mountain and the lapping of water

There are three hundreed and sixty pole loads of songs,which load do you carry on your pole?There  are thirty -six thousand books of songs,Which book do you carry in your hand?Address me as master singer for I know,The first book is the script born within us, I understand  when I hear.The amster singer is an know the principle of Earth and Heaven.I venture to ask him. In which month of which year was song born? On which day of which month was song born?

Aku bisa melihat orang-orang, mendengar suara mereka, suara gong dan irama genderang .Kendatipun diluar jendela hanya suara gunung dan memukul-mukul air
Ada tiga ratus dan beban tiang enam puluh lagu, dengan beban yang Anda melanjutkan tiang Anda? Ada tiga puluh enam ribu buku lagu, buku yang Anda bawa di tangan Anda? Alamat saya sebagai penyanyi master karena aku tahu, pertama buku adalah script lahir dalam diri kita, aku memahami ketika aku dengar.The penyanyi master adalah sebuah expert.Untuk  mengetahui prinsip Bumi dan usaha Surga.Saya  bertanya padanya. Di mana bulan yang tahun lagu ini lahir? Pada hari yang bulan apa lagu ini  lahir ?

Frame Two :

The Gao xingjian Paintings

1. Museo Wurth La Rioja hosts ‘After the Flood’ an Exhibition by Gao Xingjian


    artwork: Gao Xingjian - Lightning, 2006 - Ink on canvas, 200 x 300 cm. - Courtesy of  Museo Wurth La Rioja 

    AGONCILLO-LA RIOJA, SPAIN – Museo Wurth La Rioja presents the exhibition ‘After the Flood’, which brings together the work by the prestigious Chinese artist Gao Xingjian (Ganzhou, China, 1940), 2000 Nobel Prize in Literature. A selection of 80 recently created artworks, including ink paintings on canvas and paper. Regarded as one of the most important Chinese writers at present, Gao Xingjian still is not well known as a painter in Spain, although he is recognized by the international art scene and his oeuvre was previously exhibited at the Reina Sofia Museum (Madrid, 2002). His work has been presented in several solo and group exhibitions in Europe, Asia and the United States, and is included in important art collections around the world

    Gao’s art emerges from an unique fusion of Oriental and Western cultures. His painting is characterized by the dominant use of traditional Chinese means –such as rice paper, Chinese ink and brushes-, but his technique reveals to be thoroughly modern. Through his comprehensive study of modern Western art, Gao has finely appreciated the importance given to the physical act of painting, the exploration on pictorial materiality, and specially, the autonomous status of painting.

    artwork: Gao Xingjian, The Auspices, 2006 192 x 200 cm. -  Ink on canvasThe exhibition After the Flood comprises large and medium-scale canvases and works on rice paper rendered in Chinese ink, carried out in 2008 and is fully representative of Gao’s style. The artworks exude a fluid technique and spontaneous overflow, with lightly brushstrokes, by means of which he explores the painterly possibilities of ink. White and black, light and shadow, achieve a great variety of tonalities, giving a sensual and poetic effect full of texture. The pictures fluctuate between figurative and abstract painting, depicting images that in a broader sense remind of landscapes and inner worlds, as well as cosmic processes inspired by the artists’ reflections on the complexity of the human existence.

    Gao Xingjian was born in 1940, in the Chinese province of Jianxi. Novelist, dramatist, theatre director, literary critic, stage director and painter, he studied French literature, worked as translator and, later, as scriptwriter at the Theatre of Popular Art in Beijing. The theatrical debut of the plays Signal Alarm (1982) and Bus Stop (1983) was condemned by the Chinese authorities and, in 1986, his work was definitely banned. A year later, Gao went into exile in Paris, where he has lived since then, and became French citizen in 1998. In France, he published Soul Mountain (1990), one of his most famous and acclaimed novels. Amongst other International awards, in 2000 Gao Xingjian received the Nobel Prize in Literature and was also named Chevalier de l’Ordre de la Légion d’ Honneur by the President of the Republic of France.

2.Gao Xinjian ‘s Painting :”Lonely atmospheric and melancholic beauty”



 3.Gao Xingjian Painting:”La Dispersion”


  Gao Xingjian, La Dispersion

TITLE:  La Dispersion
ARTIST:  Gao Xingjian
WORK DATE:  2008
CATEGORY:  Paintings
MATERIALS:  Ink on canvas
SIZE:  h: 60 x w: 81 cm / h: 23.6 x w: 31.9 in
REGION:  Chinese
STYLE:  Contemporary (ca. 1945-present)
GALLERY:  +34 93 487 6759    Send Email
ONLINE CATALOGUE(S):  Gao Xingjian ‘Después del diluvio’  Oct 23 – Dec 31, 2008


Frame Three:

The Gao Xingjian Profile During Nobel Prize Award Ceremony.


Gao Xingjian

The Nobel Prize in Literature

Gao Xingjian and His Majesty the King
Gao Xingjian receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000.


Gao Xingjian
Gao Xingjian after receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty the King at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000.


Award Ceremony
The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000. Gao Xingjian sits in the middle of the front row.


Nobel Laureate in Literature Gao Xingjian at the table of
Gao Xingjian at the table of honour at the Nobel Banquet at the Stockholm City Hall, 10 December 2000.


The Biography of Chinese Noble Prized Literature Gao Xingjian

This is a Chinese name; the family name is Gao.
Gao Xingjian
Born January 4, 1940 (1940-01-04) (age 71)
Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China
Occupation novelist, playwright, critic, translator, screenwriter, director, painter
Citizenship China (1949-1996)
France (since 1997)
Alma mater Beijing Foreign Studies University
Period since 1982
Notable award(s) Nobel Prize in Literature

Gao Xingjian (Chinese: 高行健; pinyin: Gāo Xíngjiàn; Wade–Giles: Kao Hsing-chien, pronounced [kɑ́ʊ ɕǐŋtɕjɛ̂n]; born January 4, 1940) is a Chinese-born novelist, playwright, critic, and painter. An émigré to France since 1987, Gao was granted French citizenship in 1997. He is a noted translator (particularly of Samuel Beckett and Eugène Ionesco), screenwriter, stage director, and a celebrated painter.

Gao was the recipient of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Literature “for an œuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”.[1] Gao’s drama is considered to be fundamentally absurdist in nature and avant-garde in his native China. His prose works tend to be less celebrated in China but are highly regarded elsewhere in Europe and the West. He once burnt a suitcase packed with manuscripts during the Cultural Revolution to avoid persecution.[2]




Gao’s original home town is Taizhou, Jiangsu. Born in Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China, Gao has been a French citizen since 1997. In 1992 he was awarded the Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government.

Early years in Jiangxi and Jiangsu

Gao’s father was a clerk in the Bank of China, and his mother was a member of the Young Men’s Christian Association. His mother was once a playactress of Anti-Japanese Theatre during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Under his mother’s influence, Gao enjoyed painting, writing and theatre very much when he was a little boy. During his middle school years, he read lots of literature translated from the West, and he studied sketching, ink and wash painting, oil painting and clay sculpture under the guidance of painter Yun Zongying (simplified Chinese: 郓宗嬴; traditional Chinese: 鄆宗嬴; pinyin: Yùn Zōngyíng).

In 1950, his family moved to Nanjing, the capital city of Jiangsu Province. In 1952, Gao entered the Nanjing Number 10 Middle School (南京市 第十 中学; later renamed Jinling High School (zh:金陵中学) which was the Middle School attached to Nanjing University.

Years in Beijing and Anhui

In 1957 Gao graduated, and, following his mother’s advice, chose Beijing Foreign Studies University (BFSU, 北京外国语大学) instead of the Central Academy of Fine Arts (中央美术学院), although he was thought to be talented in art.

In 1962 Gao graduated from the Department of French, BFSU, and then entered the Chinese International Bookstore (中国国际书店), where he became a professional translator. During the 1970s, because of the Down to the Countryside Movement, he went to and stayed in the countryside and did farm labour in Anhui Province. He taught as a Chinese teacher in Gangkou Middle School (港口中学), Ningguo Xian (宁国县), Anhui Province for a short time. In 1975, he was allowed to go back to Beijing and became the group leader of French translation for the magazine Construction in China (《中国建设》).

In 1977 Gao worked for the Committee of Foreign Relationship, Chinese Association of Writers (中国作家协会对外联络委员会). In May 1979, he visited Paris with Chinese writers including Ba Jin (巴金), and served as a French-Chinese translator in the group. In 1980, Gao became a screenwriter and playwright for the Beijing People’s Art Theatre (北京人民艺术剧院).

Gao is known as a pioneer of absurdist drama in China, where Signal Alarm (《绝对信号》, 1982) and Bus Stop (《车站》, 1983) were produced during his term as resident playwright at the Beijing People’s Art Theatre from 1981 to 1987. Influenced by European theatrical models, it gained him a reputation as an avant-garde writer. His other plays, The Primitive (1985) and The Other Shore (《彼岸》, 1986), all openly criticised the government’s state policies.

In 1986 Gao was misdiagnosed with lung cancer, and he began a 10-month trek along the Yangtze, which resulted in his novel Soul Mountain (《灵山》). The part-memoir, part-novel, first published in Taiwan in 1989, mixes literary genres and utilizes shifting narrative voices. It has been specially cited by the Swedish Nobel committee as “one of those singular literary creations that seem impossible to compare with anything but themselves.” The book details his travels from Sichuan province to the coast, and life among Chinese minorities such as the Qiang, Miao, and Yi peoples on the fringes of Han Chinese civilization.

Years in Europe and Paris

By 1987, Gao had shifted to Bagnolet, a city adjacent to Paris, France. The political Fugitives (1989), which makes reference to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, resulted in all his works being banned from performance in China.


Selected works:

Dramas and performances

  • 《绝对信号》 (Signal Alarm, 1982)
    • 1982, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1992, in Taiwan
  • 《车站》 (Bus Stop, 1983)
    • 1983, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1984, in Yugoslavia
    • 1986, in Hong Kong
    • 1988, in Britain
    • 1992, in Austria
    • 1999, in Japan
  • 《野人》 (Wild Men, “Savages”, 1985)
    • 1985, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1988, in Hamburg, Germany
    • 1990, in Hong Kong
  • 《彼岸》 (The Other Shore, 1986)
  • 《躲雨》 (Shelter the Rain)
    • 1981, in Sweden
  • 《冥城》 (Dark City)
    • 1988, in Hong Kong
  • 《声声慢变奏》 (Transition of Sheng-Sheng-Man)
    • 1989, in United States
  • 《逃亡》 (Escape)
    • 1990, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1990, in Sweden
    • 1992, in Germany, Poland
    • 1994, in France
    • 1997, in Japan, Africa
  • 《生死界》 (Death Sector / Between Life and Death)
    • 1991, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1992, in France
    • 1994, in Sydney, Italy
    • 1996, in Poland
    • 1996, in US
  • 《山海经传》 (A Tale of Shan Hai Jing)
    • 1992, published by Hong Kong Tian & Di Book Press (香港天地图书公司)
  • 《对话与反诘》 (Dialogue & Rhetorical / Dialogue and Rebuttal)
    • 1992, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1992, in Vienna
    • 1995, 1999, in Paris
  • 《周末四重奏》 (Weekends Quartet / Weekend Quartet)
    • 1999, published by Hong Kong New Century Press (香港新世纪出版社)
  • 《夜游神》 (Nighthawk / Nocturnal Wanderer)
    • 1999, in France
  • 《八月雪》 (Snow in August)
    • 2000, published by Taiwan Lianjing Press (台湾联经出版社)
    • 19 Dec 2002, in Taipei
  • 《高行健戏剧集》 (Collection)
  • 《高行健戏剧六种》 (Collection, 1995, published by Taiwan Dijiao Press (台湾帝教出版社))
  • 《行路难》 (Xinglunan)
  • 《喀巴拉山》 (Mountain Kebala)
  • 《独白》 (Soliloquy)


  • 《寒夜的星辰》 (“Constellation in a Cold Night”, 1979)
  • 《有只鸽子叫红唇儿》 (“Such a Pigeon called Red Lips”, 1984) – a collection of novellas
  • 《给我老爷买鱼竿》 (Buying a Fishing Rod for My Grandfather, 1986–1990) – a short story collection
  • 《灵山》 (Soul Mountain, 1989)
  • 《一个人的圣经》 (One Man’s Bible, 1998)


While being forced to work as a peasant – a form of ‘education’ under the Cultural Revolution – in the 1970s, Gao Xingjian produced many plays, short stories, poems and critical pieces that he had eventually to burn to avoid the consequences of his dissident literature being discovered.[3] Of the work he produced subsequently, he published no collections of poetry, being known more widely for his drama, fiction and essays. However, one short poem exists that represents a distinctively modern style akin to his other writings:

宰了 / 割了 / 烂捣碎了 / 燃一柱香 / 打一声呼哨 / 来了 / 就去了 / 来去都干干净净
Sky Burial
Cut / Scalped / Pounded into pieces / Light an incense / Blow the whistle / Come / Gone / Out and out

(13 April 1986, Beijing)[4]

Other texts

  • 《巴金在巴黎》 (Ba Jin in Paris, 1979, essay)
  • 《现代小说技巧初探》 (“A Preliminary Examination of Modern Fictional Techniques”, 1981)
  • 《谈小说观和小说技巧》 (1983)
  • 《没有主义》 (Without -isms, translated by W. Lau, D. Sauviat & M. Williams // Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia. Vols 27 & 28, 1995–96
  • 《对一种现代戏剧的追求》 (1988, published by China Drama Press) (中国戏剧出版社))
  • 《高行健·2000年文库——当代中国文库精读》 (1999, published by Hong Kong Mingpao Press) (香港明报出版社)


Gao is a renowned painter, especially for his ink and wash painting. His exhibitions have included:

  • Le goût de l’encre, Paris, Hazan 2002
  • Return to Painting, New York, Perennial 2002
  • “无我之境·有我之境”, Singapore, 17 Nov 2005 – 7 Feb 2006
  • The End of the World, Germany, 29 Mar – 27 May 2007

Works in English

  • Buying a Fishing Rod for my Grandfather, short stories, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, London, 2004, ISBN 0-00-717038-6
  • Soul Mountain, novel, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, London, 2001, ISBN 0-00-711923-2
  • One Man’s Bible, novel, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, ISBN 0-06-621132-8
  • The Other Shore, plays, trans. G. Fong, Chinese University Press, ISBN 962-201-862-9
  • The Other Side, play, trans. Jo Riley, in An Oxford Anthology of Contemporary Chinese Drama, 1997, ISBN 0-19-586880-3
  • Silhouette/Shadow: The Cinematic Art of Gao Xingjian, film/images/poetry, ed. Fiona Sze-Lorrain, Contours, Paris, ISBN 978-981-05-9207-3


Official response from mainland China

The Premier Zhu Rongji delivered a congratulatory message to Gao when interviewed by the Hong Kong newspaper East Daily (《东方日报》):

  • Q.: What’s your comment on Gao’s winning Nobel Prize ?
  • A.: I am very happy that works written in Chinese can win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Chinese characters have a history of several thousand years, and Chinese language has an infinite charm, (I) believe that there will be Chinese works winning Nobel Prizes again in the future. Although it’s a pity that the winner this time is a French citizen instead of Chinese, I still would like to send my congratulations both to the winner and the French Department of Culture. (Original words: 我很高兴用汉语写作的文学作品获诺贝尔文学奖。汉字有几千年的历史,汉语有无穷的魅力,相信今后还会有汉语或华语作品获奖。很遗憾这次获奖的是法国人不是中国人,但我还是要向获奖者和法国文化部表示祝贺。)

Comments from Chinese writers

Gao’s work has led to fierce discussion among Chinese writers, both positive and negative.

Many Chinese writers[who?] comment that Gao’s “Chinoiserie”, or translatable works, have opened a new approach for Chinese modern literature to the Swedish Academy, and that his winning the Nobel Prize in its 100th anniversary year is a happy occasion for Chinese literature.

In his article on Gao in the June 2008 issue of Muse, a now-defunct Hong Kong magazine, Leo Lee Ou-fan (李歐梵) praises the use of Chinese language in Soul Mountain: ‘Whether it works or not, it is a rich fictional language filled with vernacular speeches and elegant 文言 (classical) formulations as well as dialects, thus constituting a “heteroglossic” tapestry of sounds and rhythms that can indeed be read aloud (as Gao himself has done in his public readings).’[5]

Before 2000, a dozen Chinese writers and scholars already predicted Gao’s winning the Nobel Prize for Literature, including Hu Yaoheng (Chinese:胡耀恒) [6] Pan Jun (潘军)[7] as early as 1999. Chinese literature (characters, language, etc.) has heavily influenced East Asian literature, and Chinese language elements are widely used in several languages including Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese. In addition, with 20th-century Japanese writers having already won the Prize, many Chinese writers had predicted before 2000 that soon there would be a Literature winner with a Chinese background.



  • Gao Xingjian’s Swedish translator Göran Malmqvist, is a member of the Swedish Academy and was responsible for the translation to Swedish for Nobel Prize consideration. Ten days before the award decision was made public, Gao Xingjian changed his Swedish publisher (from Forum to Atlantis), but Göran Malmqvist has denied leaking information about the award [1].
  • Gao is one of the two Nobel laureates to give an Nobel acceptance speech in Chinese so far (after Samuel C. C. Ting in 1976).
  • Gao has been the center of an artistic piece of video art. The art exhibit is entitled ‘Voom’ and was presented at the University of Iowa art museum in March 2008.


  1. ^ “The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000”. Nobelprize. October 7, 2010. Retrieved October 7, 2010. 
  2. ^ Alex Duval Smith (2005-10-14). “A Nobel Calling: 100 Years of Controversy”. The Independent ( Retrieved 2008-04-26. “2000: During the Cultural Revolution, Xingjian burnt a whole suitcase full of manuscripts to avoid punishment. Sent to a re-education camp where he was brutally treated, he continued to live in China and remained a party member. Only when L’autre Rive (The Other Shore) was banned in 1987 did he leave his country of birth and apply for asylum in France” 
  3. ^ Mabel Lee, ‘Nobel Laureate 2000 Gao Xingjian and his Novel Soul Mountain’ in CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture: A WWWeb Journal, September, 2003, Accessed 14 August 2007
  4. ^ Published on the website Ba Huang’s Art Studio
  5. ^ Lee, Leo Ou-fan (6 2008). “The happy exile”. Muse Magazine (17): 93. 
  6. ^
  7. ^

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011



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