MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.
Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM
THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM
MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA
DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI
PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE
Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM
SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA
The Driwan’s Cybermuseum
(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
The Rare Germany Book 1892:
” Materialen zur Kenntniss Der Wilden Stamme auf der Halbinsel Malaka”
“Materials to the knowledge of the savage tribes on the peninsula of Malacca in 1892”
Die folgende Materialien stammen von der Hand des Reissenden Hrolf Vaughan Stevens,welcher un Auftrage des Koniglichen Museum fur Volkerkunde und de Virchowstiftung eine mehrjahrige Reise zu den “wilden”Stammen der malaischen Halbinsel unternommen hat zum Zweck ethnologischer anthropologischer Arbeiten.
Neben den ethnologiscen Sammlungen hat derselbe eine Reihe von zusammenfassenden Berichten eingesandt, von welchen die ersten hiemit dem Druck ubergeben werden. Vor allem muss der Heransgeber betonnen, dass Herr Steven seine Arbeiten als noch micht abgeschlossen bezeichnet: die Verantwortung fur das Gegebene bleibt ihm allein vorbehalten.
Es erubright noch, zu erwahnen, dass ich die in Context vorkommenden malaiiischen Worter,welche im original in englischer Orrthographie gegeben sind,in deutcher Schreibung geb,entsprechen der im Koniglichen Museum unlichen schreibung. Die Originalsschreibung wurde dabei stets mit angefuhrt, wo es von Werth zu sein schien. Manchen guten Wink verdanke ich dabei Herrn Dr Friedrich Muller. Worte,weilche ganz neu sind, oder deren malaiische Orthographie ich nicht festellen konnte, sind mit,, ” und Zusatze von meiner Hand mit( ) bezeichnet worden.
Berlin, in Mars 1892
The following materials are taken from the hands of travelers Hrolf Vaughan Stevens, who behalf of the Royal Museum for Ethnology and de Virchow Foundation mehrjahrige a trip to the “wild” strains of the Malay Peninsula for the purpose of anthropological anthropological work.
In addition to the collections of the same ethnologiscen a series of summary reports, sent, of which the first herewith the pressure be handed over. Betonnen Above all, the pre-encoder, that Mr Steven called his work be completed micht: the responsibility for what is given it is only reserved
Share and master Stamme
Stammsagen und Stammmesgliederung
Die sogenannten wilde” Stamme auf der Halbinsel Malaka von Johor bis Petani zerfallen in vier Haupistamme , namlich :
die Orang Benda
die Orang “Blandaa”
die Orang “Tummeor”
die Orang “Pangghan”
the orang “Pangghan”
The blast pipe (Sumpitan) and his Zubeho’r
Das Blasrohr (Sumpitan) und sein Zubeho’r
1.The blowpipe the orang Benda(Das Blasrohr der Orang Benda)
2. The arrow maker of Orang Benua ( Timlahan Benua’s name)
Dei Pfeilkocher der orang Benua(Benua name Timlahan)
2a.The arrow cooker orang “Kuantan”(Des Pfeilkocher der orang “Kuantan”)
3.The production of bamboo-sumpitans the orang Mentera
(Die Anfertigung der bambus-sumpitans der Orang Mentera)
4.Herstellung the maker of the orang orang Mentera Gift (Herstellung der Kocher der Orang Mentera)
5.The Gift Of Orang mantera(Das Gift der Orang Mantera)
Chapter Three :
The Religious Of the Orang Blandaa
Religiose Vorstellungen der Orang Blandaa
The Malacca tribes
Chapter five :
The history of Malacca
|— State —|
|Melaka Negeri Hang Tuah/Melaka Negeri Bersejarah|
|Motto: Bersatu Teguh|
|Anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya|
Malacca in Malaysia
|Coordinates: 2°12′N 102°15′E / 2.2°N 102.25°E / 2.2; 102.25Coordinates: 2°12′N 102°15′E / 2.2°N 102.25°E / 2.2; 102.25|
|– Yang di-Pertua Negeri||Mohd Khalil Yaakob|
|– Chief Minister||Mohd Ali Rustam (BN)|
|– Total||1,664 km2 (642.5 sq mi)|
|– Density||474/km2 (1,227.6/sq mi)|
|Human Development Index|
|– HDI (2010)||0.742 (high) (4rd)|
|Postal code||75xxx to 78xxx|
|Malacca Sultanate||15th century|
|Portuguese control||24 August 1511|
|Dutch control||14 January 1641|
|British control||17 March 1824|
|Japanese occupation||15 January 1942|
|Accession into Federation of Malaya||1948|
Malacca dubbed The Historic State or Negeri Bersejarah among locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south. The capital is Malacca City, which is 148 km south east of Malaysia’s capital city Kuala Lumpur, 235 km north west to Johor’s largest city Johor Bahru and 95 km north west to Johor’s second largest city Batu Pahat. This historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.
Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, the monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511. The Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor, rather than a Sultan, acts as the head of state now.
|Japanese occupation||15 January 1942|
|Malayan Union||1 April 1946|
|Federation of Malaya||31 January 1948|
|Independence||31 August 1957|
|Malaysia||16 September 1963|
Sultanate of Malacca
Before the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a fishing village inhabited by local Malays. Malacca was founded by Parameswara, also called Iskandar Shah or Sri Majara, the last Raja of Singapura (present day Singapore) following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca around 1400 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.
According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river while hunting, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided on the spot to found an empire on that very spot. He named it ‘Melaka’ after the tree under which he had taken shelter. Another version of the story says that Parameswara chose the name ‘Malacca’ from the Tamil word ‘mallakka’ which means upside down or on ones back. Old illustrations of the scene where the mousedeer kicks the dog shows the dog falling on its back into the river, hence the inspiration.
In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut), the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as a major international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade. Mass settlement of Chinese, mostly from the imperial and merchant fleet occurred during the reign of Parameswara in the vicinity of Bukit China (“Chinese Hill”) , which was perceived as having excellent Feng Shui (geomancy). Sultan Iskandar Shah died in 1424. The prosperity of Malacca attracted the attention of the Siamese. Attempts at invasion made in 1446 and 1456, however, were warded off by Tun Perak, the then Bendahara (a position similar to Prime Minister). The development of relations between Malacca and China was a strategic decision to ward off further Siamese attacks. pore) and was succeeded by his son, Sri Maharaja also called Sultan Muhammad Shah.
Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He‘s fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, a princess of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married the locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina). (See Zheng He in Malacca). Scholars have disputed Hang Li Po’s status, as the Ming Chronicles in China do not mention her as a princess in the Chinese court of the Ming Dynasty. At the time of the arrival of the Sultan’s envoy, the reigning Ming Emperor was Jingtai Emperor. Since records of his reign were expunged following Tianshun‘a ascension to the throne in 1457, it is likely that records of Hang Li Po’s status might no longer exist. Other historical texts do mention that she was a princess in the court of the Yongle Emperor(1402–1424).
A cultural result of the vibrant trade was the expansion of the Peranakan people, who spread to other major settlements in the region.
During its prime, Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula and much of Sumatra. Its rise helped to hold off the Thai’s southwards encroachment and arguably hasten the decline of the rival Majapahit Empire of Java which was in decline as Malacca rose. Malacca was also pivotal in the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago.
After Vietnam destroyed Champa in the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa, they proceeded to engage in hostilities with Malacca with the intent of conquest. The Chinese government sent a censor, Ch’en Chun, to Champa in 1474 to install the Champa King, but he discovered Vietnamese soldiers had taken over Champa and were blocking his entry. He proceeded to Malacca instead and its ruler sent back tribute to China. Malacca again sent envoys to China in 1481 to inform the Chinese that, while returning to Malacca from China in 1469, the Vietnamese attacked them, castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was not in control of Champa but sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back due to lack of permission from the Chinese to engage in war. The Chinese Emperor scolded them, ordering the Malaccans to strike back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked.
In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. They conquered the city on August 24, 1511. It became a strategic base for Portuguese expansion in the East Indies. Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca, took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese. In the meantime, the Portuguese built the fort named A Famosa to defend Malacca (its gate is all that remains of the ruins at present). “In order to appease the King of Ayudhya (Siam), the Portuguese sent up an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes, who was well received by Ramathibodi.” in 1511. Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintan, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmud fled with his family across the Straits to Kampar in Sumatra, where he died five years later.
It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not also mean they controlled Asian trade centred there. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.
The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546 and 1549. In 1641, the Dutch defeated the Portuguese in an effort to capture Malacca, with the help of the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) on Java as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark, better known as the Stadthuys or Red Building.
Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, which later became Malaysia.
The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,664 km2 (642 sq mi). The state is divided into 3 districts: Central Malacca (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajah (660 km²), and Jasin (676 km²). Malacca sits upon the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east. Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the west coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singapore and commands a central position on the Straits of Malacca. The state capital, Malacca Town, is strategically located between the two national capitals of Malaysia and Singapore, and connected with excellent roads and highways. Malacca still harbours no train station, though the terminal at Tampin, Negeri Sembilan is easily accessible. However, a domestic airport terminal rests in Batu Berendam.
Malacca is administered by its local State Legislative Assembly and Executive Committee (EXCO). The State Assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The EXCO is responsible to the State Assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Governor (Yang Di-Pertua Negeri) who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
The Chief Minister‘s Department is responsible for the overall administration of the State, as well as its political interest. The administrative complex houses the Chief Minister’s office, as well as the office of the State Secretariat. For administrative purposes, Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:
- Malacca Central District & Land Office
- Alor Gajah District & Land Office
- Jasin District & Land Office
These offices render various services and facilities to the people in their daily lives.
District and Local Authority
Malacca is divided into 3 districts and 4 local authorities.
|Rank||District||Area (kmsq)||Population (2008)||District Seat||Local Government|
|!000001||Central Malacca||279.85||473,700||Malacca City||Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
|!000002||Alor Gajah||660.00||167,600||Alor Gajah||Majlis Perbandaran Alor Gajah
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
|!000003||Jasin District||676.07||128,000||Jasin||Majlis Perbandaran Jasin
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
The tourism and manufacturing sectors are the two most important sectors in the state economy. Malacca has adopted as its slogan, “Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia” (“Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia“). It is rich in cultural heritage and bears several places of historical interest.
Malacca is home to several modern shopping complexes, hypermarts and department stores.
Malacca has a population of 788,706 as of 2010. In 2007, the racial composition of the area was:
- Malays: 57%;
- Chinese: 32%, including the Peranakan community;
- Indians, including the Chitty people: a sizeable minority;
- Kristang, people with partial Portuguese ancestry: a small community;
- Dutch Eurasians, Eurasians with Dutch ancestry: a minority within the Malacca Eurasian community.
The establishment of the Malacca Manipal Medical College in Bukit Baru provided quality medical education. It has produced many doctors who are serving the country or working abroad since its inception in 1997.
The state has a number of reputable colleges, universities and other higher learning institutions.
Malacca has a boarding school, Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Selandar (SBPIS). The Ministry of Education of Malaysia enrols students based on their Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) and Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR).
A center for juvenile convicts, Henry Gurney Prisoners School, is also situated in Telok Mas, Malacca. Established in 1949 as High Moral School, it was renamed School of Henry Gurney at 15 May 1950. This center runs rehabilitation programs for male juvenile criminals in which they are exposed to living skills such as sewing and cooking and vocational skills such as mechanical repairing.
Malacca also has one international school called Melaka International School, which caters to the expatriate community in Malacca.
Hospitals in Malacca state are listed below:
- Private Hospitals
- Putra Hospital (formerly known as Southern Hospital, owned by the state government)
- Pantai Ayer Keroh
- Mahkota Medical Centre
The Malays, settled in Malacca since 1400, form the largest community and have a distinctive culture.
Malacca is well-known for its food; Malay dishes include ikan asam pedas, sambal belacan and cencaluk.
Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from fresh shrimp of a species known as keragu in Malay. These are mashed into a paste and dried in lumps, pounded and formed into large balls, dried again for a week or so, wrapped in plastic and stored for future use. It is in this form that most of these blachan balls are sold. Belacan is used as an ingredient in many dishes, or eaten on its own with rice. A common preparation is sambal belacan, made by mixing belacan with chili peppers, minced garlic, shallot paste and sugar and then fried. The aroma from the frying mixture can be unpalatable to Westerners who have not become accustomed to it, but is an absolute delight to the Asian connoisseur.
Malacca is also famous for satay celup. Raw fish and meat are skewered onto sticks which is then cooked in a peanut sauce; this is often sold in individual sticks.
Nyonya-Baba cuisine is a fusion of Chinese (mostly southern Hokkien or Fujian influence), Portuguese, Dutch, Indian, British and Malay cooking with most dishes being spicy in nature. Peranakan dishes include Itik Tim (a soup containing duck and salted vegetables), Ayam Pong Teh (chicken casserole with salted brown-bean sauce usually served with potatoes) as well as the famous Nyonya Laksa. Chicken Rice Ball is another dish popular with domestic Chinese tourists.
Malacca’s ethnic Portuguese population are the descendants of Portuguese colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Even to this day, many of the traditions originating with the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. “Intrudu” from Portuguese word “Entrudo” (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), “branyu” (traditional dance), “Santa Cruz” (a yearly Festival of street celebrations).
The Portuguese colonists contributed dishes like Devil’s Curry and Portuguese egg tarts to the town’s cuisine. Ikan Bakar (roasted fish) restaurants in Umbai, Serkam and Alai are also popular.
There is also a sizeable amount of Sikhs residing in Malacca, and Sikhs from Malacca and abroad congregate in the gurdwara (Sikh temple) situated in Jalan Temenggong during the last weekend of May, to commemorate the death of its former priest, Sant Baba Sohan Singh Ji, who was elevated to a saint upon passing away. Visitors are welcome but are advised to follow rules and common practices within the premises. Typical vegetarian punjabi cuisine will be served to everyone visiting the gurdwara.
Pulau Sebang in Alor Gajah district, 30 km north of Malacca, is the nearest train station that serves Malacca. There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca before World War II but these were dismantled by the Japanese for the construction of the Burmese Death Railway. It was never rebuilt after the war, though traces of the line remain.
Malacca has a bus station, Melaka Sentral which has inter and intracity bus lines. Batu Berendam Airport in Batu Berendam mainly serves chartered flights from around the region. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysia Flying Academy.
The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South highway is the main entry to Malacca. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits.
Popular historical attractions
- Fort A Famosa: Constructed by the Portuguese in 1511, it suffered severe structural damage during the Dutch invasion. The plan by the British to destroy it was aborted as a result of the intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1808.
- St. John’s Fort: Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannons in this fort point inland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.
- St. Peter’s Church: Constructed in 1710 under the Dutch administration, the church is the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia. Its facade and decorative embellishment is a mix of both eastern and western architecture. Its bell was delivered from Goa in 1608.
- St. Paul’s Church: Constructed by the Portuguese captain, Duarte Coelho, this church was named “Our Lady of The Hill”, but was later turned into a burial ground by the Dutch for their noble dead, and renamed “St. Paul’s Church”. Currently the church is part of the Malaccan Museums Complex. The body of St. Francis Xavier was interred here temporarily before it was taken to Goa, India.
- Christ Church: Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture. The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylights, a copper replica of the Bible, a headstone written in the Armenian language, and a replica of “The Last Supper“.
- Francis Xavier Church: This Gothic church was built by a French priest, Rev. Fabre, in 1849, to commemorate St. Francis Xavier who is also known as the “Apostle of the East”. St. Francis Xavier is credited for his Catholic missionary work in Southeast Asia during the 16th century.
- Stadthuys: Constructed in 1650 as the residence of the Dutch Governor and his deputy, the structure reflects Dutch architecture. It is today the “Museum of History and Ethnography“. The museum exhibits traditional wedding clothes and artifacts of Melaka, dating back to its days of glory.
- Cheng Hoon Teng Temple: Located along Jalan Tokong (formerly Temple Street) in the core zone of the Malacca Unesco World Heritage Site. It is the oldest functioning temple in Malaysia and grandest temple in Malacca.
- Jonker Street (Jalan Hang Jebat): This street is known for its antique goods.
- Portuguese Square: Located within the Portuguese Settlement, the square is the culmination of Portuguese culture in its full splendour and colours.
- Tranquerah Mosque: The oldest mosque in Malacca.
Key people from Malacca
The following is a list of historically significant as well as well-known contemporary personages who are either born in Malacca, or otherwise linked to the history of Malacca:
- Tun Ghafar Baba, Malaysia Deputy Prime Minister (1986–1993), UMNO Vice-President (1962–1987), Malacca Chief Minister (1959–1963).
- Ibu Zain, was a pioneer for Malay lady (Srikandi) in education and politics in Malaysia.
- Shirley Geok-lin Lim, award winning novelist, writer and Professor of English, University of California at Santa Barbara
- Maria Jane Dyer a.k.a. Maria Jane Taylor, born in Malacca in 1837, pioneer missionary to China, daughter of Samuel Dyer and Maria (Tarn) Dyer, she became the wife of James Hudson Taylor, founder of the China Inland Mission.
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the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011.