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The East Asia Tribes Art Photography
Frame One :
The Old East Asia Tribes Pictures
Old Indonesian tribes
|Kalinga Man – 1911|
|DO YOU KNOW THE NAME OF TRIBES BELOW?|
|IF YOU DONNOT KNOW, STILL LOOKING THE INFORMATIONS BELOW THE PHOTO GALERY.|
The Indonesian tribes
The Aceh Tribes
|The majority of the Alas people live in villages and make their living from farming and raising livestock. The Alas area is considered the lumbung padi (rice storehouse) of the Aceh area. Other agricultural products include rubber, coffee, and kemiri (a local spice) as well as other forest products such as wood, rattan, resin, and incense.Neighborhoods or villages of the Alas are called kute. One kute usually consists of one or more clans that are called a merge. Extended families will live in one house and submit to the authority of the parents. They are a patrilineal society, which means they measure descent through the father’s family. Their culture emphasizes two types of law. The first type consists of religious laws that are given by God and cannot be changed. The second type consists of traditional laws, which include rules that have been made by the leaders of the community and can be changed according to the times.According to marriage customs, an engagement lasts from one to three years due to the necessity of the man acquiring the bride price, and the woman the groom price. When an Alas man and woman marry, they live near the husband’s family. After they have children, the young family will usually move and live separately (jawe) from the parents but stay in the same area and community of the merge. Polygamous marriages are permitted when the marriage has produced only boys, only girls, or no children at all (adak meu keu dueu).
Generally, the Alas people are followers of Islam, but they still seek the assistance of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist). They perform ceremonies so that their crops will prosper and be protected from plague. The dukun reads his mantra and uses magical potions of leaves and flowers that are considered powerful to ward off plagues.
|The Aneuk Jamee people are one of the people groups that live on the western coastline of the Indonesian province of Aceh. They tend to live around the small bays found along the coast. They are also spread out over the low plains hemmed in by the Bukit Barisan mountain range. The Aneuk Jamee are located primarily in West Aceh Regency in the five districts of Tapak Tuan, Samadua, Susoh, Manggeng, and Labuhan Haji. There are smaller concentrations of them in South Aceh Regency in the three districts of Johan Pahlawan, Kaway XVI, and Kuala.The name aneuk jamee in the Aceh language means, “visiting child” or “newcomer.” The name was used to describe Minang people from Lubuk Sikaping, Pariaman, Rao, and Pasaman who began migrating to the area in the 17th century. Gradually, they assimilated with Aceh people in the area, a process facilitated by a common Islamic faith. Eventually, they came to feel that they were neither Aceh nor Minangkabau but rather a new people group with their own distinct culture and language. The Aneuk Jamee language is called Jamee or Jamu. For the Aceh in southern Aceh, this Jamee language is understandable because the Minangkabau vocabulary mixed with Aceh is similar to the national Indonesian language. However, the Aneuk Jamee do not understand or use the Aceh language.
Many Aneuk Jamee are fishermen, while others work in irrigated rice farming (basawah), unirrigated agriculture (baladang), and growing fruits (bakabun). There are some Aneuk Jamee who are permanent traders (baniago), but others, known as penggaleh, sell goods from village to village.The Aneuk Jamee have three levels of society. The nobles (datuk) form the highest level. The middle level is formed by district chiefs (hulu baling) and religious leaders (ulama), such as the prayer leaders (tengku), priests (imam), and Islamic judges (kadi). The common people are the lowest level. Traditional leadership in a village contains a combination of Minangkabau and Aceh elements. These leaders are the village headman (kecik), prayer-house leader (tuangku manasah), and youth leader (tuangku surau). This is somewhat different from the district level leadership, which is the same as traditional Aceh leadership patterns. This pattern consists of an area headman (mukim), village headman (kecik), street leader (ketua jurong) and elder (tuha peut).
Islam is the religion followed by the Aneuk Jamee people. As among other Indonesian peoples, the Aneuk Jamee also exhibit some elements of previous beliefs that are not easily forgotten. The services of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) are still frequently used for various things. For example, a dukun is sometimes asked to put a love spell (sijundai) on a girl or to recover a girl who has been bewitched in this manner.
|The Gayo of Indonesia live in the remote central highlands of Aceh Province on the island of Sumatera. Their homeland lies across the Bukit Barisan Range (“Parade of Mountains”), which reaches heights of over 12,000 feet and runs for over a thousand miles. The Gayo mainly live in Central Aceh Regency and Southeast Aceh Regency. Their language is Gayo with two dialects, Gayo Lut and Gayo Luwes. The Gayo do not have a written language. Folk tales and oral stories are passed down in the form of poetry.The Gayo are close neighbors to the radical Islamic Aceh people, and in the past, the sultans of Aceh conquered the Gayo region and made the Gayo slaves. After an initial resistance (during which many Gayo were killed), the Dutch occupation from 1904-1942 resulted in the Gayo developing a thriving cash crop economy in vegetables and coffee. During the occupation and during the 50 years of Indonesian independence, the Gayo have gained access to higher levels of education, and participated to some degree in the Islamicization and modernization of their country.
The main source of income for the Gayo people is farming with the main crop being coffee. Other sources of income are fishing and gathering forest products. They also have developed skills in ceramics, weaving mats and weaving cloth. Another well known handicraft, called Kerawang Gayo, is embroidery with gold/colorful designs. In a traditional Gayo house (umah) uses palm thatch and wood. Several related families typically live together. There is also a meresah where older boys, bachelors, widowers, and male visitors sleep. This is also used for studying and religious activities. Gayo arts include saman and didong, which are mixtures of movement, literature, poetry, and singing. Apart from entertainment and recreation, these arts have ritual, educational, and informational functions, as well as being a means of maintaining balance in the social structure. The Gayo marriage pattern calls for marriage outside one’s own family. However, marriage between cousins is not forbidden. Most men marry women from the same area. This is done so that the man will already know the woman and the woman’s family can continue to look after her. A first marriage must be approved by both families (polygamy is rare, but allowed). Divorce and remarriage are quite common.
The Gayo people are mostly Muslim, but their understanding and conviction are lacking. Most Gayo still believe in good and bad spirits and holy men both dead and alive. They also continue to worship and make offerings to spirits, saints, and their ancestors.
|Alas Kuet Tribe 20.000|
|The Kluet people are one of eight people groups that live in the Indonesian special province of Aceh. They are found in two districts of South Aceh Regency, namely North Kluet District and South Kluet District. These two districts are divided by the Krueng Kluet River, which has its source in the Leuser Mountains and empties into the Indian Ocean. The area where the Kluet people live is remote, about 20 kilometers from the main road, 50 kilometers from the city of Tapak Tuan and 500 kilometers from Banda Aceh, the provincial capital.The Kluet language is divided into 3 dialects, the Paya Dapur dialect, the Meunggamat dialect, and the Krueng Kluet dialect. Apparently the language has evolved from a combination of the Alas, Kuo, Aceh, and Minangkabau languages.
The Kluet area is very fertile, and most Kluet make their living from farming irrigated and unirrigated rice fields or growing crops such as coffee, patchouli (which produces fragrant oils), and all sorts of vegetables. Other means for livelihood include raising livestock and fishing. Fish are either eaten fresh or preserved for storage. One way of preserving the fish is by smoking it. This type of preserved or dried fish, called ikan saleh, is a specialty of the Kluet people.The Kluet people are famous for hunting, since they live at the edge of the jungle. During the time of Dutch colonialism, this people group was often noted for their skill on the battlefield. Their skill as hunters made them able fighters. They often employed guerrilla tactics to fight their enemies.The Kluet prefer to live in groups and only in certain areas. They have a strong sense of ethnic identity, and, therefore, they do not spread out very far from each other. They find it difficult to mix with other people groups, and as a result, their culture is rather closed to outsiders. Kluet villages are comprised of houses and a number of other buildings, including rice barns, a meeting center, women’s centers, religious schools, and mosques. The meeting center, called a meursah has a variety of purposes. It is used as a place to read the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book), say daily prayers, hold special Islamic celebrations, as well as a place to meet or for young men to sleep if there is no religious school in the village. The women’s center, or deyah, is a place where women may go to worship.
Most Kluet are followers of Islam. However, traditional animistic beliefs have not totally disappeared and often have significant impact. This can be seen in routines of daily life, especially in various special ceremonies. Many are afraid of supernatural ghosts (setan). They also believe one of the graves in their area has magic powers. According to the Kluet, this grave can be seen at certain times while at other times it disappears. Magic talismans are used so that evil spirits will not hurt them. The use of such talismans helps them feel calmer and more protected.Sikule 27.000 Christian
|Central Simeulue Island. Alternate names: Sichule, Sikhule, Wali Banuah. Dialects: Lekon, Tapah. Similar to Nias [nia].Simeulue Tribe 107.000|
|The Simeulue people live on Simeulue Island located 200 kilometers off the western coast of Aceh Province. Their largest towns are named Sibigo, Sigulai, and Lamame. On Simeulue Island there is no land transport available and the only means of travel is walking.Simeulue people are known as being friendly and brave. Their physical appearance is sometimes described as being more similar to northern Asian peoples because they are often of lighter skin than other Indonesians. This is different from the general appearance of the Aceh people on the mainland. The Simeulue speak Ulau, which means “island,” and it has two dialects. Sigulai is used in western Simeulue and Salang, and Devayan is used in eastern Simeulue, central Simeulue, and southern Tepang. In general the Simeulue can speak the Aceh language because of the strong influence of Aceh culture on the Simeulue.
Generally, the Simeulue make a living from planting cloves and coconuts as well as fishing. Each village usually has one mesjid (mosque) or musholla (prayer-house). Beside using it for prayer, the mesjid is also used for discussing religious issues, holding social functions, providing information from the government, and encouraging the community to work together on community projects. The village head in Simeulue is called a kecik. Previously, the Simeulue were ruled by a king before they were conquered by the king of Aceh and became part of that kingdom. The Simeulue house is built on stilts. Typically, the parents live in a large house with their unmarried children and the families of their sons. This group is called walli or walli akrab. Heredity is patrilineal (tracing descent from the father).Living arrangements after marriage are of three types. In the first pattern, the couple lives near the husband’s family. The second pattern is called paladangan sataun duo in the Devayan dialect or beladang sataun duo in the Sigulai dialect. In this pattern, the couple lives for a few years with the wife’s family and the husband must help his in-laws. After this, they live with the husband’s family for the rest of their lives. In the third pattern, which is called mafanofano, the couple always lives with the wife’s family and the husband must help his in-laws. This usually happens because the wife is an only child.
Although most Simeulue embrace Islam, many are still influenced by animistic beliefs and various superstitions. These beliefs are focused upon seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling both good and bad spiritsTamiang Tribe 6.800
The Tamiang live in the southeast part of East Aceh Regency, in the Aceh Province. Previously this area was the Tamiang administrative district with a very large area of 7,760 square kilometers. Now the district has been divided into six districts, Kuala Simpang, Bendahara, Karangbaru, Seuruway, Kejuruanmuda, and Tamiang Hulu. One legend states that the name Tamiang comes from the words itam and mieng. Itam means “black” and mieng means “cheek.” This appellation supposedly arose because a king of Tamiang named Raja Muda Sedia (1332-1362) had a black mark on his cheek. Another story says that the name Tamiang comes from the name of an island in the Riau Archipelago, which was the original dwelling place of the Tamiang people’s ancestors. The Tamiang people have their own language with an 87% vocabulary similarity to the Melayu (Malay) Riau language.
The main source of income for Tamiang people is planting rice in both irrigated and unirrigated fields. Other crops which they plant are corn, cassava, tomatoes, chili peppers, and eggplant. They also grow fruits such as oranges, mangoes, durian, and langsat. Those who live on the coast fish and make coal from mangrove trees. Some become plantation workers and traders. The Tamiang rarely leave their area because their agricultural land is extensive and fertile enough to support them. At the beginning of the twentieth century, this area received many migrants from other areas because of the opening of rubber and palm oil plantations and oil wells.The Tamiang people are controlled by the “Law of the Four Peoples.” This means that the highest traditional leader is the “Datuk of the Four Peoples.” The word datuk comes from the word ndatu, which signifies the first person to open a settlement (rebas tebang). Those who came later were placed below the existing Datuk. In the ensuing process, the four Datuks united their areas and chose a king (raje) as leader. This decision was established and sealed with an agreement called Kate Tetuhe. The four datuks were titled Datuk Imam Balai, Datuk Penghulu, Datuk Hakim, and Datuk Setia Maha Raja. For the king there was a proverb: “raje adil raje disembah, raje lalin raje disangah” (A fair king will be worshipped, a cruel king will be dethroned). In upholding that role, Tamiang leaders hold onto a vow that states “kasih papa setia mati” (a father’s love is faithful to death). Traditional law was effectively carried out with the philosophy “adat dipangku, syarat dijunjung, resam dijalin, kanun diatur” (traditional law is administered but religious law is respected customary ways are formed but canon law is organized).
Tamiang people are followers of Islam, which has penetrated various aspects of their lives. However, many still carry out the ceremonies of their old beliefs. They hold certain ceremonies connected with their everyday lives, such as ceremonies held for blessing the planting of the rice (kenduri blang), the harvesting of the rice, and ceremonies to protect them for disasters (tula bala).
|The Nias island lies off West Sumatra in the Indian Ocean.The villages of Bawomataluo and Hilisimae are curious places , where you can see performances of traditional Nias tribes war-dances and thrilling high- jump sports, i.e. people making dangerous leaps over 2 meter-high stones. Typical scenes are dancers clad in traditional costumes with bird feathers on their heads, a hall for the Chief-of Tribe built on wooden logs with stone chairs weighing up to 18 tons.|
Mentawai tribe woman
This photo was taken in 1994 in Siberut Island in Indonesia. This lady was from the Mentawai tribe. This photo took in one of their huts, the light is coming through a small window hole in the hut
Kubu Jambi Tribe
Kubu tribe or also known as the Ethnic Child In The Woods or one ethnic minorities living on the island of Sumatra, precisely in the provinces of Jambi and South Sumatra. They are the majority living in the provinces of Jambi, with an estimated total population of about 200,000 people.
According to oral traditions of tribes Child is Wrong Maalau people, who fled into the jungle around the Black Water, the Park Hill Twelve. They then called Ancestors Segayo. Another tradition says they came from Pagaruyung, who fled to Jambi. This reinforced the fact indigenous tribes Child have in common language and customs with Minangkabau tribe, such as matrilineal system.
Broadly speaking in Jambi they live in 3 different ecological regions, namely the People faction in the north province of Jambi (surrounding the Park Hill 30), Park Hill 12, and the southern province of Jambi (Sumatra along the causeway). They live a nomadic and basing his life on hunting and gathering, although many of them now have a rubber and other agricultural land.
Their lives are so pathetic as the loss of existing forest resources in Jambi and South Sumatra, and the processes of marginalization by the government and dominant ethnic groups (Malay People) in Jambi and South Sumatra.
Tribe Aneuk JameeJamee Aneuk tribe is a tribe that spread along the western and southern coast of Aceh. In terms of language, thought is still the Minangkabau dialect of the language. However, due to the influence of cultural assimilation process is quite long, most of the Tribe Aneuk Jamee, especially those that inhabit the area that is dominated by a tribe of Aceh, for example in the area of West Aceh Regency, Jamee Aneuk language is spoken only among elderly people alone and now generally they more commonly use the language of Aceh as the lingua franca of everyday (lingua franca). The origin of the mention of “Aneuk Jamee” allegedly made famous by the local Acehnese, as a form of openness in glorifying the people of Aceh who came to evacuate residents Minangkabau (exodus) of ancestral land which was then under Dutch colonial grip. Literally, the term Aneuk Jamee language originated from Aceh, which means “child guest.”Spare Aneuk Jamee mainly found in South Aceh district (approximately 50% of the population) and some parts of Southwest Aceh district, West Aceh
Ethnic Arab-Indonesia is the Indonesian population that has ethnic Arab and ethnic descent native of Indonesia. At first they generally live in Arab villages scattered in various cities in Indonesia. In the Dutch colonial era, they are regarded as foreign Asian nation along with the ethnic Chinese-Indonesian and Indonesian-Indian tribes. But as the ethnic Chinese and Indians, not a few of the Arab-Indonesia to help Indonesia’s independence struggle.
In the aftermath of major divisions among Muslims that led to the killing of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, begin to occur displacement (hijrah), large quantities from the offspring to various parts of the world. When Imam Ahmad Al-Muhajir migrated from Iraq to the Hadramaut region of Yemen about a thousand years ago, the descendants of Ali bin Abi Talib and the 70 people brought their families and followers.
Since then the developing offspring to become the largest tribes in the Hadramaut, and from the Hadramaut town is the main origins of the Arab colony who settled and mixed into a citizen of Indonesia and other Asian countries. Besides Indonesia, the people of Hadramaut is also widely available in Oman, India, Pakistan, South Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore.
There is also a citizen of Arab descent who come from Middle Eastern countries and Africa in Indonesia, for example, from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan or Morocco, but fewer in number than those who came from Hadramaut.
Developments in Indonesia
The arrival of Arabs from Hadramaut colony into Indonesia is estimated to occur in three main waves.
Ages 9-11 AD
The oldest historical record is the founding of the kingdom Perlak I (East Aceh) on 1 Muharram 225 H (840 M). Only two centuries after the death of the Prophet, one of the descendants of Sayyid Ali bin Muhammad bin Ja’far Sadeq Dibaj moved to the kingdom Perlak. He later married the younger brother of King Perlak Syahir Nuwi. From this marriage was born as the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah (Raja Islam) Perlak I. The historical record is officially owned by East Aceh Ulema Council and strengthened in the seminar as a paper ‘History Log and the development of Islam in Aceh’ July 10, 1978 by (the late) Professor Ali Hasymi.
Ages 12-15 AD
This period is the arrival of the progenitor of Walisongo pioneered by Sheikh Jamaluddin Akbar large family from Gujarat, are still descendants of Sheikh Muhammad Syahib Mirbath of Hadramaut. He besama preaching sons away to all corners of Southeast Asia to the archipelago with the main strategy of spreading Islam through marriage with local people mainly from the Hindu palaces.
Ages 17-19 AD
This century is marked by the last wave of mass migration of Hadramaut sayyids who spread Islam while trade in the archipelago. The latest arrivals can be characterized his descendants until now because unlike its predecessor, not a lot of intermarrying with the indigenous population. Moreover, it can be marked with the clan that we know today as Alatas, Assegaf, Al Jufri, Alaydrus, Syihab, Syahab, etc.. This is understandable because these clans newly formed later. Recorded in the history of Hadramaut, is the oldest clan As Saqqaf (Assegaf) which became the title of Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Mohammed Al Mauladdawilah after he died in 731 H or century AD 14-15 While the other clans are formed even more recently, generally in the 16th century. Usually the clan name is taken from the title of a local cleric who is widely respected. Based on the estimate in 1366 H (or about 57 years ago), they now number not less than 70 thousand inhabitants. It consists of approximately 200 genera.
Clans are up to now have a hereditary leader who holds “munsib”. The munsib live in the greatest family environment in their previous homes or families. All munsib recognized as leader by the tribes who live around them. In addition, they are also regarded as the ruler of the area where they reside. Among the most prominent munsib munsib Alatas, munsib Binsechbubakar and munsib Al Bawazier.
It is estimated that the number of Arab descent in Indonesia Hadramaut larger when compared with their numbers in place of his own ancestors. Hadramaut own population is only about 1.8 million inhabitants. Even a number of clans which in Hadramaut itself already extinct – like Basyeiban and Haneman – in Indonesia the numbers are still quite a lot. Many Arab villages scattered in various cities in Indonesia, for example in Jakarta (Pekojan), Bogor (Pond), Surakarta (Market POND), Surabaya (Ampel), Gresik (Gate), Malang (Jagalan), Cirebon (Kauman), Mojokerto ( Kauman), Yogyakarta (Kauman), Probolinggo (Diponegoro), Bondowoso, and Banjarmasin (Kampung Arab), and many more are scattered in other cities such as Palembang, Banda Aceh, Sigli, Medan, Makasar, Gorontalo, Ambon, Mataram , Ampenan, Sumbawa, Dompu, Bima, Kupang, and Papua.
Hadramaut Arab descent in Indonesia, such as his home country of Yemen, comprising two major groups: the group or Sayyidi Alawi, and Qabili group. In Indonesia, there is sometimes a distinction between groups that generally adherents Sayyidi organization Jamiat al-Kheir, with the Sheikh or Masyaikh also commonly called Irsyadi or followers of al-Ershad organization.
People and Roles
In Indonesia, since time immemorial have been a lot of people of Arab descent who became fighters, alim-ulama and preachers. Among the prominent propagator of religion who is Walisongo, who allegedly (Van Den Berg, 1886) are of Arab descent Hadramaut and / or are their students. Hadramaut Arabs who came around the 15th century and earlier have fundamental differences with those who come in the next wave (18th century and thereafter). As mentioned by Van Den Berg, the predecessor is widely assimilated with the indigenous population, mainly from the Hindu royal family. This is done in order to accelerate the spread of Islamic religion, so that their offspring are almost unrecognizable as Hadramaut Arab descent.
Among the clans of Hadramawt who were the first to Indonesia is Basyaiban family, namely Sayyid Abdul Rahman bin Abu Hafs Umar Basyaiban BaAlawi in the 17th century AD.
In the glory days of Islamic sultanates in Indonesia, some Arab descent dirajakan by local communities, among others, in Java (Demak, Cirebon and Banten), Sumatra (Aceh and Siak), and Kalimantan (Sambas, Pontianak, Kubu, and Sand) . In addition, since the longer the lot of Arab descent who became traders, and they are scattered in various parts of the archipelago of Indonesia.
Hadramaut Arabs who came in the 18th century and thereafter, not a lot of marriages with the natives as the previous wave arrival. They come already carry the name of the clans that formed later (around centuries 16-17). The descendants of Arabs who came lately Hadramaut, still easily recognizable by distinctive names of their clans. Arab-Indonesia is actively involved in the field of Islamic religious and various other aspects of life in Indonesia.
The Toraja Tribe of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, is known for the cheerful way of treating death, and its unique burial grounds carved in sheer rock.
Asmat is a tribe in Papua. Asmat tribe known as the result of a unique wood carvings. Asmat population is divided into two, namely those living in coastal areas and those living in the hinterland. Both populations are mutually different from each other in dialect, way of life, social structure and ritual. Coastal populations further divided into two parts, namely Bisman tribe that lies between the river and river Sinesty Nin and spare Shimei.
There are many contradictions between different villages Asmat. The most horrible is the way the Asmat used to kill his enemy. When the enemy was killed, his body was taken to the village, then cut and distributed to all residents to eat together. They sing songs of death and memenggalkan head. His brain is wrapped in sago leaves are roasted and eaten.
Now usually, about 100 to 1000 people living in one village. Each village had one house Bujang and many family homes. Bujang house used for ceremonial and religious ceremonies. Family houses inhabited by two to three families, who have their own bathroom and kitchen. Today, there are approximately 70,000 Asmat live in Indonesia. The majority of children already in school Asmat.
Ethnic BaliBali is the ethnic tribes who inhabited the island of Bali, the Balinese language and follow the Balinese culture. Most of the ethnic Balinese Hindus, approximately 90%. While the rest are Buddhists, Muslims and Christians.There are approximately 5 million people of Bali. Most of them live on the island of Bali, but they also spread all over Indonesia.The Balinese are also contained in P. Western Lombok. There are also immigrated to Lampung, South Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi and South Sulawesi and Papua. There are two groups of ethnic Balinese. The first group are the Bali Aga, they are indigenous people who inhabit the mountains. The second group is Bali Majapahit, namely migrants from Java (Hindu Majapahit kingdom) that live in most of the island of Bali, especially in the lowlands.Livelihoods and Bali Majapahit Bali Aga is farming in rice fields. Their irrigation system known as Subak. Bonds of solidarity among members of the Subak (the same water source) water control system looks at the meeting or during a special religious ceremony, there are also ties dadia. A Dadia usually occupies a complex of houses built with walls of about 2m with an entrance is decorated with arch and stairs. Inside was a shrine where the family worship. Another bond is based on the Balinese religious ties are Hindu Balinese. There is also a bond based on the activities, livelihoods and the bonds between the citizens of caste.
Bedouin Tribe / People Kanekes
The person or persons Kanekes Baduy / Bedouin are an indigenous group in the Sunda region Kendeng Mountains, Lebak regency, Banten. Their population of about 5000-8000 people and they are one of the tribes who apply isolation from the outside world. In addition they also have a taboo to be photographed.
The term “Bedouin” is the name given by residents outside the community groups, the term originated from the Dutch researchers who seem to equate them with Badawi Arab groups who are sedentary societies (nomadic). Another possibility is that because of the River and Mountain Bedouin Bedouin in the northern part of the region. They themselves prefer to call themselves as urang Kanekes or “people Kanekes” according to their region name, or title that refers to the name of their village as Urang Cibeo (Garna, 1993).
Wilayah Kanekes secara geografis terletak pada koordinat 6°27’27” – 6°30’0” LS dan 108°3’9” – 106°4’55” BT (Permana, 2001). Mereka bermukim tepat di kaki pegunungan Kendeng di desa Kanekes, Kecamatan Leuwidamar, Kabupaten Lebak-Rangkasbitung, Banten, berjarak sekitar 40 km dari kota Rangkasbitung. Wilayah yang merupakan bagian dari Pegunungan Kendeng dengan ketinggian 300 – 600 m di atas permukaan laut (DPL) tersebut mempunyai topografi berbukit dan bergelombang dengan kemiringan tanah rata-rata mencapai 45%, yang merupakan tanah vulkanik (di bagian utara), tanah endapan (di bagian tengah), dan tanah campuran (di bagian selatan). suhu rata-rata 20 °C.
The three main villages of Kanekes In the Cikeusik, CIkertawana, and Cibeo.
The language they use is the language of Sunda Sunda-Banten dialect. To communicate with people outside of their current use Indonesian language, although they do not get that knowledge from school. People do not know the culture Kanekes In writing, so that the customs, beliefs / religion, and ancestor stories stored only in oral speech only.
Kanekes people do not know the school, because formal education as opposed to their customs. They reject the government proposal to build school facilities in their villages. Even to this day, although since the Suharto era, the government has tried to force them to change their way of life and build modern school facilities in their areas, people still refuse Kanekes such government efforts. As a result, the majority of people Kanekes can not read or write.
People Kanekes still had historic links with the Sundanese. Physical appearance and their language is similar to Sundanese people in general. The only difference is their beliefs and way of life. Kanekes people shut themselves from the influence of the outside world and strictly maintain their traditional way of life, while the Sundanese are more open to foreign influences and the majority embraced Islam.
Community Kanekes generally divided into three groups: tangtu, panamping, and dangka (Permana, 2001).
Tangtu group is a group known as Kanekes In (Baduy In), the most closely followed the custom, the people living in three villages: Cibeo, Cikertawana, and Cikeusik. Typical Kanekes People are dressed in white, natural and dark blue and wearing a white headband. They are prohibited by customary to meet with foreigners (non-citizen)
Kanekes In is part of the whole person Kanekes. Unlike Kanekes Outside, residents Kanekes In still adhere to the customs of their ancestors.
Most of the rules adopted by the tribe Kanekes In include:
The second community group called panamping are those known as Kanekes Outer (Outer Baduy), who lived in various villages scattered around the region Kanekes In such Cikadu, Kaduketuk, Kadukolot, Gajeboh, Cisagu, and so forth. Society of Foreign Kanekes distinctively dressed and black headband.
Foreign Kanekes are people who have been out of the peoples and regions Kanekes In. There are several things that cause the release of citizens to Kanekes Kanekes In Outer:
The characteristics of the person of Foreign Kanekes
If Kanekes In and Out Kanekes Kanekes lived in the area, then “Kanekes Dangka” Kanekes live outside the region, and currently lives in the remaining two villages, namely Padawaras (Cibengkung) and Sirahdayeuh (Cihandam). Kampung Dangka functions as a kind of buffer zone on outside influences (Permana, 2001).
According to the belief that they profess, people Kanekes claimed descent from ancestors Batara, one of the seven gods or a god who is sent to earth. The origin is often attributed to the Prophet Adam as the first ancestor. According to their belief, Adam and his descendants, including the citizen has the duty Kanekes be imprisoned or ascetic (mandita) to maintain the harmony of the world.
Opinions about the origin of the Kanekes differ with the opinion of historians, who based his opinion by way of synthesis of some historical evidence in the form of inscriptions, travel records of Portuguese and Chinese sailors, and folklore of the ‘Tatar Sunda’, which was minimal existence. Community Kanekes associated with the Kingdom of Sunda that before its collapse in the 16th century centered on Pakuan Pajajaran (around Bogor now). Before the founding of the Sultanate of Banten, the western tip of Java island is an important part of the Kingdom of Sunda. Banten is a fairly large trading port. Ciujung River are navigable various types of boats, and crowded is used to transport agricultural products from rural areas. Thus the ruler area, which is called the Prince of shoot General considers that the sustainability of the river should be maintained. For that diperintahkanlah royal army that is trained to maintain and manage the heavily wooded and hilly area in the region of Mount Kendeng. The existence of a special task forces with the Society seems to be the forerunner Kanekes that still inhabit the upper river at Mount Kendeng Ciujung the (Adimihardja, 2000). Differences of opinion was brought to the allegation that in the past, their historical identity and accidentally closed, which probably is to protect communities from attacks Kanekes own Pajajaran enemies.
Van Tricht, a physician who had conducted health research in 1928, refuting the theory. According to him, people Kanekes is a native of the area which has a strong thrust towards external influences (Garna, 1993b: 146). Kanekes own people even refuse to say that they come from people escape from Pajajaran, the capital of the Kingdom of Sunda. According Danasasmita and Djatisunda (1986: 4-5) is the local Bedouin people who made the mandala ‘(sacred area) formally by the king, because the population is obliged to maintain kabuyutan (place of ancestor worship or ancestor), rather than Hinduism or Buddhism. Principal in this area known as Jati Sunda kabuyutan or ‘Sunda Asli’ or Sundanese wiwitan (wiwitan = original, origin, principal, teak). Hence their original religion was given the name Sunda wiwitan. The king who makes the Bedouin as a mandala is Rakeyan Darmasiksa.
Kanekes public trust which is called the Sunda wiwitan rooted in the worship of ancestral spirits (animism) which on subsequent development was also influenced by Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam. The core belief is shown by the absolute pikukuh or customary provisions adopted in the daily life of people Kanekes (Garna, 1993). The most important contents of the ‘pikukuh’ (compliance) Kanekes is the concept of “without changing anything”, or a change in as little as possible:
Lojor heunteu beunang cut, short-jointed heunteu beunang.
(Length can not / should not be cut, the short can not / should not be connected)
Taboo in everyday life are interpreted literally. In agriculture, pikukuh form is by not changing the contour of the land for the fields, so how berladangnya very simple, do not cultivate the land with a plow, do not create a terracing, planted only with Portugal, which is a sharpened piece of bamboo. In housing construction also contour the ground surface is left untouched, so that a pillar of the house Kanekes often not equal in length. Words and their actions were honest, innocent, without further ado, even in their trade did not haggle.
The object of trust is important for the community Kanekes Arca Domas, the location kept secret and is considered the most sacred. Kanekes people visit these locations to conduct worship once a year in Kalima, which in 2003 coincided with the month of July. Only the highest indigenous Pu’un or chairman and several members of selected communities who follow the cult group. In the complex there are Arca Domas stone mortar that holds rain water. If at the temple was found a stone mortar is in a state full of clear water, then for the people Kanekes it is a sign that the rain of the year will be a lot down, and harvest will work well. Conversely, if the stone mortar dry or watery cloudy, it is a sign of crop failure (Permana, 2003a).
For some people, related to the persistence society, indigenous beliefs embraced this Kanekes reflect the religious beliefs of Sundanese people in general prior to the entry of Islam.
Kanekes society recognizes two systems of government, namely the national system, which follows the rules of the Indonesian state, and customary systems which are believed to follow the customs of society. Both systems were merged or diakulturasikan such that there is no conflict. Nationally, the population Kanekes led by the village head called Jaro pamarentah, which is under the sub-district, while customarily subject to the customary leader Kanekes the highest, namely “Pu’un”.
Kanekes governance structure
The highest indigenous leaders in the community Kanekes is “Pu’un” in three villages tangtu. Position lasted down through the generations, but not automatically from father to son, but can also other relatives. The term of office Pu’un not specified, only based on one’s ability to hold the position.
Executing everyday customs administration kapu’unan (kepu’unan) implemented by Jaro, which is divided into four positions, namely tangtu Jaro, Jaro dangka, Jaro dependents, and Jaro pamarentah. Jaro tangtu responsible for the implementation of customary law on citizens tangtu and various other affairs. Jaro dangka duty to maintain, administer, and maintain a deposit of ancestral land that exist within and outside Kanekes. Jaro dangka of 9 people, which when added to the 3 people called Jaro Jaro tangtu twelve. Chairman of twelve Jaro Jaro is known as a dependent. The Jaro pamarentah customarily served as a liaison between indigenous Kanekes with national governments, which in their duties aided by pangiwa, torn, and kokolot overtime or village elders (Makmur, 2001).
As has happened for hundreds of years, the community’s main livelihood is farming Kanekes cultivating rice. In addition they also receive additional income from selling fruit they get in the forest such as durian and keranji acid, and wild honey.
Interaction with the outside community
Kanekes society that until now strictly follow the customs is not an isolated communities, remote or isolated communities from the development of the outside world. The establishment of the Sultanate of Banten, which automatically enter into the realm Kanekes was not separated from their consciousness. As a sign of compliance / confession to authorities, the public routinely perform seba Kanekes to the Sultanate of Banten (Garna, 1993). Until now, the ceremony seba continues to take place once a year, be brought crops (rice, pulses, fruits) to the Governor of Banten (previously the Governor of West Java), through the Lebak district. In agriculture, the inhabitants of Foreign Kanekes interact closely with the community outside, for example in land leases, and labor.
Trade that in the past conducted barter, now has used ordinary rupiah currency. People Kanekes sell their fruits, honey, and sugar kawung / palm through the middlemen. They also buy the necessities of life that are not produced in the market. Market for people located outside the territory Kanekes Kanekes like Kroja market, Cibengkung, and Ciboleger.
At this time the outsiders who visit the region Kanekes increasing up to hundreds of people per visit, usually a teenager from the school, students, and other adult visitors. They receive the visitors, even to stay one night, with the proviso that visitors comply with the customs prevailing there. Customary rules, among others, should not be photographed in the region Kanekes In, do not use soap or toothpaste in a river. However, the region Kanekes remain off limits to foreigners (non-citizen). Several foreign journalists who tried to enter until now always been denied entry.
At work in the fields is not too much, people Kanekes also happy to travel to major cities around the area on condition that they must walk. Generally they go in small groups consisting of 3 to 5 people, a visit to the house of acquaintances who had come to Kanekes while selling honey and handicrafts. During the visit they usually get extra money for their daily lives.
Bajau tribe is a land of ethnic origin Sulu Archipelago, southern Philippines. This is a tribe of nomadic tribes who live on the sea, so-called sea gypsies. Bajau tribe Sama-Bajau language. Bajau tribe since hundreds of years ago has spread to the land of Sabah and other parts of Indonesia. Bajau tribe is also a country boy in Sabah. The tribes in Kalimantan is expected to migrate from the north (Philippines) in prehistoric times. Muslim Bajau tribe that this is the last wave of migration from the north coast of Borneo which entered East Kalimantan to South Kalimantan and occupied the surrounding islands, earlier than the arrival of the Muslim tribes of the family ie Bugis Bugis, Makassar tribe, tribal Mandar.
Bajau tribe territory contained, among others:
1. East Kalimantan (Berau, Bontang, etc.)
Dani Tribes West Papua
Sakai Riauw ,south sumatra and banka belliton Island Tribes
Riau 6 Tribes
|Banka Tribe 340.000 Islam|
|Bangka Island. Dialects: Urban (Jakarta), North, Central, South, Lom (Belom, Mapor).|
|The Bangka people live on Bangka Island in the South China Sea to the east of Sumatera, specifically in Bangka Regency and Pangkal Pinang Municipality in Bangka-Belitung Province. Indonesians often visit this island because it has beautiful beaches and is easy to reach from the capital of South Sumatera (Palembang). 60% of the inhabitants of Bangka Island are Melayu (Malay) and about 25% are descendants of Chinese, who migrated to the island. The Bangka language is a branch of the Melayu language cluster.
Bangka Island is known for its large tin mining industry, which was developed during the 18th and 19th centuries. Bangka Island was influenced by the Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. This is seen in the archaeological remains of various ancient inscriptions, which have been found there. For example, the “Kota Kapur Plaque” has been found, which dates back to 686 A.D. This island is also famous for its pepper plantations, which reached their height of prosperity in 1987. However, in the 1990’s the price of pepper declined drastically and was followed by a drop in the price of tin, which seriously impacted the Bangka.The Bangka people make their living in a variety of ways. Many of the island’s inhabitants are laborers in the tin mines. In addition, many are also farmers, fishermen, and boat builders. They produce many crafts, such as cane work, plaited mats, porcelain, ceramics, and carvings from tin. Many people who live around the cities have become traders and merchants; particularly those of Chinese descent. The lineage of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). According to tradition, after marriage, the couple does not live near either set of parents. As a result, there are many mixed marriages between the Bangka and other ethnic groups that have come to the area. This outside influence can be seen in their wedding customs. The engagement is initiated by the man’s family giving gifts to the bride. The engagement ceremony is typically done in a berbalas pantun (traditional singing dialogue). Islamic influence is also shown in the public wedding procession which is accompanied by tambourines and drums. Another regional art form is called the Sepintu Segudan. This Bangka drama tells the story of the community’s attitude of gotong royong (mutual assistance).
The majority of the people on Bangka Island are Muslims, particularly those of Melayu descent, whereas those who are of Chinese descent follow Buddhist or Confucius beliefs. The ethnic Bangka people mix Islam and traditional animistic beliefs that still flourish among the community.
|Belide Tribe 22.000|
|The Belide live southwest of Palembang along the Musi River. One of the greatest kingdoms in the region’s history, the Buddhist Empire of Sriwijaya, prospered and grew along the banks of the Musi River in South Sumatera over a thousand years ago. The Sriwijaya Kingdom was a major maritime power that controlled the nearby Straits of Malacca, which is a key waterway between Asia and Europe.The region’s historical background is rich and colorful. The Sriwijaya kingdom practiced a bustling and lucrative trade with ancient China during its era of powerful dynasties, and in 672, the Chinese scholar I Tsing recorded that a thousand monks and scholars could be seen studying Sanskirt in what is now the regional capital of Palembang. However, few relics of this memorable era remain.
The Belide are not nomadic, but they tend to live in the same area their entire lives. The total Belide people group is comprised of about 20 villages. Traditional houses are made of wood with palm leaf roofs. The houses are built on wooden or brick columns above ground level. Their Belide language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster.Approximately 60% of Belide men work as rubber tree tappers or laborers in pineapple plantations. Others work as traders or government employees. The Belide communities are typically lead by three men. A political leader is appointed and paid by the government, and a village chief is chosen by the people. The village chief is not paid, but does receive a 10% tax on land sales within the village. However, the third man, the religious leader, apparently has greater influence than the other two.Family conflicts are solved by the head of the family, and a spiritual leader may handle village level problems. Punishment for minor offenses is handled by the citizens of the village, but more serious crimes are referred to the police.Belide youth may choose their own mates with agreement from their family. If there is a member of the family that does not agree, the village chief is asked to decide. If he agrees, the family must allow the wedding to proceed. The groom must pay a bride’s price. The bride then uses this money to purchase their household essentials. Spiritual leaders are consulted to determine the best day for the wedding. It is common for Belide wedding feasts to last two to three days. Belide men may practice polygamy, but while it is permitted, it seldom occurs.
Customs and traditions have been passed down over many generations and have been harmonized with Islamic law. Although the Belide are Muslims, many of them still believe in superstition and evil spirits. For instance, some believe that whistling in a home at night calls forth evil spirits or that walking in circles on a person’s birthday brings bad luck to the person. Many write verses from the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book) on small pieces of paper and carry them as protection against evil. A dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) is often called to heal the sick and exorcise evil spirits.
|Belitung Tribe 163.000|
|The Belitung live on the island of Belitung (sometimes called Bilton island) in the province of Bangka-Belitung. This island is located in the South China Sea on the east of Sumatera to the southwest of Bangka Island. The island is mostly lowlands with some hills, such as Tajam Laki and Tajam Bini. In some areas there are small rivers, and some small lakes can be found in old tin quarries on the island. The Belitung people’s term for themselves is Urang Belitong. The Belitung language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. A distinctive feature of their language is that it does not have the letter ‘h’ and they use ‘e’ at the end of the word rather than ‘a’. For example, jauh (far) becomes jao; hujan (rain) becomes ujan; putih (white) becomes pute; and apa becomes ape. Another distinctive feature is that they use terms that come from joining two or more words, such as hendak kemana (where are you going) becomes nakmane.
The islands are considered important for their tin mines. Many earn their livelihood from mining tin and kaolin (a fine white clay). Other occupations include trade, fishing, boat building, iron working, and general office work. Only a small part of the land is suitable for rice cultivation. Planting rice is usually done by cutting and burning an area of the forest. Besides dry rice crops, the people in this area also grow corn, cassava, sweet potato, and banana. Other crops include rubber, pepper, cloves, coconut, sweet potatoes, and bananas. Handicraft industries developed by the Belitung include porcelain ceramics and woven rattan. The traditional Belitung house is built on a raised platform with bark walls and roofs of sago palm leaves. They also have temporary villages used during harvest. These houses are built at the edge of the forest and are usually lived in during the time the people work in the field. After the harvest, the people move back to their main village.The ancestry of the Belitung can be traced through either the line of the father or the mother. A village is formed by a group of families, termed a keleka. The keleka, lead by a traditional chief along with his assistants, has its own rules and accepted boundaries. The religious leader is a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) whose duty is to lead the ceremonies of the community.
The Belitung adhere to Islam which came to the area around the 17th century. In spite of their dedication to Islam, many Belitung people are still influenced by animistic belief in spirits and various superstitions. These beliefs are focused upon seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling both good and bad spirits. This can be seen in their ceremonies for working the rice fields (maras taun), fishing (buang jong), and weddings (gawai pengantin). They still believe in magical forces that inhabit sacred objects. Many things are forbidden by taboos.
|Duano 19.000 Islam|
|19,000 (Seidlitz). Population total all countries: 15,500. West Riau archipelago and east coast of Riau, Daratan Province. Also in Malaysia (Peninsular). Alternate names: Duano’, Orang Kuala, Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Orang Laut.|
|Musi Sekayu Tribe 160.000 Islam|
|The Musi Sekayu people group generally build houses on the banks of the Musi River. Because of this, the Musi Sekayu are often called manusia sungai (river people). The literal meaning of sekayu is “one wood.” The phrase refers to a piece of long fabric that is spread out for people to sit on while eating together. The standard measurement of this long piece of cloth is designated as a musi sekayu. Unlike other people groups in Indonesia, such as the Bugis, Minangkabau or Jawa, the Musi Sekayu seldom move to a faraway place. Their desire to progress and search for their fortune is carried out only as far as the capital city of the province. This place can be reached by car in less than three hours. Their means of livelihood includes agriculture, forestry, labor, fishing, public transportation, construction, and government jobs such as teaching. The Musi Sekayu people living in the city of Palembang occupy a variety of work sectors, beginning with university professors, research specialists, land developers, shipyard workers, and pedicab drivers.
Most families of the Musi Sekayu wish for a male child. They perceive that sons are a guarantee for the country’s future power (bakal negeri) as well as guaranteeing the continuation of their hereditary line (negakke jurai).
Almost all of the Musi Sekayu people embrace the religion of Islam. Every Musi Sekayu village has a mesjid (mosque) or langgar (Muslim prayer house). Some villages have Islamic schools and musholla (small public buildings or rooms for performing religious duties) as teaching and education centers for the Islamic religion. In spite of this, the people also still consult a local dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) for treatment or to have their fortunes told.
|Sakai and Talang Mamak Tribe 6.400|
|The indigenous Sakai people in Riau province, for example, who used to live in lush green jungles, now have to dwell in nearly barren areas in Bengkalis. Another tribe, the Talang Mamak in Indragiri Hilir, Indragiri Hulu and Jambi, are facing similar situations as their forested surroundings, too, have been cut down for oil palm plantations or have been turned into industrial forests.
Despite their nomadic life, to these people, the earth and forests are part of their lives and something they must care for. They know how to manage their lands and forests, a knowledge that is passed down from their ancestors, which has enabled them to coexist harmoniously with nature and maintain their environs for many generations.
The majority of the Talang Mamak tribe, which comprises only 6,400 or so people, are illiterate. Most of them live in the districts of Seberida, Kelayang and Rengat Barat in Indragiri Hilir, and a small number of them live in Surnai, Bangko Tebo and Bukit 30 National Park, bordering Jambi province.
The Talang Mamak are currently languishing: the presence of forest concessionaires has been detrimental to their way of life and rendered it barely sustainable.
The state schools located far from their villages still remain a luxury for the animist tribespeople and, to make matters worse, many of them refuse to go to school, arguing that conventional, modern education would mean a departure from their long-maintained customs and traditions. They fear modern education will change their beliefs. According to tradition, converts are no longer regarded as members of the tribe.
Quite a few have embraced Christianity, but they still practice their indigenous customs, such as worshiping the animist spirits at sacred places. Others have converted to Islam, after which they become known as “Malay people” among the Talang Mamak.
The Sakai, Bonai, Talang Mamak and Duano tribes are socio-culturally and ethnically Malay, but have not been exposed to the Hindu, Islamic and European cultures. These people were segregated by the Malays for their “unhygienic” way of life.
Most Talang Mamak people are reluctant to become Muslims, because Islamic teachings, according to them, are contrary to their customs and traditions. For example, pork is traditional fare at wedding parties. They still use bark and leaves for clothing.
Being nomadic, they are able to prevent the government from annexing their ancestral lands and still lead a simple way of life, unaffected by external impurities. Their huts, usually measuring 3 meters by 4 meters, are built on stilts and have walls made of bark. It is in these homes that they cook, receive guests and chat. They cultivate the land around the huts — usually less than 1 square hectare, to grow cassava and sweet potatoes as their staple foods.
“We have planted cassava and sweet potatoes all our lives for many ages,” said Mohammad Supermi, 34, village chief of Durian Cacar.
Apart from farming, some of the tribespeople go to the forest to harvest rattan and honey from trees, which they call sialang. They sell the honey at the market or drink it with traditional herbal medicines.
Now, however, the ancestral forests, on which they depend their lives, are about to disappear, with the forests, the Talang Mamak way of life.
The Malaysian Tribes
Frame Four :Ex Indochina tribe
1.The Vietnamese tribe
Each tribe has particular culture form traditional costume to living habits. Hereafter we introduce to you the typical characteristic of Viet nam tribe.
Tay (Thai Nguyen) traditional costume
Pa Then’s costume
and Laos Tribes
On a terrace along the river we are given a note. It announces an evening with traditional dance, and we decide to go. Strange enough, the audience consists of 9 people, including us, but we have a great time. While we enjoy some good food the show starts with an old woman singing with 2 of her grand children. After that there are girls performing different dances and different traditional clothes, from the surrounding hill tribes in Laos. We also recognise one of the dances from the Gawai festival on Sarawak, proof of the migration and the shared heritage of different tribes in Southeast Asia.
frame Five: The Myanmar Tribes
1. Karen long neck Hill Tribes or Paduang
Karen Hill Tribe Young Lady 18yrs Old
Along the border of Northern Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) live small tribes known as the Paduang and Karen or long necks, who Migrated from Burma to Thailand to which practice the custom of neck stretching which involves brass rings being placed around the women necks, there are also other tribes such as the Karen hill tribes, Hmong,hill tribes,and many more other villages, that we visited last week in Thailand.
Karen women are skilled in sewing and dyeing and weaving, they usually wear, white “V” neck blouse with combinations very colourful patterns and beads for decoration. They wear their long hair tied in a bun and covered with scarves.
The Karen are gentle, peaceful, who, like all the Hill tribes, have their highest respect for their ancestors and living elders.
There is no scholarly consensus regarding the early origins of the Nagas and very little is known of the Mongoloid
groups whose southwesterly migration brought them to the sub Himalayan region of north-eastern India and north-western Myanmar. These tribes speak Tibeto-Burman dialects and it is probable that their original homeland was in the region between the Huang Ho and Yangtze (Ch’ang) rivers in northwestern China and that they came in successive waves of migration spreading over centuries.
Although the presence of Mongoloid groups in the region had been attested as early as 10 B.C. the Nagas had maintained little outside contact till the later part of the 13th century. Their existence was mentioned by Ptolemy in about 150 A.D. Oral traditions abound among the many tribes regarding how they came, dispersed, etc., but such accounts are steeped in myth and superstition and hence no concrete facts about their arrival to the region can emerge.
Curious coincidences of culture and language through the Pacific led some scholars to suggest that the Nagas were an off-shoot of groups which had originally descended from the central Asian plateau. Their burial customs, ornamentation, agricultural practices and even games and crafts, linked them strongly to the tribal peoples of Borneo and the Philippines
4.The Hill Tribes of Myanmar
‘Myanmar’ is the new name of Burma. In 1989, the political leaders of the country changed it (in “Burmese”, the national language of the country, Burma is spelled as ‘Myanmar’). Located in the South East Asia, Burma is also known as the land of Pagodas. There are many Buddhist shrines spanning the mainland. Burma is naturally alienated by mountains on its three sides.
Bagan, the capital city of Burma is perhaps the most affluent places of the country. It is loaded with over 2000 Stupas and pagodas. After the devastating earthquake in 1975, the restorations of the historical structures have not been completed till date.
The Burmans comprise the two third of the total population in Myanmar. It is said that about a thousand years ago, the precursors of the Burmans came down, from the mountains of southern China, to Myanmar. They started living with the people previously dwelling in the land harmoniously.
Apart from the Burmans, there are also other ethnic tribes in Myanmar. The Chin, the Kachin, the Shan, the Karen and the Mon are the other groups of ethnic tribes who live in the hilly regions of the land. Most of them do not subscribe to the Central Government of Myanmar (erstwhile Burma). However, the total population of the country also encompasses other ethic groups such as Indians, Bangladeshis and Chinese.
Frame Six: The China Tribes
YUNNAN PROVINCE is a land of rain forests, snow-capped Himalayan peaks, the Shangri-La lifestyle, minority rushing mountain rivers and some of the world’s most spectacular scenery and unusual culture. Cover about 240,000 suare kilometers, it contains half of China’s plant and animal species, including 7,000 endemic plant species and 30 endangered animal species, among them, including snow leopards, clouded leopards, Yunnan golden monkeys, red pandas., a handful of tigers and about 200 wild elephants,.
The 26 ethnic minorities that make their home in Yunnan are the Achang, Bai, Benglong, Bonan, Bulang, Dai, De’ang, Drung, Dulong. Hani (Akha), Hui, Jinuo, Jingpo (Kachin in Burma), Lahu, Lisu, Miao (Hmong), Mongols, Naxi, Nu, Pumi, She, Tibetans, Wa, Yao, Yi, and Zhuang.
Each minority has its own distinctive costumes, culture and language, and many of them are related to the hill tribes found Laos, Burma, Vietnam and Thailand. It is mostly the women that wear traditional costumes. Yao girls, for example, wear black and blue tunic dresses and silver hoops around their necks and wrists. Their headdresses, which are often decorated with silver, looks a deflated turban wrapped with seashells and a scarf. Men like to play checkers and sit around smoking tobacco from bongs.
Bordered by Tibet, Sichuan, Burma, Laos and Vietnam, Yunnan means “south of the clouds.” The southern part of the province is covered with green mountains, remote cultivated valley, and forested ridges with elephants, tigers, leopards and golden haired monkeys. Many of the people that live here are extremely poor and members of ethnic groups similar to those found in Southeast Asia. Over the last decade it has become a heroin and smuggling region. Marijuana grows wild.
Frame seven :
The Sinkiang tribes
China means “the country in the centre” in Chinese. During 5000 years’ history, 24 dynasties founded and fell, a big family with 56 minorities formed finally. As a part of China, minorities have their unique custom and develop their own culture and form part of the diverse Chinese culture. When you go into those areas such as Sinkiang, Tibet or Yunnan, you may feel the great differences from others areas, since the unique geographic location, climate, and colorful folk traditions create their own characteristics. To understand China and Chinese culture better, it’s always worthy exploring those minority tribes in China.
Frame Six :
The Japan Tribes (1)
(2) Masa sensei tribe
On Sunday afternoon photo shoots at Harajuku’s cosplay Bridge, I often meet my crazy photographer buddy, Masa-sensei “ninja shooting” the freakaziods (as shown below).
Another Japanese subculture that Masa-sensei likes to shoot are the bosozoku, the “violent running tribes,” who he captured last weekend. I first I thought this photo was a weaponized bosozoku sling shot car.
However, the yellow slingshot turns out to be two huge collapsable flag poles that the bosozoku use to fly their gang flags and banners during their terror runs through the neighborhoods.
The Violent Running Tribe’s main entertainment is to modify their exhaust systems to be extra loud and drive through town late at night, waving imperial Japanese flags and shouting obscenities, occasionally throwing Molotov cocktails and carrying swords spears, and generally having noisy fun.
Frame seven: The Bhutan tribes
(1) Toto Tribe
(2) Bopak tribe
Frame eight :
The Mongolian Tribes
Horsemen on the grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region
By now you’re probably starting to get to know a little bit about the wall – how it was constructed, where it was constructed, what material it was made from and some unique things about the places it passes through. But do you know why the wall was built? Was it designed to keep someone out or to keep someone in?
The traditional story is that the Great Wall was built to protect peace-loving Chinese farmers from war-crazed Mongols like Genghis Khan and his plundering hordes. The truth is a tad more complicated. In the first place, the Chinese were building changcheng, or long walls, for military purposes long before Genghis got his first pony. More generally, the Chinese built long walls for offensive purposes as well as defensive, and they often provoked Mongolian raids by refusing to engage in peaceful trade or interfering in internal Mongolian politics.
Still, academics generally agree that the wall was designed to separate the agricultural Han Chinese south of the wall from the nomadic Mongols to the north. And the stereotype of the bloodthirsty Mongols is alive and well.
Don’t be fooled by their smiles, this is actually a Mongolian version of the haka
We wanted to see for ourselves just who these “fierce” Mongolians were, these men of astounding horsemanship who had the Chinese trembling in their boots. So we took a few days off the wall and hopped on up to Hohhot, the capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where we got a car ride to the grasslands and entry to the annual Mongolian festival, Naadam.
Buddhist monks bless the start of the festival
In the past, Naadam was an economic and social gathering, a time for Mongolian tribes to get together, trade goods, show off some of their best horses, and who knows, maybe plot their next raid against the Chinese. Eventually competitions in the warrior sports of horse racing, archery and wrestling became central to the festivities.
Today, Naadam is more of an all-around cultural festival, with music, eating and fashion as well as the traditional sporting contests. In the country of Mongolia, Naadam is celebrated at the same time every year; in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China, Naadam takes place when the grasses of the high plateau turn green.
The women of the steppes were known for their beauty
If you’re nearby when the authorities decide the grass is green enough, one or two days at Naadam are worth the effort to take it all in. Even if you’re just there for the opening ceremony, you can still see a lot – exotic dancers, beautiful singers, really strong men and some pretty cool horsemanship.
The two-stringed morin khuur’s neck is in the shape of a horse’s head
During the couple of days we spent in the grasslands we stayed in the traditional Mongolian dwelling, a yurt. This is a round, tent-like structure of wooden beams and felt that the nomads would carry with them and erect where they settled. Nowadays, the fancier yurts built for tourists are fixed structures that include glass windows, sliding doors and TVs (but still no corners).
The five-star yurts at Naadam (much nicer than the one we stayed in)
And finally, what do Mongolian men need to keep up their wrestling strength? Food, and lots of it. Below is something that got wheeled past us in the corridors of the dining hall.
Frame nine : The Tibet Tribes
Frame Ten : The Thailand Tribes
1.the Yao tribe
One of Thailand’s major tribes, the Yao, migrated from southern China at the end of the 19th century. Farming remains the predominant occupation among the Yao, known to be the only Thai tribe to possess command over the written language.
. Various tribes such as the Akha, Karen, Hmong, Yao, and Lisu have their own unique and diverse way of life –which all contribute to the rich cultural tapestry of Thailand.
2.Thailand hill karen long neck tribes
Thailand Hill Tribes
In Thailand they would say she’s from the: “Long Neck Tribe…”
3.Chiang Rai tribe
Chiang Rai – lies in the very heart of the fabled “Golden Triangle” – the mystical meeting point of three national borders (Thailand, Laos and Myanmar). Majestic mountain scenery abounds. The area has more than its share of natural attractions and antiquities. It is also home to many high altitude hill villages where the tribes follow a way of life from a time past.
Chiang Rai, the northernmost province of Thailand is about 785 kilometres north of Bancock. Situated on the Kok River basin, Chiang Rai covers an area of approximately 11,678 square meters with an average elevation of 580 meters above sea level. The province, which is located within the renowned Golden Triangle area where Myanmar, Laos and Thailand converge.
Chiang Rai, which was founded in 1262 by King Meng Rai, was the first capital of the Lanna Thai Kingdom which was later conquered by Burma. It was not until 1786 that Chiang Rai became a Thai territory and was proclaimed a province during the reign of King Rama VI in 1910
Frame eleven :
The Phillipine Tribes 1.2.3.
4Baguio Ifugao Tribe
Baguio Ifugao Tribe