Driwansoccer Cybermuseum Exhibition:”The History Of Soccer “(Sejarah Sepak Bola Internasional)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DSC SHOWROOM

                     

                       

(Driwan Soccer Sepakbola Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

Sejarah Sepak Bola Internasional

History Of Association Football (Soccer)

Introduction

I’ve been collecting  trading cards, cigarette cards and related collectibles  for over twenty five years.

Prominent soccer players and teams were vividly portrayed on cigarette cards from the late 19th century through to just before WWII. Association football’s popularity snowballed throughout the world and demand for early soccer memorabilia is increasing rapidly. It would be impractical to list every soccer set issued and so I’ve listed a selection of the more unusual and rare soccer card sets .

I’ve provided color digital photo or scans of a sample card from each set and where possible, I’ve tried to include the names of players and their respective football teams. i know this articles and illustrations still not complete ,that is why I need comment and suggestion to upgrade this exhibition, for the collectors new infos ,thanks very much.

Jakarta April 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

FRAME TWO :

THE CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC SOCCER COLLECTIONS

1.1848

The first University accepted rules of soccer drawn up

1857

Sheffield FC,the oldest soocer club in the world still existence-is formed.

1862

Notts County,the oldest Football League club still in existence

1863

The Football Association faounded

1867

Queens Park F C , Scotland’s oldest clus is formed

1871

The FA Cup Begins

1872

The first FA Cup final played at Kennington Oval,it is won by the Wanderes

The First international Scottland and Englad draw 0-0 in Glagow

1873

The Socttisf FA founded

 1876

The Welsh FA founded

 1878

the first  ever floodlit game is played in Sheffield

1882

England best  Ireland 13-0 , a scored record in the Home international Championship

1885

Professional legalized in England

In a Scottish Cup match,Arbroath beat Bon Accord 36-0.

A record score for a first class game in Britain

1888

the football League founded

 1889

Preston North End are the League’s first winners,They also win the FA Cup.

1890

Irish League founded

 1891

Scottis League founded

 1892

The second Division of the Football League founded

1893

Professional legalized in Scotland

1895

The FA Cup is stolen from a Birmimgham shop, it is never found

 1897

Aston Villa become second team to complete the league and Cup double.

1900

German and Uruguayan FS founded

 1904

FIFA(Federation of International Football Associations) founded

1905

The first 1000 pounds transfer ,Alf Common moves from Sunderland to  Middlesborough

1906

England join FIFA

  • Name Of Set: Football Club Colours
  • Manufacturer: Ogdens
  • Issue Year: 1906
  • Card Number: 51
  • Names of Clubs: Reading FC,Bristol Rovers FC,Notts County FC,Southampton FC,New Brompton FC,Brentford FC,Sunderland FC,Derby County FC,Fulham FC,Swindon FC,Sheffield United FC,Everton FC,Aston Villa FC,Queen’s Park Rangers FC,Northampton RFC,Middlesbrough FC,Lutton Town FC,Woolwich Arsenal FC,Watford FC,Bristol Rugby FC,Gloucester RFC,Richmond RFC,Wolverhampton Wanderers FC,Notts Forest FC,Tottenham Hotspur FC,Newcastle United FC,Blackburn Rovers FC,Swansea RFC,Devonport Albion RFC,Blackheath RFC,Cardiff AFC,Stoke FC, Newport RFC,Bury FC,Sheffield Wednesday FC,Portsmouth FC,Man U FC,Bolton Wanderers FC,Manchester FC,Bristol City FC,Exeter RFC,Millwall Athletic FC,Preston North End FC,Northampton Town FC,Birmingham FC,Brighton and Hove FC,West Ham United FC, Plymouth Argyle FC,Liverpool FC,Penarth RFC and South African Captain.
  • 1908

    An England International team plays abroad to the first time

  • Name Of Set: Famous Footballers
  • Manufacturer: Ogdens
  • Issue Year: 1908
  • Card Number: 50
  • Names of Players: A. Bridgett – Sunderland FC, W. Meredith – Manchester United FC, W. George – Aston Villa FC, T.H. Crawshaw – Sheffield Wednesday FC, W. Foulke – Bradford FC, W. Wedlock – Bristol City FC, J.D. Taylor – Everton FC, A. Dunkley – Blackpool FC, R. Crompton, Blackburn FC, R.M. Owen – Swansea FC, J. Lewis – Bristol Rovers FC, J. Pennington – West Brom FC, A. Griffiths – Nottingham County FC, R. Morris – Grimsby Town FC, W.A. Silto – Barnsley FC, A. Shepherd – Bolton FC, J. Ashcroft – Woolwich Arsenal FC, E. Needham – Sheffield United FC, D. Cunliffe – New Brompton, G.R. Hilsdon – Chelsea FC, W. Beats – Wolverhampton Wanderers FC, J. Conlin – Manchester City, C.M. Veitch – Newcastle United FC, R.M. Hawkes – Luton Town FC, P. McBride – Preston NE FC, A. Smith – Bristol Rovers FC, A. Common – Middlesborough FC, H. Robinson – Birmingham FC, A.G. Raisbeck – Liverpool, L.R. Roose – Stoke City FC, G. Clawley – Southampton FC, J. Raeside – Bury FC, H. Smith  – Reading FC, T. Baddeley – Wolves FC, B. Warren – Derby County FC, H. Bromage – Leeds City FC, W. Bull – Tottenham Hotspurs FC, A. Cartlidge – Bristol Rovers FC, E.G.D. Wright – Hull City FC and J.W. Sutcliffe – Plymouth Argyle FC.
  •  1910

    Scotland,Wales and Ireland join FIFA

    1914

  • Name Of Set: Footballers (Colour)
  • Manufacturer: WA & AC Churchman
  • Issue Year: 1914
  • Card Number: 50
  • Names of Players: R Crompton – Blackburn Rovers, JV Bache – Aston Villa, R McFadden – Clapton Orient, H Fleming – Swindon, TW Boyle – Burnley, W Lacey – Liverpool, JT Brittleton – Sheffield Wednesday, W McCracken – Newcastle United, G Wall – Manchester United, J Pennington – West Bromwich Albion, VJ Woodward – Chelsea, W Wedlock – Bristol City, JG Peart – Notts County, RG Williamson – Middlesbrough, F Walden – Tottenham Hotspur, A Mitchell – Queen’s Park Rangers, C Thomson – Sunderland, G Lillycrop – Bolton Wanderers, C Roberts – Oldham Athletic, A Lee – Southampton, T Browell – Manchester City, R Downs – Barnsley, H Colclough – Crystal Palace, Lloyd Davies – Northampton Town, Francis Womack – Birmingham, John English – Sheffield United, Percy R Sands – Woolwich Arsenal, Walter Otto Davis – Millwall, Thomas Randall – West Ham, Joseph Mercer – Notts Forest, Robert Torrence – Bradford City, R Mercer – Heart of Midlothian, TS Little – Bradford, Samuel Stevens – Hull City, Fred Fayers – Huddersfield Town, Ernald Scattergood – Derby County, JH Spiers – Leeds City, Thomas McDonald – Bury, J McCall – Preston North End, JS Maconnachie – Everton, H Woods – Norwich City, W Booth – Brighton and Howe, J Smith – Reading, HJ Pearce – Fulham, A McNair – Glasgow Celtic, W Reid – Glasgow Rangers, R Orrock – Falkirk, AE Knight – Portsmouth, Alfred Bishop – Wolverhampton Wanderers and S Atterbury – Plymouth Argyle.
  • 1916

    The first South American Championship are held.Winners Uruguay

    1918

    French FA Cup first played for

     1919

    French FA founded

    1920

    Division three (South) of the Football League is founded

     1921

    Division Three (North) of the Football League is founded

    1923

    The first FA Cup Final at Wembley,Bolton beat West Ham 2-0

     1924

    British FA  rejoin FIFA

    1925

    The offside law is changed

  • Name Of Set: Famous Footballers, Green Back
  • Manufacturer: Gallaher
  • Issue Year: 1925
  • Card Number: 100
  • Names of Players: J. Kelly – Barnsley, James Chambers – Newry, H Burnison – Distillery, E Carroll – Glenavon, W Burns – Glentoran, S Moore – Belfast Celtic, J Cochrane – Portadown, J Doran – Shelbourne, W Simpson – Cliftonville, T Frame – Linfield, F Tunstall – Leeds United, J McKay – Blackburn Rovers, W Emerson – Glentoran, D. Rollo  – Blackburn Rovers, A Harland – Everton, F Keenor – Cardiff City, P Nelis – Wigan Borough, JC Cock – Portsmouth, V Watson – West Ham United, FG Morgan – Nottingham Forest, JR Smith – Bolton Wanderers, E Islip – Birmingham, WT Roberts – Burnley, H Bedford – Blackpool, W Butler – Bolton Wanderers, ET Vizard – Bolton Wanderers, J Duncan – Leicester, W Stage – Bury, TWilson – Huddersfield, P. Barton – Birmingham, AL Kennedy – Arsenal, S Wadsworth – Huddersfield, RH Pym – Bolton, AR Dorrell – Aston Villa, W Robb – Glasgow Rangers, WE Rawlings – Stoke City, F Womack – Birmingham, J Gill – Cardiff City, A Gray – Oldham Athletic, A Pape – Manchester United, F Roberts – Manchester City,J Bradford – Birmingham, WGB Moore – West Ham, E Scott – Liverpool,M Russell – Plymouth, W Gillespie – Sheffield United, E Fletcher – Manchester City, R Kelly – Burnley, D Shea – Clapton Orient, R McCracken – Crystal Palace, J Smith – Bolton Wanderers, R Irvine – Everton, TG Farquharson – Cardiff City, DBN Jack – Bolton, WH Walker – Aston Villa, W Cook – Sheffield United, JA Mackie – Arsenal, M Hammill – Manchester City, EW Hine – Barnsley, A Chandler – Leicester,JAC Mehaffy – New Brighton, W Chadwick – Everton, N. Harris – Newcastle United,F. Heap – Bury, A Pynegar – Oldham Athletic,A Morton – Glasgow Rangers, A Troup – Everton, C Stephenson – Huddersfield, A Matthieson – New Brighton, N McBain – Everton, B Howard Baker – Chelsea,W McCleery – Blackburn, JA Cringan – Birmingham, J Dawson – Burnley, T Clay – Tottenham Hotspur, and GC James – West Brom.
  •  1926 

  • Name Of Set: English League (Div. 1) Footer Captains
  • Manufacturer: Amalgamated Press
  • Issue Year: 1926
  • Card Number: 24
  • Names of Players: Frank Hudspeth – Newcastle United, Frank Barson – Manchester United, Charles Buchan – Arsenal, William Gillespie – Sheffield United, Joseph Smith – Bolton Wanderers, James Blair – Cardiff City, Frank Moss – Aston Villa, George Kay – West Ham United, William Flint – Notts County, Charles Pringle – Manchester City, Charles Parker – Sunderland, Frank Reed – West Bromwich Albion, Clement Stephenson – Huddersfield Town, Frank Womack – Birmingham, Hunter Hart – Everton, William Stage – Bury, Harry Healless – Blackburn Rovers, Donald Mackinlay – Liverpool, John Duncan – Leicester City, John Hill – Burnley, William Wainscoat – Leeds United, Arthur Grimsdell – Tottenham Hotspur, Hunter Hart – Everton and William Stage – Bury.
  •  

    1927

    First radiobroadcast of a game.Arsenal vs Sheffield.

  • Name Of Set: Footballers In Action
  • Manufacturer: Gallaher
  • Issue Year: 1927
  • Card Number: 50
  • Names of Clubs: Manchester United,Bury,Huddersfield Town,Leicester City,Blackburn Rovers,Boton,Albion,Swansea,Sunderland,Notts Forest,Queen’s Park Rangers,QPR,Southampton,Burnley……
  • 1928

    dixie dean scores a record 60 league goals in a seasons

    the first 10.000 pounds transfer David Jack moves from Boltons to Arsenal

    British FA resign from FIFA

    1929

    England lose for the first time abroad.Spain win 4-3 in Madrid

    1930

    The first SWorld Cup held in Uruguay,Uruguay beat Argentina 4-2

    1934

    The second World Cup held in Italy,italy beat Czechoslovakia 2-1

  • Name Of Set: Footballers
  • Manufacturer: Carreras
  • Issue Year: 1934
  • Card Number: 75
  • Names of Players: Alex James at Arsenal,J. McDougall at Sunderland,W. Amos at Bury,G. Hunt at Tottenham Hotspurs,J. Arnold at Fulham,T.B. Hetherington at Burnley,W. Lowton at Wolverhampton,J. Bruton at Blackburn,O. Jones at Norwich City,D. Tremelling at Bury,L Stoker at Birmingham,H. Pearson at W.B. Albion,J. Allen at Newcastle United,S. Cowan at Manchester City,A. Campbell at Huddersfield,J. Beresford at Aston Villa,J. Barrett at West Ham United,G. Camsell at Middlesbrough,R. Barclay at Sheffield United,G. Taylor at Bolton Wanderers,R. Kelly at Preston North End,G. Henderson at Barnsley,H. Gallacher at Chelsea,H. Hanford at Swansea Town,J. Bestall at Grimsby Town,W. Thompson at Notts Forest,E. Blenkinsop at Liverpool,W. Tabram at Hull City,J. Nichol at Portsmouth,W. Evans at Tottenham Hotspur,S. Crooks at Derby County,E. Hine at Manchester United,E. Hart at Leeds United,Dixie Dean at Everton,H. Davies at Stoke City,J. Spence at Bradford City,H. Adcock at Leicester City,J. Brown at Sheffield Wednesday,David Jack at Arsenal,A Black at Leicester City,R. Goodall at Huddersfield,H. Hibbs at Birmingham,J. Gilfillan at Portsmouth,D. Astley at Aston Villa,J Holliday at Brentford,M. Webster at Middlesbrough,J. Connor at Sunderland,J. Allen at Aston Villa,J. Bowers at Derby County,J. Smith at Portsmouth,J. Cookson at Plymouth,W. Mcgonagle at Celtic,E. Glover at Grimsby Town,R. Mcphail at Glasgow Rangers,W. Porter at Oldham,C. Wharton at Norwich City,H. Scriven at Southampton,E. Brook at Manchester City and J. McClelland at Bradford Park Avenue, G. Hodgson at Liverpool, V. Woodley at Chelsea, E. Critchley at Preston, J. Milburn at Leeds, J Hampson at Blackpool, T Cooper at Derby, J McGrory at Celtic, J. Weddle at Portsmouth, G. Mills at Chelsea, Stanley Matthews at Stoke City, J Hulme at Arsenal, JA Johnston at Hearts, W Cresswell at Everton E Rimmer at Sheffield Wednesday, C Bastin at Arsenal, and T Glidden at West Brom.
  •  

    1935

    Ted Drake scores seven goals for Arsenal in a Laugue game against Aston Villa . A football Laegue record.

    Arsenal Player in 1935

  • Name Of Set: Football Caricatures
  • Manufacturer: Ogdens
  • Issue Year: 1935
  • Card Number: 50
  • Names of Players: J.W. Barker – Derby County FC ,J. Bray – Manchester City FC ,C.S. Britton – Everton FC,EF Brook – Manchester City FC,W. Copping – Arsenal F.C.,A. Geldard – Everton FC, R. Gurney – Sunderland FC, E.A. Hapgood – Arsenal FC, H. Hibbs – Birmingham FC, GC Male – Arsenal FC, RW Westwood – Bolton Wanderers FC, D.J. Astley – Aston Villa FC,W. Evans – Tottenham Hotspur FC, T.P. Griffiths – Middlesbrough FC, DO Jones – Leicester City FC, JP Murphy – West Ham FC, W. O’Callaghan – Leicester FC, C. Phillips – Wolves FC, D. Richards – Wolves Fc, J. Connor – Sunderland FC, D. Duncan – Derby County FC, H. Gallacher – Derby County FC, P. Gallacher – Sunderland, J. Jackson – Chelsea FC, A. Massie – Hearts FC, C. Napier – Derby County, J. Coulter – Everton FC, DK Martin – Wolves FC, W. Mitchell – Chelsea FC, AE Stevens – Everton,L Adams – Castleford,S. Brogden – Leeds,G. Carmichael – Bradford,DM Davies – Huddersfield,JRP Dawson – Hull,W. Dingsdale – Warrington,A. Ellaby – Wigan,B. Evans – Swinton,J. Feetham – Salford,AE Diddes,E. Herbert – Hull,M. Hodgson – Swinton,W. Little – Barrow,H. Lockwood – Halifax,E Pollard – Wakefield Trinity,AJ Risman,J Sherburn – Keighley,S. Smith,J. Sullivan,J. Walkington
  •  1936

    Arsenal Player autography 1936

    Joe Payne score ten goals for Luton in a League game against Bristol Rover, a football leaguea record

     1937 

    A British record crowd of 148.000 watch Scotland play England at Hampden Park in Glasgow

    1938

    1.The third World Cup, held in France.Italy beat Hungary 4-2

    2.French Football League formed 

    3.

  • Name Of Set: Famous Teams
  • Manufacturer: Sherman’s Pools Ltd.
  • Issue Year: 1938
  • Card Number: 37
  • Names of Teams: Aberdeen FC, Aston Villa FC, Arsenal FC, Birmingham FC, Bolton Wanderers FC, Brentford FC, Blackburn Rovers FC, Blackpool FC, Coventry City FC, Derby County FC, Charlton Athletic FC, Chelsea FC, Everton FC, Fulham FC, East Fife FC, England Team, Huddersfield FC, Ireland Team, Glasgow Celtic FC, Heart of Midlothian FC, Liverpool FC, Manchester United FC, Kilmarnock FC, Leeds United FC, Newcastle United FC, Newport County FC, Middlesbrough FC, Millwall FC, Sheffield United FC, Stoke City FC, Portsmouth FC, Preston North End FC, Tranmere Rovers FC, Wales FC ,Sunderland FC, Tottenham Hotspur FC and West Ham United FC.
  •  

     1940

    Arsenal Players autograph

    1946

    British FA rejoin FIFA

     1949 

    Eire beat England at Goodison Park in Liverpool. The first foreign side to win in England

     1950

    The fouth World Cup,held in Brazil.Uruguay beat Brazil 2-1 in final round robin match to gain victory

     1953

    England lose their unbeaten record at Wembley as Hungary win 6-3 

    1954 1955 1956 1958 1959

    1965

    Stanley Mathews becomes the first soccer player to be knighted

    1968

     

    Manchester Unites become the first England side to win the European Cup

    1979

    Frame two:

    The History Of Soccer

     

    History of Association Football

    England playing Scotland in the first-ever international football game (The Oval, 1872)

    The Royal Engineers team who reached the first FA Cup final in 1872

    Games revolving around the kicking of a ball have been played in many countries throughout history. According to FIFA, the “The very earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise from a military manual dating back to the second and third centuries BC in China.”[15] The modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played at the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century.[16]

    The Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were particularly influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury schools. They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football. Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857,[17] which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School also devised an influential set of rules.[18]

    These ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association (The FA) in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons’ Tavern in Great Queen Street, London.[19] The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse. The Freemason’s Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which eventually produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand; the second for obstructing such a run by hacking (kicking an opponent in the shins), tripping and holding. Other English rugby football clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, or subsequently left the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer Cobb Morley, went on to ratify the original thirteen laws of the game.[19] These rules included handling of the ball by “marks” and the lack of a crossbar, rules which made it remarkably similar to Victorian rules football being developed at that time in Australia. The Sheffield FA played by its own rules until the 1870s with the FA absorbing some of its rules until there was little difference between the games.[20]

    The laws of the game are currently determined by the International Football Association Board (IFAB).[21] The Board was formed in 1886[22] after a meeting in Manchester of The Football Association, the Scottish Football Association, the Football Association of Wales, and the Irish Football Association. The world’s oldest football competition is the FA Cup, which was founded by C. W. Alcock and has been contested by English teams since 1872. The first official international football match took place in 1872 between Scotland and England in Glasgow, again at the instigation of C. W. Alcock. England is home to the world’s first football league, which was founded in Birmingham in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor.[23] The original format contained 12 clubs from the Midlands and the North of England. FIFA, the international football body, was formed in Paris in 1904 and declared that they would adhere to Laws of the Game of the Football Association.[24] The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to the International Football Association Board in 1913. The board currently consists of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from each of the four British associations.[25]

    Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world. Millions of people regularly go to football stadiums to follow their favourite teams,[26] while billions more watch the game on television or on the internet.[27] A very large number of people also play football at an amateur level. According to a survey conducted by FIFA published in 2001, over 240 million people from more than 200 countries regularly play football.[28] Football has the highest global television audience in sport.[29]

    In many parts of the world football evokes great passions and plays an important role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and even nations. The Côte d’Ivoire national football team helped secure a truce to the nation’s civil war in 2006[30] and it helped further reduce tensions between government and rebel forces in 2007 by playing a match in the rebel capital of Bouaké, an occasion that brought both armies together peacefully for the first time.[31] By contrast, football is widely considered to be the final proximate cause in the Football War in June 1969 between El Salvador and Honduras.[32] The sport also exacerbated tensions at the beginning of the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, when a match between Dinamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade devolved into rioting in March 1990.[33]

    Laws

    There are 17 laws in the official Laws of the Game. The same laws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors, women and people with physical disabilities are permitted. The laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. The Laws of the Game are published by FIFA, but are maintained by the International Football Association Board (IFAB), not FIFA itself.[34] In addition to the seventeen laws, numerous IFAB decisions and other directives contribute to the regulation of football. The most complex of the laws is offside. The offside law limits the ability of attacking players to receive the ball when closer to the opponent’s goal line than: the ball itself; the second-to-last defending player (which can include the goalkeeper); and the half-way line.[9]

    Players, equipment, and officials

    Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players (excluding substitutes), one of whom must be the goalkeeper. Competition rules may state a minimum number of players required to constitute a team, which is usually seven. Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to play the ball with their hands or arms, provided they do so within the penalty area in front of their own goal. Though there are a variety of positions in which the outfield (non-goalkeeper) players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions are not defined or required by the Laws.[12]

    The basic equipment or kit players are required to wear includes a shirt, shorts, socks, footwear and adequate shin guards. Headgear is not a required piece of basic equipment, but players today may choose to wear it to protect themselves from head injury. Players are forbidden to wear or use anything that is dangerous to themselves or another player, such as jewellery or watches. The goalkeeper must wear clothing that is easily distinguishable from that worn by the other players and the match officials.[35]

    A number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. The maximum number of substitutions permitted in most competitive international and domestic league games is three, though the permitted number may vary in other competitions or in friendly matches. Common reasons for a substitution include injury, tiredness, ineffectiveness, a tactical switch, or timewasting at the end of a finely poised game. In standard adult matches, a player who has been substituted may not take further part in a match.[36] IFAB recommends that “that a match should not continue if there are fewer than seven players in either team.” Any decision regarding points awarded for abandoned games is left to the individual football associations.[37]

    A game is officiated by a referee, who has “full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed” (Law 5), and whose decisions are final. The referee is assisted by two assistant referees. In many high-level games there is also a fourth official who assists the referee and may replace another official should the need arise.[38]

    Pitch

    Standard pitch measurements

    As the Laws were formulated in England, and were initially administered solely by the four British football associations within IFAB, the standard dimensions of a football pitch were originally expressed in imperial units. The Laws now express dimensions with approximate metric equivalents (followed by traditional units in brackets), though popular use tends to continue to use traditional units in English-speaking countries with a relatively recent history of metrication, such as Britain.[39]

    The length of the pitch for international adult matches is in the range of 100–110 m (110–120 yd) and the width is in the range of 64–75 m (70–80 yd). Fields for non-international matches may be 91–120 m (100–130 yd) length and 45–91 m (50–101 yd) in width, provided that the pitch does not become square. Although in 2008, the IFAB initially approved a fixed size of 105 m long and 68 m wide as a standard pitch dimension for A international matches,[40] this decision was later put on hold and was never actually implemented.[41]

    The longer boundary lines are touchlines, while the shorter boundaries (on which the goals are placed) are goal lines. A rectangular goal is positioned at the middle of each goal line.[42] The inner edges of the vertical goal posts must be 7.32 m (8 yd) apart, and the lower edge of the horizontal crossbar supported by the goal posts must be 2.44 m (8 ft) above the ground. Nets are usually placed behind the goal, but are not required by the Laws.[43]

    In front of each goal is an area known as the penalty area. This area is marked by the goal line, two lines starting on the goal line 16.5 m (18 yd) from the goalposts and extending 16.5 m (18 yd) into the pitch perpendicular to the goal line, and a line joining them. This area has a number of functions, the most prominent being to mark where the goalkeeper may handle the ball and where a penalty foul by a member of the defending team becomes punishable by a penalty kick. Other markings define the position of the ball or players at kick-offs, goal kicks, penalty kicks and corner kicks.[44]

    Duration and tie-breaking methods

    A standard adult football match consists of two periods of 45 minutes each, known as halves. Each half runs continuously, meaning that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play. There is usually a 15-minute half-time break between halves. The end of the match is known as full-time.[45] The referee is the official timekeeper for the match, and may make an allowance for time lost through substitutions, injured players requiring attention, or other stoppages. This added time is commonly referred to as stoppage time or injury time, and is at the sole discretion of the referee. The referee alone signals the end of the match. In matches where a fourth official is appointed, toward the end of the half the referee signals how many minutes of stoppage time he intends to add. The fourth official then informs the players and spectators by holding up a board showing this number. The signalled stoppage time may be further extended by the referee.[45] Added time was introduced because of an incident which happened in 1891 during a match between Stoke and Aston Villa. Trailing 1–0 and with just two minutes remaining, Stoke were awarded a penalty. Villa’s goalkeeper kicked the ball out of the ground, and by the time the ball had been recovered, the 90 minutes had elapsed and the game was over.[46] The same law also stands that the duration of either half is extended until the penalty kick to be taken or retaken is completed, thus no game shall end with a penalty to be taken.[47]

    In league competitions, games may end in a draw, but in some knockout competitions if a game is tied at the end of regulation time it may go into extra time, which consists of two further 15-minute periods. If the score is still tied after extra time, some competitions allow the use of penalty shootouts (known officially in the Laws of the Game as “kicks from the penalty mark”) to determine which team will progress to the next stage of the tournament. Goals scored during extra time periods count toward the final score of the game, but kicks from the penalty mark are only used to decide the team that progresses to the next part of the tournament (with goals scored in a penalty shootout not making up part of the final score).[6]

    In competitions using two-legged matches, each team competes at home once, with an aggregate score from the two matches deciding which team progresses. Where aggregates are equal, the away goals rule may be used to determine the winners, in which case the winner is the team that scored the most goals in the leg played away from home. If the result is still equal, kicks from the penalty mark are required.[6]

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the IFAB experimented with ways of creating a winner without requiring a penalty shootout, which was often seen as an undesirable way to end a match. These involved rules ending a game in extra time early, either when the first goal in extra time was scored (golden goal), or if one team held a lead at the end of the first period of extra time (silver goal). Golden goal was used at the World Cup in 1998 and 2002. The first World Cup game decided by a golden goal was France‘s victory over Paraguay in 1998. Germany was the first nation to score a golden goal in a major competition, beating Czech Republic in the final of Euro 1996. Silver goal was used in Euro 2004. Both these experiments have been discontinued by IFAB.[48]

    Ball in and out of play

    Under the Laws, the two basic states of play during a game are ball in play and ball out of play. From the beginning of each playing period with a kick-off until the end of the playing period, the ball is in play at all times, except when either the ball leaves the field of play, or play is stopped by the referee. When the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted by one of eight restart methods depending on how it went out of play:

    A player takes a free kick, while the opposition form a “wall” in order to try to deflect the ball

    • Kick-off: following a goal by the opposing team, or to begin each period of play.[10]
    • Throw-in: when the ball has crossed the touchline; awarded to opposing team to that which last touched the ball.[49]
    • Goal kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a player of the attacking team; awarded to defending team.[50]
    • Corner kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a player of the defending team; awarded to attacking team.[51]
    • Indirect free kick: awarded to the opposing team following “non-penal” fouls, certain technical infringements, or when play is stopped to caution or send-off an opponent without a specific foul having occurred. A goal may not be scored directly from an indirect free kick.[52]
    • Direct free kick: awarded to fouled team following certain listed “penal” fouls.[52] A goal may be scored directly from a direct free kick.
    • Penalty kick: awarded to the fouled team following a foul usually punishable by a direct free kick but that has occurred within their opponent’s penalty area.[53]
    • Dropped-ball: occurs when the referee has stopped play for any other reason, such as a serious injury to a player, interference by an external party, or a ball becoming defective. This restart is uncommon in adult games.[10]

    Misconduct

     
    Players are cautioned with a yellow card, and sent off with a red card. These colours were first introduced at the 1970 FIFA World Cup and used consistently since.

    A player scores a penalty kick given after an offence is committed inside the penalty area

    A foul occurs when a player commits an offence listed in the Laws of the Game while the ball is in play. The offences that constitute a foul are listed in Law 12. Handling the ball deliberately, tripping an opponent, or pushing an opponent, are examples of “penal fouls”, punishable by a direct free kick or penalty kick depending on where the offence occurred. Other fouls are punishable by an indirect free kick.[8] The referee may punish a player or substitute’s misconduct by a caution (yellow card) or sending-off (red card). A second yellow card at the same game leads to a red card, and therefore to a sending-off. A player given a yellow card is said to have been “booked”, the referee writing the player’s name in his official notebook. If a player has been sent off, no substitute can be brought on in their place. Misconduct may occur at any time, and while the offences that constitute misconduct are listed, the definitions are broad. In particular, the offence of “unsporting behaviour” may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences. A referee can show a yellow or red card to a player, substitute or substituted player. Non-players such as managers and support staff cannot be shown the yellow or red card, but may be expelled from the technical area if they fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner.[8]

    Rather than stopping play, the referee may allow play to continue if doing so will benefit the team against which an offence has been committed. This is known as “playing an advantage”.[54] The referee may “call back” play and penalise the original offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensue within “a few seconds”. Even if an offence is not penalised due to advantage being played, the offender may still be sanctioned for misconduct at the next stoppage of play.[55]

    Governing bodies

    The recognised international governing body of football (and associated games, such as futsal and beach soccer) is the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). The FIFA headquarters are located in Zurich. Six regional confederations are associated with FIFA; these are:[56]

    National associations oversee football within individual countries. These are generally synonymous with sovereign states, (for example: the Fédération Camerounaise de Football in Cameroon) but also include a smaller number of associations responsible for sub-national entities or autonomous regions (for example the Scottish Football Association in Scotland). 208 national associations are affiliated both with FIFA and with their respective continental confederations.[56]

    While FIFA is responsible for arranging competitions and most rules related to international competition, the actual Laws of the Game are set by the International Football Association Board, where each of the UK Associations has one vote, while FIFA collectively has four votes.[25]

    International competitions

    A minute’s silence before an international match

    The major international competition in football is the World Cup, organised by FIFA. This competition takes place over a four-year period. More than 190 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. The finals tournament, which is held every four years, involves 32 national teams competing over a four-week period.[57] The most recent tournament, the 2010 FIFA World Cup, was held in South Africa from 11 June to 11 July.[58]

    There has been a football tournament at every Summer Olympic Games since 1900, except at the 1932 games in Los Angeles.[59] Before the inception of the World Cup, the Olympics (especially during the 1920s) had the same status as the World Cup. Originally, the event was for amateurs only,[24] however, since the 1984 Summer Olympics professional players have been permitted, albeit with certain restrictions which prevent countries from fielding their strongest sides. Currently, the Olympic men’s tournament is played at Under-23 level. In the past the Olympics have allowed a restricted number of over-age players per team;[60] but that practice ceased in the 2008 Olympics. A women’s tournament was added in 1996; in contrast to the men’s event, full international sides without age restrictions play the women’s Olympic tournament.[61]

    After the World Cup, the most important international football competitions are the continental championships, which are organised by each continental confederation and contested between national teams. These are the European Championship (UEFA), the Copa América (CONMEBOL), African Cup of Nations (CAF), the Asian Cup (AFC), the CONCACAF Gold Cup (CONCACAF) and the OFC Nations Cup (OFC). The FIFA Confederations Cup is contested by the winners of all 6 continental championships, the current FIFA World Cup champions and the country which is hosting the Confederations Cup. This is generally regarded as a warm up tournament for the upcoming FIFA World Cup and does not carry the same prestige as the World Cup itself. The most prestigious competitions in club football are the respective continental championships, which are generally contested between national champions, for example the UEFA Champions League in Europe and the Copa Libertadores de América in South America. The winners of each continental competition contest the FIFA Club World Cup.[62]

    Domestic competitions

    Two players trying to win the ball

    The governing bodies in each country operate league systems in a domestic season, normally comprising several divisions, in which the teams gain points throughout the season depending on results. Teams are placed into tables, placing them in order according to points accrued. Most commonly, each team plays every other team in its league at home and away in each season, in a round-robin tournament. At the end of a season, the top team is declared the champion. The top few teams may be promoted to a higher division, and one or more of the teams finishing at the bottom are relegated to a lower division.[63] The teams finishing at the top of a country’s league may be eligible also to play in international club competitions in the following season. The main exceptions to this system occur in some Latin American leagues, which divide football championships into two sections named Apertura and Clausura (Spanish for Opening and Closing), awarding a champion for each.[64] The majority of countries supplement the league system with one or more “cup” competitions organised on a knock-out basis.

    Some countries’ top divisions feature highly paid star players; in smaller countries and lower divisions, players may be part-timers with a second job, or amateurs. The five top European leagues – the Premier League (England),[65] La Liga (Spain), Serie A (Italy), the Bundesliga (Germany) and Ligue 1 (France) – attract most of the world’s best players and each of the leagues has a total wage cost in excess of £600 million/763 million/$1.185 billion

    the end@ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

     

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