WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD
SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN
AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM
DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.
SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR
*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001
THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM
MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA
DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI
PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE
Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)
WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM
SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA
(Driwan Natural History Cybermuseum)
The Natural History cybermuseum
(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah Alam semesta )
Frame One :
1.Setelah mengadakan pameran koleksi sejarah Alam semesta di Dr Iwan Cybermuseum , The Natural History Exhibition dan The Meteorit Exhibition, ternyata cukup banyak peminatnya, para kolektor terkait meminta sya untuk memajang koleksi tersebut dalam sebuah museum khusus dan saya menempatkan di blog saya :
yang masih memiliki cukup banyak bytes untuk menginstall ilustrasi yang sangat indah dan menakjubkan.
After the Exhibition of The natural History Collections as The meteorit and The Indonesian natural History Collections ,many collectors like the exhibtion and ask me to show the collections in the special cybermuseum. I add at my hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com , whete the bytes enoungh for install the amizing and beautiful illustrations.
2. Saya menyadari natural History cybermuseum ini masih banyak kurangannya,oleh karena itu mohon komentar,saran dan tambahan info agar penampilannya lebih lengkap dan indah.
I know that this cybermuseum still not complete,that is why I need commen,advise and more info to make this cybermuseum more complete and beautiful.
Sincerely yours from the founder
Dr Iwan Suwandy
Dr Iwan’s Natural History Book Collections as The basic Informations.(only some show,still many other books exist in My collectiosn -dr Iwan s.)
1) Parker,Bertha Morris.The Golden Treasure Of Natural History,Golden Press New york,1949
2) Eddy and Underhill. how to know the Freshwater Fishes,Wm.C.Brown Company,Iowa,1969
6)Muller,Diving Indonesia , Periplus,singapore,1999.
7)Poernomo,Achmad. Ikan Hias laut Indonesia,Balai riset Perikana laut ,Penebar Swadaya,2003.
The Natural History Historic Collections
Natural history is the scientific research of plants or animals, leaning more towards observational rather than experimental methods of study, and encompasses more research published in magazines than in academic journals. Grouped among the natural sciences, natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms. That is a very broad designation in a world filled with many narrowly focused disciplines. So while modern natural history dates historically from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the medieval Arabic world through to the scattered European Renaissance scientists working in near isolation, today’s field is more of a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences. For example, geobiology has a strong multi-disciplinary nature combining scientists and scientific knowledge of many specialty sciences.
A person who studies natural history is known as a naturalist or “natural historian”. Natural history is categorized among the natural sciences. As a published topic, it originated from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world. The modern topic comprises many specialty sciences such as geobiology.
The English term ‘natural history’ is a translation of the Latin naturalis historia. Its meaning has narrowed considerably over time (see also History below). In antiquity, it covered more-or-less anything which is connected with nature or which uses materials drawn from nature; see for example the contents of Pliny‘s encyclopedia of this title, published circa AD 77-79.
Until well into the nineteenth century, knowledge was considered by Europeans to have two main divisions: the humanities (including theology), and studies of nature. Studies of nature could in turn be divided, with natural history being the descriptive counterpart to natural philosophy which was the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy roughly corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences. The two were strongly associated. During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many figures contributed to both fields, and early papers in both were commonly read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences – both founded during the seventeenth century.
The growth of many separate scientific disciplines in the twentieth century altered the way in which the term ‘natural history’ was used. Since it encompasses research that is now normally published within distinct disciplines, it may be considered an archaic or popular term.
Although terminology was and remains somewhat vague, a number of increasingly restricted uses can be distinguished. The less restricted uses are ‘umbrella terms‘ for distinct modern scientific disciplines. Modern uses exclude chemistry and almost all of physics (astronomy is sometimes included).
- As used in the titles of institutions such as the American Museum of Natural History or the British Natural History Museum, the term covers most of modern biology and geology.
- A more restricted use excludes those areas of geology not concerned with living organisms. In this sense, natural history includes all of biology (the study of living organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, etc. and their relationships in natural systems) and paleobiology (the study of extinct life), but only some life-related areas of geology, such as stratigraphy and petrology.
- Applied only within biology, it is used for the study of particular organisms. Thus the ‘natural history of primates’ involves describing the relevant structures, operations and circumstances of primates, such as their diet, reproduction, social grouping, and interactions with other species.
The term may be used to denote the less strictly organized study, description, and classification of natural objects, such as animals, plants, minerals, which emphasise fieldwork as opposed to more systematic scientific investigation such as experimental or laboratory work.
Modern definitions of the term include:
- Natural history is “the scientific study of plants or animals (more observational than experimental) usually published in popular magazines rather than in academic journals”.
- “Natural history is the scientific research of plants and animals in their natural environments. It is concerned with degrees of organization from individual organisms to an entire ecosystem, and emphasizes identification, life history, distribution, abundance, and inter-relationships. It may include an aesthetic component.”
Natural history begins with Aristotle and other ancient philosophers who analyzed the diversity of the natural world. Natural history, as a discipline, had existed since classical times, and fifteenth-century Europeans were very familiar with Pliny the Elder‘s Historia Naturalis. From the ancient Greeks until the work of Carolus Linnaeus (also known as Carl Linnaeus, or Carl von Linné) and other 18th century naturalists, the main concept of natural history was the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being, a conceptual arrangement of minerals, vegetables, more primitive forms of animals, and more complex life forms on a linear scale of increasing “perfection”, culminating in our species.
Dioscorides‘ De Materia Medica is often said to be the oldest and most valuable work in the history of botany. A Greek manuscript of Aristotle‘s Biological Works, written in Constantinople in the mid-9th century, and preserved at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, is probably the oldest surviving manuscript of texts that founded the science of biology.
While natural history was basically static in medieval Europe, it continued to be developed by Arabic scholars during the Arab Agricultural Revolution. Al-Jahiz described early natural history ideas such as the “struggle for existence” (Malthus’ phrase), and the idea of a food chain.[verification needed] He was an early adherent of environmental determinism.[verification needed] Al-Dinawari is considered the founder of Arabic botany for his Book of Plants, in which he described at least 637 plants and discussed plant development from germination (sprouting) to death, describing the phases of plant growth and the production of flowers and fruit. Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati developed an early scientific method for botany, introducing empirical and experimental techniques in the testing, description and identification of numerous materia medica, and separating unverified reports from those supported by actual tests and observations. His student Ibn al-Baitar wrote a pharmaceutical encyclopedia describing 1,400 plants, foods, and drugs, 300 of which were his own original discoveries. A Latin translation of his work was useful to European biologists and pharmacists in the 18th and 19th centuries. Earth sciences such as geology were also studied extensively by Arabic geologists, but by Avicenna’s time, around 1000, the Arab Empire was in decline and scientists were not free to publish their ideas.
Georges Buffon is best remembered for his Histoire naturelle, a 44 volume encyclopedia describing everything known about the natural world.
From the 13th century, the work of Aristotle was adapted rather rigidly into Christian philosophy, particularly by Thomas Aquinas, forming the basis for natural theology. During the Renaissance, scholars (herbalists and humanists, particularly) returned to direct observation of plants and animals for natural history, and many began to accumulate large collections of exotic specimens and unusual monsters. Andrea Cesalpino was the creator of one of the first herbaria and the inventor of botanical systematics. Leonhart Fuchs was one of the three founding fathers of botany, along with Otto Brunfels and Hieronymus Bock. Important contributors to the field were also Valerius Cordus, Konrad Gesner (Historiae animalium), Frederik Ruysch, or Gaspard Bauhin. The rapid increase in the number of known organisms prompted many attempts at classifying and organizing species into taxonomic groups, culminating in the system of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus.
In modern Europe, professional disciplines such as physiology, botany, zoology, geology, and palaeontology were formed. Natural history, formerly the main subject taught by college science professors, was increasingly scorned by scientists of a more specialized manner and relegated to an “amateur” activity, rather than a part of science proper. In Victorian Scotland it was believed that the study of natural history contributed to good mental health. Particularly in Britain and the United States, this grew into specialist hobbies such as the study of birds, butterflies, seashells (malacology/conchology), beetles and wildflowers; meanwhile, scientists tried to define a unified discipline of biology (though with only partial success, at least until the modern evolutionary synthesis). Still, the traditions of natural history continue to play a part in the study of biology, especially ecology (the study of natural systems involving living organisms and the inorganic components of the Earth’s biosphere that support them), ethology (the scientific study of animal behavior), and evolutionary biology (the study of the relationships between life-forms over very long periods of time), and re-emerges today as integrative organismal biology.
Amateur collectors and natural history entrepreneurs played an important role in building the large natural history collections of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, such as the Smithsonian Institution‘s National Museum of Natural History.
Natural history museums, which evolved from cabinets of curiosities, played an important role in the emergence of professional biological disciplines and research programs. Particularly in the 19th century, scientists began to use their natural history collections as teaching tools for advanced students and the basis for their own morphological research.
The term “natural history” alone, or sometimes together with archeology, forms the name of many national, regional and local natural history societies that maintain records for birds (ornithology), mammals (mammalogy), insects (entomology), fungi (mycology) and plants (botany). They may also have microscopical and geological sections.
Examples of these societies in Britain include the Natural History Society of Northumbria founded in 1829, British Entomological and Natural History Society founded in 1872, Birmingham Natural History Society, Glasgow Natural History Society, London Natural History Society founded in 1858, Manchester Microscopical and Natural History Society established in 1880, Scarborough Field Naturalists’ Society and the Sorby Natural History Society, Sheffield, founded in 1918. The growth of natural history societies was also spurred due to the growth of British colonies in tropical regions with numerous new species to be discovered. Many civil servants took an interest in their new surroundings, sending specimens back to museums in Britain. (See also Indonesia natural history at hhtp;//www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpreess.com)
the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011