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THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM
MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA
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Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)
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SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA”
Showcase “the Ainu historic collections”
Pameran Koleksi Etnik “Ainu”
Frame One : Koleski Ainu Abad ke 19
The complete info look at dr iwan cybermuseum click hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
The Ainu Collections in 19 th Century.
(based on Dr Iwan vintage books collection .witten by David Mac Ritchie,Edinburg,1892)
3.THE AINOS BIBLIOGRAPHY
5. THE AINOS INSCRIPTION
FRAME TWO: THE AINOS HISTORIC COLLECTION FROM GOOGLE EXPLORATION
Ainu people-SUKU AINU
Group of Ainu people, 1902 photograph.
|The official Japanese government estimate is 25,000, though this number has been disputed with unofficial estimates of upwards of 200,000.|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Historically Ainu and other Ainu languages; today, most Ainu speak Japanese or Russian.|
|Animism, Russian Orthodox Christianity, Buddhism|
The Ainu (アイヌ?, Aynu アィヌ) IPA: [ʔáinu] (also called Ezo in historical texts) are the indigenous people or groups in Japan and Russia. Historically they spoke the Ainu language and related varieties and lived in Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. Most of those who identify themselves as Ainu still live in this same region, though the exact number of living Ainu is unknown. This is due to ethnic issues in Japan resulting in those with Ainu backgrounds hiding their identities and confusion over mixed heritages. In Japan, because of intermarriage over many years with Japanese, the concept of a ‘pure Ainu’ ethnic group is no longer feasible. Official estimates of the population are of around 25,000, while the unofficial number is upwards of 200,000 people.
Ainu culture dates from around 1200 CE and recent research suggests that it originated in a merger of the Okhotsk and Satsumon cultures. Active contact between the Wajin (the ethnically Japanese) and the Ainu of Ezochi (now known as Hokkaido) began in the 13th century. The Ainu were a society of hunter-gatherers, who lived mainly hunting and fishing, and the people followed a religion based on phenomena of nature.
During the Tokugawa period (1600–1868) the Ainu became increasingly involved in trade with Japanese who controlled the southern portion of the island that is now called Hokkaido. The Bakufu government granted the Matsumae family exclusive rights to trade with the Ainu in the Northern part of the island. Later the Matsumae began to lease out trading rights to Japanese merchants, and contact between Japanese and Ainu became more extensive. Throughout this period Ainu became increasingly dependent on goods imported by Japanese, and suffered from epidemic diseases such as smallpox.
The turning point for Ainu culture was the beginning of the Meiji Restoration in 1868. A variety of social, political and economic reforms were introduced by the Japanese government, in hope of modernising the country in the Western style, and included the annexation of Hokkaido. Sjöberg quotes Baba’s (1980) account of the Japanese government’s reasoning:
‘ … The development of Japan’s large northern island had several objectives: First, it was seen as a means to defend Japan from a rapidly developing and expansionist Russia. Second … it offered a solution to the unemployment for the former samurai class … Finally, development promised to yield the needed natural resources for a growing capitalist economy.’
In 1899 the Japanese government passed an act labeling the Ainu as former aborigines, with the idea they would assimilate – this resulted in the land the Ainu people lived on being taken by the Japanese government, and was from then on under Japanese control. Also at this time, the Ainu were granted automatic Japanese citizenship, effectively denying them of being an indigenous group.
The Ainu were becoming increasingly marginalised on their own land – over a period of only 36 years, the Ainu went from being a relatively isolated group of people to having their land, language, religion and customs assimilated into those of the Japanese. In addition to this, the land the Ainu lived on was distributed to the Wajin who had decided to move to Hokkaido, who had been encouraged by the Japanese government of the Meiji era to take advantage of the island’s abundance of natural resources, and to create and maintain farms in the model of western industrial agriculture. This development was termed Kaitakushi. As well as this, factories such as flour mills and beer breweries and mining practices resulted in the creation of infrastructure such as roads and railway lines, during a development period that lasted until 1904. During this time the Ainu were forced to learn Japanese, required to adopt Japanese names and ordered to cease religious practices such as animal sacrifice and the custom of tattooing.[14the end@copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2010