Pameran Koleksi Unik Kerajaan Kuno “CARTHAGO” Saat Ini Berlokasi Di Tunisia.

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 



                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




Pembaca mungkin telah pernah membaca tentang kerajaan Carthago dengan pahlawannya Hannibal, tetapi dimanakah lokasi Kerajaan tersebut  saat ini dan artifak apa yang masih ada saat ini? tentu banyak yang belum pernah berkunjung kelokasi tersebut di Tunisia,Afriak utara wilayah mediterania, apalagi melihat artifak peningalannya. Untuk itu marilah pembaca melihat sebagian pameran artifak dari kerajaan Carthago tersebut untuk menambah wawas



FRAME IV. INFO  SEJARAH (google and Wikipedia exploration)

Utica was founded as a port located on the trade route leading to the Straits of Gibraltar and the Atlantic, thus facilitating Phoenician trade in the Mediterranean.[5] The actual founding date of Utica is controversial. Several classical authors date its foundation around 1100 BC. The archaeological evidence, however, suggests a foundation no earlier than the eighth century BC. Although Carthage was later founded about 40 km. from Utica, records suggest “that until 540 BC Utica was still maintaining political and economic autonomy in relation to its powerful Carthaginian neighbor”.[5] By the fourth century BC, Utica came under Punic control but continued to exist as a privileged ally of Carthage.[6]

[edit] Mercenary War

This relationship between Carthage and Utica began to disintegrate after the First Punic War, with the outbreak of rebellion among mercenaries who had not received compensation for their service to Carthage. Originally, Utica refused to participate in this rebellion, so that the Libyan forces led by Spendius and Matho laid siege to Utica and nearby Hippocritae.[7] The Carthaginian generals Hanno and Hamilcar then came to Utica’s defense, managing to raise the siege, but “the severest blow of all… was the defection of Hippacritae and Utica, the only two cities in Libya which had…bravely faced the present war…indeed they never had on any occasion given the least sign of hostility to Carthage.” [8] Eventually, the forces of Carthage proved victorious, forcing Utica and Hippacritae to surrender after a short siege.[9]

[edit] Third Punic War

Utica again defied Carthage in the Third Punic War, when it surrendered to Rome shortly before the breakout of war in 150 BC. After its victory, Rome rewarded Utica by granting it an expanse of territory stretching from Carthage to Hippo.[10] As a result of the war, Rome created a new province of Africa, and Utica became its capital, which meant that the governor’s residence was there along with a small garrison. Over the following decades Utica also attracted Roman citizens who settled there to do business.[11]

[edit] Roman Civil War

During the Roman Civil War between the supporters of Pompey and Caesar, the remaining Pompeians, including Cato the Younger, fled to Utica after being defeated at the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC. Caesar pursued them to Utica, meeting no resistance from the inhabitants. Cato, who was the leader of the Pompeians, ensured the escape of his fellow senators and anyone else who desired to leave, then committed suicide, unwilling to accept the clemency of Caesar.[10] Displaying their fondness for Cato, “the people of Utica…called Cato their saviour and benefactor… And this they continued to do even when word was brought that Caesar was approaching. They decked his body in splendid fashion, gave it an illustrious escort, and buried it near the sea, where a statue of him now stands, sword in hand”.[12] After his death, Cato was given the name of Uticensis, due to the place of his death as well as to his public glorification and burial by the citizens of Utica.[13]

[edit] Roman status

Utica obtained the formal status of a municipium in 36 BC and its inhabitants became members of the tribe of Quirina.[14] During the reign of Augustus, however, the seat of provincial government was moved by the Emperor Augustus to Carthage. “Although Utica did not lose its status as one of the foremost cities in the province. When Hadrian was emperor, Utica requested to become a full Roman colony, but this request was not granted until Septimius Severus, a native, took the throne.”[15]

[edit] The fall of Utica

In AD 439, the Vandals captured Utica, in AD 534 the Byzantines captured it once more, and the Arabs were responsible for its ultimate destruction around AD 700. “Excavations at the site have yielded two Punic cemeteries and Roman ruins, including baths and a villa with mosaics”. [16]

[edit] Ruins

The site of the ruins of Utica is set on a low hill, composed of several Roman villas. Their walls still preserve decorative floor mosaics. To the northwest of these villas is a Punic necropolis, with Punic sarcophagi 20 feet (6meters) below the Roman level.










Battle of Carthage
The Battle of Carthage was fought in 698 AD between a Byzantine expeditionary force and the armies of the Umayyad Caliphate. Having lost Carthage to the Muslims, Emperor Leontius sent the navy under the command of John the Patrician and the droungarios Tiberius Apsimarus. They entered the harbor and successfully recaptured it, as well as the city, in a stunning surprise attack. The Arab forces fled to Kairouan. As Gibbon writes, “the Christians landed; the citizens hailed the ensign of the cross, and the winter was idly wasted in the dream of victory or deliverance.”[citation needed]

The emir Hasan ibn al-Nu’man was in the midst of pacifying the lands of Tamazgh (as it is called by the indigenous peoples)idg. when? or Maghreb (Arabic for the west), but withdrew from campaigning in the field to confront the renewed Roman challenge to the emerging caliphate. At Kairouan, he began plans to retake Carthage the following spring.[citation needed] It is estimated that he headed a force of 40,000 men.[citation needed] The Romans sent out a call for help to their traditional allies, the native Amazigh, and even to their enemies the Visigoths and the Franks. Despite having retaken the cityre-taken?, the Romans were in disarray due to the bitter in-fighting that characterized medieval Romania and sapped much of its strength.[citation needed][original research?] The previous exarch Gennadius had been a traitor to the Christian cause, defecting to the Muslims and becoming their vassal. The king of the Visigoths, Witiza, sent a reputed force of 500 warriors in order to help defend Carthage, perhaps to help check the rising Muslim threat which was lopping off large chunks of the Roman Empire, so close to Visigothic Hispania.[original research?]perhaps?

Hasan ibn al-Nu’man, enraged at having to retake a city that had not resisted the Roman take over, offered no terms except to surrender or die.[citation needed] The emperor Leontius, infamous for his harsh reaction to failure, had also given his forces instructions of victory or death. The Romans did sally forth and brought battle to the Arabs directly, but were defeated. They later preferred to continue to incite revolt through the Amazigh princes. The Roman commander, John, decided to wait out the siege behind the walls of Carthage and let the Arabs exhaust themselves, since he could continue to be resupplied from the sea. The defenders were faced with Hasan’s overwhelming force deployed in ferocious attacks as his men continuously tried to scale the walls with ladders. The Arabs combined their land assault with an attack from the sea that caused John and Apsimarus to fear being trapped within the city. Yet, the determination of the defenders resulted in the second and final great destruction of Carthage. The Romans retreated to the islands of Corsica, Sicily and Crete to further resist Muslim expansion and await the emperor’s wrath.

[edit] Aftermath

John the Patrician was later murdered after a conspiracy at the hands of his co-commander, Tiberius Apsimarus. Tiberius Apsimarus then, instead of taking the step of returning to Africa to fight the Muslims, sailed instead to Constantinople. After a successful rebellion he rose to the throne as Tiberius III, and was later deposed by former emperor Justinian II, now known as the Rhinotmetus.

The conquest of North Africa by the forces of Islam was now nearly complete. Hasan ibn al-Nu’man was triumphant. Hasan met with trouble from the Zenata tribe of Berbers under al-Kahina. They inflicted a serious defeat on him and drove him back to Barqa. However, in 702 AD Caliph Abd al-Malik strongly reinforced him. Now with a large army and the support of the settled population of North Africa, Hasan pushed forward. He decisively defeated al-Kahina in the Battle of Tabarka, 85 miles (136 km) west of Carthage. He then developed the village of Tunis, ten miles from the destroyed Carthage. Around 705 AD, Musa ibn Nusayr replaced Hasan. He pacified much of North Africa.

District of punic Byrsa

Byrsa was the walled citadel above the harbour in ancient Carthage. It was also the name of the hill it rested on. The name is derived from the Phoenician word for citadel.

In Virgil‘s account of Dido‘s founding of Carthage, when Dido and her party were encamped at Byrsa, the local Berber chieftain offered them as much land as could be covered with a single oxhide. Therefore, Dido cut an oxhide into tiny strips and set them on the ground end to end until she had completely encircled Byrsa. This story is considered apocryphal, and was most likely invented because Byrsa sounds similar to the Greek word βυρσα, meaning oxhide.

The citadel dominated the city below and formed the principal military installation of Carthage. It was besieged by Scipio Aemilianus Africanus in the Third Punic War and was defeated and destroyed in 146 BC.

PS. informasi lengkap hanya untuk anggota premium,illsutrasi lengkap lihat dimuseum dunia maya Dr iwan klik hhtp://

Selesai@hak cipta dr Iwan Suwandy 2010.



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