THE HISTORY OF TAMASEK ISLAND AND RAFFLES

I.TAMASEK ISLAND AND   RAFFLES(SOUTH EAST ASIA CYCLOPAEDIA,1896)

I.Raffles,Sir Thomas Stamford.

1.He was one of the most remarkable of the many distinguished men who have risen from the rank of the East India Company ‘s Civil Service .
He was the founder of Singapore , and one of the best and most astute of the governors of smaller eastren British dependencies.
He was born at sea near Jamaica , on the 5th of July 1781. From his infancy he was accustomed to an adventurous life.
His father , Benjamin Raffles , was one of the oldest captain in the trade of the seas out of the port of London.
Placed at an early age at a school in Hammersmith , at fourteen he was placed as an extra clerk in the East India House, but he did not abondon learning.
His leisure hours were never idle and when in 1805 the Court of Directors resolved on consilidating the establishment at Penang , he was named Assistant-Secretary and towards the close of that year he arrived in the Indian Archipelago.

2.Whilst the whole E.Archipelago was under British domination, he was Governor-General , and resided near Batavia(now Jakarta) from 1811 to 1816 , and from 1818 to 1924 he was Governor of the british possesion s of Sumatra.
During his visit to London , before coming to Sumatra , he founded the Zoology Society , and was its first President , and he began the zoological garden.
When he sailed from Bencoolen , the ship took fire about 50 miles from land, and all his official and private documents , all the living and mounted animals of Sumatra were destroyed .
Lady Raffles , his widow , wrote a memoir of her husband. She was the second wife of Sir Stamford , to whom she was merried in 1817. Her maiden name was Sophia Hull . She survived her husband 22 years and died on the 12th of December 1858, age 72, at Highwood, near London,Middlesex, an estate purchased by Sir Stampford swhortly after his return to England in 1824.

II. TAMASEK  OR SINGAPORE ISLAND
1.At the southern , extremity vof the Malay pennisula , i s eperated from the continent by a narrow straits , in some places less than a mile width .
The History of the Colony trails back into the mists of time. Six thousand years before christ , the ancetors of the Australian aborigines passed through on their island-hoppingg migration to new homes. Since Singapore has felt the influence of The Indian, the malay, the Javanese , the British and the Chinese.
Singapore was first settled in AD 1160 by Sri Sara Bawana , and from an inscription , now destroyed, on a sandstone rock on a narrow point to the left of the entrance of the Singapore river, it would appear that Raja Suran of Andan Nagara, after conquering the state of Johor with his Kling troops , proceeded to TAMASEK about ad 1201, returned to Kling, and left this stone monument.

2.The island consist of a number of low hills and ridges , with narrow and rather swampy flats intervening.
The name Singapore in not a malay one,it comes from twoSanskrit words word “Singa Pura”, meaning Liuon City and recallsthe time before the advent of Islam when Indian influence was prodominant. The malay called it “Tumasik”, Sea Town, because of its mangrove swamps and it proximity to the sea. References to Tumasik are found in ancient Javanese and Chinese chronicles.
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Singapore served the headquaters of a powerful Malay Buddhist princedom, which was overthrown about 1377 by the Majapahit of Java’s Hindu Empire. The Javanese invaders put the inhabitants to the sword and, legend says”Blood flowed like water in full blood and the plain of Singapore is red to this day.

3.This is a reference to the Red laterite soilfound on the Island. Legend also has it that the blood-thirsty Javanese laid a curse on the Island making the soil unfruitful. Even to this day , according to the Malays, it is impossible to grow rice here.
Singapore fell into obscurity after the Javanese invasion. The fleeing Malays, led by the Island’s Sulatan, Iskandar Shah, made their way northwards to Malacca whe re a new Sultanete was founded and flourishes as a malay world market for a hundred years.
During this period Indian and Arab misionaries used Malacca as headquaters to spread the religion of Islam to the neighbouring islands.
As the years passed Singapore became a base for pirates vying with one another for control of the surrounding seas.The Island remained desolate until British establihed a settlement early in the nineteenth century.

4.Nothing has survived of the old Singapore with the exception of its name and the tomb, on fort Canning Hill, reputedly of the last ruler of the island,Iskandar shah. This Malay shrine, shaded by a huge tree, is worrth a visit. Visitors must remove their shoes before enteringt the holy place.
In several places the sea-face is elevated, but the greater portion of the circumference is fringed by a pretty deep belt of mangrove forest.
Bukit Timah is a granite hill about 530 feet high , but the rest of the Island is composed of sedimentery rocks, amongst which sandstone occupies a prominent place.

5.Gouverment Hill is about 160 feet high. The Bukit Timah is in the center of the island.
During the administration of Sir stampford Raffles , on the 6th February 1819 , for a sum of 60.000 dollars , and a yearly stipend of 24.000 dollars for for life , the Sultan of Johor made over the Island of Singapore to British , and it was finally ceded by treaty on 2nd August 1824 to the British by the Sultan.
The Island is 25 miles in length , and about athird of this distance in the breadth, has an area of 206 squares miles (1.430.000 acres) and a population at the census 3d April 1882 of 139.208.
In Singapore free port, the only charges are the Straight light dues, which are 1 anna or 21/2 cent per registered ton on merchant vessels .All national ships are free of this also.

8.the hisrtory of singapore

1)In March 1824 the Anglo-Dutch treaty was concluded in London. By its term the Dutch ceded to Britain all enclaves in In dia and on the malay Pennisula ( Malacca and any claims Singapore included) . The British ceded to the Dutch Bencoolen anTd any other sttlemets on Sumatra, together with all claims to any enclave south of Straits of Singapore .
Both powers agreed to allow the other to trade in its ports and to join together in suppresing priracy. Now that the British had finally acquired Malacca it was of little consequence beeing overshadowed by Singapore.
Adminsitration of the Johore Sultanate had now split in three . Firstly, thereevwas the titular Sultan,Husein (follow by Ali), who resided at Singapore and then at Malacca but had no real authority. Secondly, Johore itself was now ruled by the Temneggong . Thirdly , there was Pahang, which was now ruled by the Bendahara.

2)In 1826 Singapore and Malacca were transfered from the Bengal Presidency to the Penang Presidency
And this reformed Malay administration was renamed “The Presidency of the Straits Settlements”
But , in 1830, this new Presidency was abolished and Straits Settlements was reduced to a residency to Bengal. The headquaters of the Straits Residency was transferred from Penang to Singapore in 1832.
The British , with their bases at Singapore,Penang and Malacca pursued aPolicy of intervening as little as possible in the affairs of the Malay states.
In 1821, Kedah had been invaded by the Siamse and revaged. Then Siam, whose forces were led by their vassal, Raja of Ligor, demanded that the Govenor of Penang give up to him the Kedah Sultan who taken refuge. This request was refused and the Siamese remained in occupation of Kedah and continued to be treat the Penang’s food supply.
A diplomatic mission to Bangkok in 1822 brought a little result. In 1825 agreement was reached between the raja of Ligor , a Siamese vassal, and the british to the effect that the Siamese would not intervene in Perak and Selangor, while the british agreed not to intervene in Kedah.
Siam also agreed not to intervene Trenganu and Kelantan. Siamese non- intervantion in Perak was only esta blished de facto by a British Treaty of Protection with Perak in 1826.

3)In 1824 the Siamese permitted the Sultan of Kedah to return to his realm as their vassal. Some year later, asuccession dispute at Pahang was to lead for Siamse intervention on the east soast in 1862 to 1853.
In 1867 supervision of the Straits Settlements was tranfered frommIndia Office to the Colonial Office. The first Colonial Office Governor, Sir Harry Ord(1867-1873), maintained the existing official policy of non intervention in the Malay States, but problems were mounting, particulary with the escalating influx of Chinese to the tin mines; notably, larust in Perak, Kualalumpru and Klang in Selangor, Sungei Ujong in Negri Sembilan.
The chinese organised themselves into societies ( Hong) that were often mutually hostile. With the increasing power of the Chinese section in the populatrion anarchy prvailed in several Malay states.
The Ango-Dutch Sumatra Treaty of 1871 left the Dutch free to inaugurate (1873) a war to conquer the Atcheh Sultanete which had been a roost for piracy during several decades, In exchange, the treaty gave to britain former dutch possesion on the gold Coast of West Africa.
The year 187e marked the end to Britain’s policy of non-intervantion.
A British Resident was established at Perak in January 1874, and another at Selangor the following month.
ThenSungei Ujong,most important member of the Negri Sembilan Confederation lying behind Malacca, recieved its Resident in April 1874.
Trouble ensued at Perak (1875-1877) , against enforsement of Residency committments, but matter progressed smoothly in the other twostates, and from 1877 Perak was also peaceful , In 1888 Pahang joined the numbere of Protected States and in 1895 the other states of Negri Sembilan Confederacy came under British Protection.

4)In July 1896, the British Protected States- Perak, Selangor , Pahang and negrri Sembilan were gathered into United administration as the Federated Malay States and Sir Frank Swertenham was appointed as the First Council Govenor.

III.Sir Stamford Raffles(Singapore tourist Board,1974)
On January 29,1819, a far-sighted Englishman, Thomas Stampford Raffles landed on Singapore. Raffles was then Lieutenant-Govenor of Bencoolen in Sumatra,a dying British possesion in the Malay Archiphelago.
He had asked and been permitted by the Govenor-General of India,Lord Hasting , to look for a new tradiing station where the British could compete with Dutch for the trade of the east Indies.
Raffles had taken the trouble to study Malay while Assistant-Secretary to the Presidency of Penang and he had been attracted to Singapore by what he had read about the Island in Malay manuscript. He immediately recognised its strategic as well as comercial possibilities.
He grew up with four sisters, a lad of promise, energitic, studious and imaginative. His father came of a good but poor family and there wat not enough money to give the son more than two years of schooling. So Raffles, at age 14,joined the East India Company (EIC) as a temporary clerk.
At the Company’s office he saw many of important men of the day, traders,soldiers, and adventures, he heard the names of far-away places and became aware of the importance of silk, tea and spices and the value of foreign languages.
With grim determination, this astonishing youth studied late into the night after the day’s work in the office, teaching himself French, latin, and German.He also showed a keen interest in Natural history,literature and science.
Young Raffles did not care for games, even if he had the time for them which he had not. He was fond of animals , both tame and wild, and disliked the sport of shooting.
He said in later life :”I have never seen a horse race and never fired a gun.
His superiors soon noticed his remarkable abilities and unusual capacity for work. He was promoted to yunior clerk at 19. This made him study even harder at home, he took up Greek and hebrew, and spent no less than eight hours everyday, outside his work, reading and writing in pursuit of knowledge.
When 23, he met the widow of an asistant surgeon in the East India Company’s Madras establisment, Mrs Olivia Fancourt. He fell in love and they were married. She was ten years his senior but the nmarriage proved very happy.
Raffles was convinced that England’s future was in foreign Lands and he asked to be sent East.
Penang had just been made a presidency by the East India Company and Raffles accompanied the new Governor, the Hon.Philip Dundas, as assistant secretary.
The extraordinary young man proceed to learn Malay on the voyage and by the time his ship reached Penang nearly six month later he could speak, read and write the language fairly well.
In 1807 he was promoted to full secretary and two years later was given the rank of senior merchant. Raffles attracted responbility, tasks piled on him, and because of his increasing proficiency in Malay he was also given the chore of translating important document.
But he drove himself too hard and finally his health failed, he fell seriusly ill. By a strage twist of fate he went to Malacca to recuperate.
The East India Company was about to give up Malacca. During his short convalescent stay there Raffles produced a clear and statemanlike report demostrating that this decision was wrong. The conclussions this able and long report were so convincing that the Company reversed its decision and Malacca wasretained. The University of Calcutta honoured Raffles for his Malay translations and for a scholary paper about the malay nation. Lord Minto, then Governor-General of India, impressed by Raffles’s work, call him to Calcutta.
A firm friendship sprang between the two men and Raffles , who had developed territorial ambitions while in the East , suggested that he be allowes’To create such a interset regarding Java as should lead to it annexatin to our Eastren Empire “ Lord Minto did not object.
In 1805 the East India Company raised Penang to the rank of Fourth(4th) Indian Presidency. But, by time Raffles arrived in 1805 it was apperent that Penang lay too far from the Straits to reppace Malacca.
In Europe, Napoleon had invaded the Netherland and the French had taken over reponbility for the Nederlands East Indies. Raffles assumed that the Dutch would not support their French conuerors in case the English attacked the Indies.
Raffles was sent to Malacca to prepare for invasion of java which took place on Aug.6 th 1811. Java surrendered as he had expected .
When raffles ,acting on behalf of Lord Minto, organized the Java expedition in 1810 , it was from Malacca that expedition set out.
When Malacca and the other Dutch enclaves were returned to the Nederland in 1818 the British search-ed for an alternative entreport in the straits, Raffles was instructed to open negotiation with the The Sultan of Johore.
Raffles landed on Singapore island in January 1919. The Local ruler, Dato Temengong, was as vassalmof Johore. The sucessin tothe throne of Johore was then dispute, so Raffles settled one of the disputant , Hussein, in Singapore, declared him the rightful Sultan of Johore and negotiated with him for cession of Singapore to Britain.

1.1.2 Singapore’s Travelling
1) Rambles in Straits(Kinloch,1852)
The passage from Penang to Singapore is ussually performed in about forty hours. The entrance to the new harbour is through an exceedingly narrow channel; but as there is at all times an abundance of water in it, a steamer can pass through at any time.
The only vessels that avail themselves of this channel are the Oriental Company’s steamers that play between Calcutta and China.
` By adopting this route, these vessels save, we understand , about sicteen miles of steaming . Singapore does not look well from the roads.
The best view of the town and the surrounding country is to be had from the summit of the Gouvenor Hill; from this point, there is an extensive panoramic view, which comprises the whole charge wit moisture, aqnd the hill is frequently enveloped in mist and fog.
There are several bungalows on the mountains, partly furnished, which visitors may manage to secure by giving timely notice; a residence there, however, is not unattended with incovenience, isasmuch as supplies of every kind must be brought up daily from the town, a distance of about eight miles.
It hab been thought thet a good hotel on the Penang Hill might be found to answer; but we think it doubtful wheter it would meet with sufficient suppot to make it remunerative, or that visitors would be willing to pay at such a high rate as could alone gift to a speculation of the kind, the remotest chance of success. There is no reason, however, why there should mot be a hotel in the town. At present, there is no pace of the kind, where a gentlemen could venture to shew himself, much less a lady.
There are several Hotel at singapore , the best of which is the London Hotel, kept by Mr Du Trouquoy, a native of Jersey. The hotel consist of two upper roomed buildings, one of which is styled the Family Hotel.
Between the Esplanade and the Beach is an Enclosed space , whitin all the beauty and fashion of the place promenade daily, and enjoy the cool sea breeze.
The usual kind of carriage is use at Singapore is a kind of office jaun, here called a palki. The Syce runs at the pony’s head, and neither he nor the animal he guides make anything of a matter of ten miles right and end.
There are no places of public resort or amusement Singapore ;neither there any society.
The merchants, who form by far the largest section of community, seem to look upon money making as the chief end and object of their lives, and their topics of conversation raely extend to nay other subject than nutmegs or the last price current.
The Indian visitor will very soon get tired of Singapore, for, setting aside the want of society and the absence of public amusement, the climate too hot, and too depressing , to render a residence in this island agreeable beyond a period of a few weeks.
Housekiping at Singapore is expensive and troublesome, and we would adcise the Indian visitor, whether merried or unmerried, to take rooms at the hotel, rather than attempt to keep house for himself.
Before taking leave Singapore, however, we must not omit to mention that the visitor has one resource of recreation, for which he is indebted to Resident Society. We refer to the public library and reading room. This institution is well provided with book sof every class and kind, and as both the English and the Indian newspapers are regularly taken in , there is no difficulty in keeping oneself “au corant” with European and Eastren politics.

2) A Singapore Streetscene by
Schlegel (Schmetz JDE , Inter-national archives of Ethno-graphy ,Leiden,Trap,vol I, 1888,page 16)
The Island of Singapore is celebrated in Malayan history as having been the first place of settlement , of the early Malay Colonist from Sumatra , the orig9in of the empire of Malacca,with several interesting eras in the history of the last it has been intimately connected.
In February 1819 part of the Island was ceded to the East-India Company (EIC) by the Sultan of Johore, upon the instagtion od Sir Stamford Raffles, who saw at once the importance of this place as a counterpoise against the port of Rhio of which the Dutch had taken possesion in order thereby the supremacy over the entire kingdom of Johore.
He had, however , to encounter many difficulties , even from the part of the British government , and it was only the 2nd August 1824 that “The Island of Singapore , together with the adjacent seas, straits and islets, to extent of ten geographical miles from the coast of Singapore , were given up in full sovereignity and pro-pertry to the East-India Company , their heirs and successors , for ever”
In other to attract the trade to the place , Singapore was immediately declared to be a free port and with this adventage , added to its favourable geographical position, Singapore grew and propered , and became in a few years an important town and staples place.
In pitturesque poin of view, Singapore is perhaps one of the loveliest places in the Indian Archipelago.
The entire circumference of the Island is one splendid panorama , where the magnificient tropical forrest tree covering the hills run down to the very edge of the sea , dip their leaves into the water, and spread their fragrant forest perfumes over a distance of a mile from shore.
In former times Singapore was approached by the old straits of singha-pura , (Lion-temple), that lies between Singapore and the mainland of Johore; but about a century ago, it was abandoned for the new channel, which flows past the present harbour of Singapore.
This harbour is formed of an extensive bay on the southern coast of the island, about equidistant from its extremities. When approaching the town from the westren entrance , through New Harbour , the scenery is splendid , and not easy surpassed by any other scenery of the world.
Even in approaching the harbour at night time , the scenery is fantastical and magical, The many lights in the town and on the shore, the lanterns hoisted in the masts of the ships anchored in the bay, the fantastical forms of the numerous Chinese Junk , the little gay pleasure-steamers plying the smooth waters of the bay and pouring gay strains of music into the calm night air , impart to the whole scenery a fairy aspect , which is not easily forgotten and craetes a most wonderful illusion.
A little of this illusion is lost when the traveller descends on shore; for how well built the public buildings and European bungalows may be, they all have a reddish , dirty aspect owing to the red clay which forms the soil of the island, and which is as disagreablen when it is dry, and flies about in red, dusty clouds, as when it has been raining, and makes the roads resemble a veritable re-mud-sea, but the small unpleasantnes occasioned by the nuisance is speedily forgotten by the interesting aspect of the overcrowded streets and the motley population swarming in them.
In passing through the rather narrowbstreet leading from the landingplace to commercial-square, a constant stream of Cnises, Malays, Klings, Parsees and Mussel-mennis met wit; each nationality wearing its own, mostly very pitturesquebor quaint dress, showing every variety of colour and cut.
But it is especially along the so called Boatquay running from the battery along the shores of the Singapore river, that the greatest bustle is found. From the river’s entrance to the iron firdie bridge, name afthe the late Lord Elgin, a long range of god owns extend, forming a complete cresent.
Those nearer of the entrance are occupied by Europeans, but all the Godowns further up are the property of Chinese, who form, as is well known, the majority of the population in Singapore.
This crecent of buildings is termed Boatquay from the fact of nearly the entire frontage opposite them being taken up with the loading and discharging of cargo-boats.
It is here that about three fourths of the entire shipping bussiness of the island is effected, and from morning till night huge cases, caks, and bales, as well as machinery and ironworks are landed; whilst the boats , after having discharged their cargo , are immediately filled up again with bales of gambiers, bundles of rattans, bag or cases of sago, and tapioca,pepper and spices, to be exported to all port of the world.
It was, therefore , a very ingenious idea of Mr W.A.P Pickering of Singapore , to exhibit in the Colonial and Indian exhebition at London in 1886, a model of paper and which model he kindly presented, together with other models exhibited, to the ethnographical Museum in Leyden; after the close of the London Museum. It seem worth the while to give a fuller description of this model than only a bare notice in the Catalogue of the collection, and , at the request of the able editor of the”Internationales arciv fur Ethnographie” , Mr J.D.E Schmeltz, I took this gratifying task upon me.
As we have said above, the Chinese form the Majority of the population inSingapore,being about ten to one of the tradingt population. Consequently, the style of the buildings in Singapore is a sorth of compomise between Westren and Chinese style. The walls are bulit of bricks, platered over with White stucco, and the roofs are covered with tiles, very often Chinese ones. The windows are not glazed, but are shut by Venerians, geneally painted green, in order to ward off the glare of the tropical sun. Abowe this windows the chaste designs of flowers or birds in porcelein . The ridged of the roofs, as also the eaves , are frequently similary ornamented.
Underneath, the whole lenght of the street consist of a series of valuated arcades, reminding one vividly of the “Arcade dela rue Rivoli” in Paris or those in Basel, whe re the ground flour is equally occupied by shopkeepers, whilst the first and next stories are inhabited by private individuals.
The streetmodel presentee by Mr Pickering consist of two buildings, consisting each of three houses. At many be seen in the engraving, these houses are built in the mixed style we have spoken of above. But before passing to the detailed description of these houses, itwill be well to cast a view upon the street itself, wherein the Chinese artist has combined to bring together nearly every variety of scene found in this part of the town. We have to mention firdt the general representative of aur cab and hackneycoach amed in Singapoe a Palanquin , though it be mounted on wheels and drawn by a horse instead of being borne on the shoulders of men.
In the case represented in the model, it would have been perhaps luckier for the occupant if the latter mode of conveyance had been made use of; for the old , rickety palanquin has come to grief (look at the engraved illustrations in the Pictures talks), one of the forewheels being broken in twain, whilst the other has run loose of its axle,to great terror of the chinese lady occupying the Vehicle, and who is looking out , umbrella in hand, how to get out of her disagreable position. Behind the palanquin , a native Policeman or Peon, as he called in Singapore , is remostrating with the Telinga-(ear) driver , whose number he is probably noting down for an eventual invitation to appear before the policecourt.
Quite unconcerned for the mishap encountered by the unlucky palanquin, are two Chinese carrying between them a pig in a basket ; an ingenous method of conveying this the most stubborns of the quadru-pleses, which would well deserved in Europe.
Whenever in China a pig has to be transpported, a wide basket open on e one side is put before the head of the pig; a sudden jerk at its tail induces the animal to jump foward into the basket, which is forthwith lifted from the grown and carried off.
The cruel way in which pigs are driven at home is thereby dispensed with, whilst a good deal of precious time is spared.
We have no remarks to offer upon the Chinese lady walking leisurely along the street if, at least, she has not been shopping st the silkmercer.s behind her.
What the artist has intended to represent by the two folloowing figures is not quite clear. Zthe first holds in his right hand a brass shovel, and his left armed extended st fulled length , and seems to be intent uppon piercing it with a rodhe holds in his right hand.
From the opposite side of the road a Chinese boatman, carrying the mast and sail of his boat upon his shoulders, is stepping past a native graascatrrier who is bringing two piculs of fodder for the horses of his master.
If, in the first vehicle, the palanquin , the inamate came to grief by fault of the driver of this conveyance, not so much can be said for the young Chinese debauchee lying in-toxicated with Samshoo or Opium
, his fan having escaped from his enervated hand , is a sailcloth hammock carried upon a pole by two native.
The youngman is too far gone to be sensible of the Charms of a nice Canton girl carrying in the wellknown fashion her handkerchief and fan; although she would be willing enough to grant her favours to him for a small retribution.
Near to this Chinese graduate in love, as the canton Chinese bath it, we see a handcart laden with boxes and other wares, drawn by a native; whilst next to him a heavier waggon, drawn by two buffaloes and loaded with sundry cases, boxes, and bales, plods its slowly progress through the heavy mud under the guidance of the “Seis” or Telinga-driver.
An Englishman dressed in White jacket and pants, the white pithhat on his head, over which he holds , besides, a white umbrella, stands looking on , waiting for a gap whereby to pass on his way.
Since opening of Japan for the world trade many Japanese householdarticles have been profusely introduced everywhere, and among other the japanese Jinrikisha (the man’s strength cart), since about 1872, this Chart has been imitated by Europeans in the form of a small gig, constructedbto carry one or two persons, drawn by a coolie in shafth and sometimes pushed by another from behind. It is now largely used in Shanghai ,Hongkong, Samoy and Singapore (Ricksow?) and we have seen a model of it drawn by a sturdy Chinese coolie.
Turning again to the frontbpart of the model to the left, we see a Chinaman leisurely walking, came in hand and smoking a cigarette; whilst near to him a venerable Chinese patriach, with his pipe and tobaccopouch in his left, fanning himself all the while with a white fan in his right, is leading his hopeful son to school.
An itinerant barber, carrying upon a pole his requisitesnfor shaving , comesnext, following a Chinese fowl dealer, carrying two baskets well stocked with geese and fowl.
A little further on we see a poor old Chinaman and a Kling or Telinga, a native from Madras or Coromma-ndelcoast , half naked, having only a white piece of calico thrown over his head and part of his body , and recognizable at his religious white, yellow or red patch in the middle of his forehead.The occupations sought by these people are numerous.
They are traders, shopkeeper, cooks, boatmen, common labourer, palanquindrivers and washermen; the two last occupations being almost entirely monopoliseh by them As a rule, they rather insolent, in appearance often very black and very ugly, and , therefore disliked by the European community in Singapore.
Before him walks a Chinese hairdresser , having some falose tresses of silk pending on a pole, wherewith he will repair, invisble to the eye, the deficient ones of his compatriots. Next to him a native is carrying a huge wooden chest, whilst before him a Chinese seller of eatables is pacing along the road , offering for three dollar-cents a substansial meal of three or four dishes from his ambulant restoration.
The street scane is closed by a chinese lady walking with her son and a Chinese gentleman strolling leisurely with fan and stick.

3)a Letter from Singapore (William Farquhar, 1819)
“ Here I am busy forming a new colony.I have no doubt from the natural advantages the settlement posses that it will one day become a place of the first importance to the east.
We have already got up a very respectable Chinese town containing some thousands of in habitams. Raffles could not have a more eligible situation or one more to my liking.
The climate is extremely healthy as
far as we are yet able to judge. The soil excellent, water of the purest kind and a most convinient and commodious harbour for shipping.
(The three page autograph letter written and signed by William Farquhar(1771-1839)nto Major De Havilland in great enthusiagm od the new Settlement. He was appointed the first Resident and Commandant of Singapore in 1819, immediatly after at the persuasion of Sir Stamford Raffles the Island was cede by the Sultan of Johor to the East India Company. Farquhar remained there until 1823. In his most enthusiastic letter he describes the natural assets of his new post., and most central for trade. While obviously much concerned about his promotion propects, and having a strong wish to revisit his family at home. Farquhar expresses his been in the success of Settlement, also remarking upon the extreme jealousy of the Dutch at the new British acquisition.Christie’s Auction Singapore,1994

the end @COPYRIGHT dR iWAN S 2010.

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