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COMPILE FROM MANY VINTAGE BOOKS BY Dr IWAN S SPECIAL FOR THE BOOK COLLECTORS.
*001 marcopollo dengan pakaiannya yang unik
I. SEJARAH MARCOPOLLO
a.VERSI PERTAMA : MARCOPOLLO, PETULANG DAN PEDAGANG ITALIA 1294-1324(eksplorasi Google)
TEMPAT DAN WAKTU KELAHIRA MARCOPPOLO YANG PASTI TIDAK DIKETAHUI. dan teriori muthakir saling bertentangan. Kendatipun demkian waktu yang spesifik sekitar tahun 1254 dan umunya diterima bahwa Marcopollo dilahirkan direpublik Venesia Italia, sedangkan sampai saat ini kota kelahirannya belum diketahui. kebanyakan penulis biografi menunjuk titil Venesia sebagai kota kelahiran Marcopollo. Ayahnua Niccolo adalah sorang pedagang yang berdagang di Timur Tengah di Timur Tengah sehingga menjadi Kaya-raya dan memperoleh prestasi yang hebat. Nicollo dan saudara lelakinya Maffeo menyiapkan suatu perjalanan perdagangan sebelum Marcopollo lahir pada tahun 1260. Niccolo dan Mafeo sampai di Konstantinopel ketika terjadi perubahan politik, mereka melikuidasi assetnya menjadi Perhiasan dan bergerak pergi. Berdasarkan laporan perjalanan Marcpopollo, mereka meliwati banyak wilayah Asia, dan bertemu dengan Kublai khan. SEdangkan saat itu Ibu Marcopolo menin ggal dunia, dan ia dibesarkan oleh Paman dan bibinya, dan belajar berbagai subjek termasuk mata uang asing,berdagang dan mengurus kapal kargo kedatipu ia belarjar sedikit dan tanpa huruf Latin.
In 1269, Niccolò and Maffeo returned to Venice, meeting Marco for the first time. In 1271, Marco Polo (at seventeen years of age), his father, and his uncle set off for Asia on the series of adventures that were later documented in Marco’s book. They returned to Venice in 1295, 24 years later, with many riches and treasures. They had travelled almost 15,000 miles (24,140 km).
Upon their return, Venice was at war with Genoa, and Marco Polo was taken prisoner. He spent the few months of his imprisonment dictating a detailed account of his travels to fellow inmate, Rustichello da Pisa, who incorporated tales of his own as well as other collected anecdotes and current affairs from China. The book became known as The Travels of Marco Polo, and depicts the Polos’ journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first comprehensive look into the inner workings of the Far East, including China, India, and Japan. While the book describes paper money and the burning of coal, it fails to mention the Great Wall, chopsticks, and footbinding raising a veracity issue. Marco Polo was finally released from captivity in August 1299, and returned home to Venice, where his father and uncle had purchased a large house in the central quarter named contrada San Giovanni Crisostomo. The company continued its activities and Marco soon became a wealthy merchant. Polo financed other expeditions, but never left Venice again. In 1300, he married Donata Badoer, the daughter of Vitale Badoer, a merchant. They had three daughters, called Fantina, Bellela and Moreta.
In 1323, Polo was confined to bed, due to illness. On January 8, 1324, despite physicians’ efforts to treat him, Polo was on his deathbed. To write and certify the will, his family requested Giovanni Giustiniani, a priest of San Procolo. His wife, Donata, and his three daughters were appointed by him as co-executrices. The church was entitled by law to a portion of his estate; he approved of this and ordered that a further sum be paid to the convent of San Lorenzo, the place where he wished to be buried. He also set free a “Tartar slave” who may have accompanied him from Asia.
He divided up the rest of his assets, including several properties, between individuals, religious institutions, and every guild and fraternity to which he belonged. He also wrote-off multiple debts including 300 lire that his sister-in-law owed him, and others for the convent of San Giovanni, San Paolo of the Order of Preachers, and a cleric named Friar Benvenuto. He ordered 220 soldi be paid to Giovanni Giustiniani for his work as a notary and his prayers. The will, which was not signed by Polo, but was validated by then relevant “signum manus” rule, by which the testator only had to touch the document to make it abide to the rule of law, was dated January 9, 1324. Due to the Venetian law stating that the day ends at sunset, the exact date of Marco Polo’s death cannot be determined, but it was between the sunsets of January 8 and 9, 1324.
The Travels of Marco Polo
An authoritative version of Marco Polo’s book does not exist, and the early manuscripts differ significantly. The published versions of his book either rely on single scripts, blend multiple versions together or add notes to clarify, for example in the English translation by Henry Yule. Another English translation by A.C. Moule and Paul Pelliot, published in 1938, is based on the Latin manuscript which was found in the library of the Cathedral of Toledo in 1932, and is 50% longer than other versions. Approximately 150 variants in various languages are known to exist, and without the availability of a printing press many errors were made during copying and translation, resulting in many discrepancies.
The book starts with a preface about his father and uncle traveling to Bolghar where Prince Berke Khan lived. A year later, they went to Ukek  and continued to Bukhara. There, an envoy from Levant invited them to meet Kublai Khan, who had never met Europeans. In 1266, they reached the seat of the Kublai Khan at Dadu, present day Beijing, China. Khan received the brothers with hospitality and asked them many questions regarding the European legal and political system. He also inquired about the Pope and Church in Rome. After the brothers answered the questions he tasked them with delivering a letter to the Pope, requesting 100 Christians acquainted with the Seven Arts (grammar, rhetoric, logic, geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy). Kublai Khan requested that an envoy bring him back oil of the lamp in Jerusalem. The long sede vacante between the death of Pope Clement IV in 1268 and the election of his successor delayed the Polos in fulfilling Khan’s request. They followed the suggestion of Theobald Visconti, then papal legate for the realm of Egypt, and returned to Venice in 1269 or 1270 to await the nomination of the new Pope, which allowed Marco to see his father for the first time, at the age of fifteen or sixteen.
In 1271, Niccolò, Maffeo and Marco Polo embarked on their voyage to fulfill Khan’s request. They sailed to Acre, and then rode on camels to the Persian port of Hormuz. They wanted to sail to China, but the ships there were not seaworthy, so they continued overland until reaching Khan’s summer palace in Shangdu, near present-day Zhangjiakou. Three and one-half years after leaving Venice, when Marco was about 21 years old, Khan welcomed the Polos into his palace. The exact date of their arrival is unknown, but scholars estimate it to be between 1271 and 1275.[Note 4] On reaching the Mongol court, the Polos presented the sacred oil from Jerusalem and the papal letters to their patron.
Marco knew four languages, and the family had accumulated a great deal of knowledge and experience that was useful to Khan. It is possible that he became a government official; he wrote about many imperial visits to China’s southern and eastern provinces, the far south and Burma.
Kublai Khan declined the Polos’ requests to leave China. They became worried about returning home safely, believing that if Khan died, his enemies might turn against them because of their close involvement with the ruler. In 1292, Khan’s great-nephew, then ruler of Persia, sent representatives to China in search of a potential wife, and they asked the Polos to accompany them, so they were permitted to return to Persia with the wedding party — which left that same year from Zaitun in southern China on a fleet of 14 junks. The party sailed to the port of Singapore, travelled north to Sumatra and around the southern tip of India, eventually crossing the Arabian Sea to Hormuz. The two-years voyage was a perilous one – of the six hundred people (not including the crew) in the convoy only eighteen had survived (including all three Polos). The Polos left the wedding party after reaching Hormuz and travelled overland to the port of Trebizond on the Black Sea, the present day Trabzon.
II. BUKU MARCOPOLLO
*profil marcopollo ketika kembali dari Tiongkok
Other lesser-known European explorers had already travelled to China, such as Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, but Polo’s book meant that their journey was the first to be widely known. Christopher Columbus was inspired enough by Polo’s description of the Far East to visit those lands for himself; a copy of the book was among his belongings, with handwritten annotations. Bento de Góis, inspired by Polo’s writings of a Christian kingdom in the east, travelled 4,000 miles (6,437 km) in three years across Central Asia. He never found the kingdom, but ended his travels at the Great Wall of China in 1605, proving that Cathay was what Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) called “China”.
The Marco Polo sheep, a subspecies of Ovis aries, is named after the explorer, who described it during his crossing of Pamir (ancient Mount Imeon) in 1271.[Note 5] In 1851, a three-masted Clipper built in Saint John, New Brunswick also took his name; the Marco Polo was the first ship to sail around the world in under six months. The airport in Venice is named Venice Marco Polo Airport, and the frequent flyer program of Hong Kong flag carrier Cathay Pacific is known as the “Marco Polo Club”. The Travels of Marco Polo are fictionalised in Brian Oswald Donn-Byrne‘s Messer Marco Polo and Gary Jennings‘ 1984 novel The Journeyer. Polo also appears as the pivotal character in Italo Calvino‘s novel Invisible Cities. The 1982 television miniseries, Marco Polo, directed by Giuliano Montaldo and depicting Polo’s travels, won two Emmy Awards and was nominated for six more. Marco Polo also appears as a Great Explorer in the 2008 strategy video game Civilization Revolution.
Marco Polo’s travels may have had some influence on the development of European cartography, ultimately leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later. The 1453 Fra Mauro map was said by Giovanni Battista Ramusio to have been partially based on the one brought from Cathay by Marco Polo:
That fine illuminated world map on parchment, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery (the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele di Murano) was by one of the brothers of the monastery, who took great delight in the study of cosmography, diligently drawn and copied from a most beautiful and very old nautical map and a world map that had been brought from Cathay by the most honourable Messer Marco Polo and his father.
Marco Polo, an Italian trader and traveler, became famous for his travels in central Asia and China. He wrote a book that gave Europeans some of their earliest information about China, which was then called Cathay.Marco was born in Venice. His father, Nicolo Polo, was a merchant. Nicolo and his brother, Maffeo Polo, had left on a trading mission shortly before Marco’s birth. Marco’s mother died when he was a young boy, and an aunt and uncle raised him. They trained him to be a merchant. Besides reading, writing, and arithmetic, Marco learned about using foreign money, judging products, and handling cargo ships.
III. MARCOPOLO VERSI III ( CYCLOPAEDIA EAST INDIA AND SOUTH EWAST ASIA,1868)
Nama keluaraga tiga orang revellers kepusat Asia and China. Tahun 1266 Nicolo dan Maffeo Polo , bapa dan Paman Marco Polo, berada di constantinople dari Venesia dengan barang dagangannya.
Mereka ingin menyeberangi Laut Hitam ke Solgaia dan tinggal beberapa waktu disini mereka melanjutkan perjalanan sampai bertemu dengan pangeran Tartar,Barca Kan ( Barka, a broher of Baton Khan), ia penguasa Sara dan Belgara.
Ketika terjadi perang antara Barca dan Alau ( Barka’s cousin , Hulaku Khan),Penguasa Tartar dihe Levant, dan Barca, the Lord of the Ponent ,kalah, akibatnya kedua bersaudara Maffeo dan Nicolo tidak dapat pulang ke Venesia melalui jalan yang telah ditempuh semula, sehingga mereka mengambil jalan liwat asia.
Meninggalkan Bolgara menuju Ucaca, dan pergi meliwati sungai besar Tigris meliwati Padang pasir selama 17 hari tiba di “Bocara”(Bokhara).
Ketika mereka sampai dikota tersebut datang Alau ,Bangsawan Levant, menirim duta menunjukkan jalan ke Istana the Great Khan( Mangu Khan, saudara Hulaku, Pimpinan dari seluruh Tartar
Mereka selama setahun mengikuti raja tartar Kablai Khan . Khakhan of the Tartars in the World.
Sebelum meninggalo Mangu Khan ,1259 AD, ia memindahkan ibukota Tartar Karakorumrtar ke Cathay di Utara Cina.
Kemudian Raja Tartar menjadi Kaisar Cina oleh Kublai Khan.
Kedua bersaudara tersebut mendapatkan penghormatan dan pelayanan dari Kablai Khan , Kablai Khan memberikan Tablet Emas sebagai paspor , yang bila ditunjukkan maka semua orang akan membantu perjalanan mereka , disamping itu juga membawa surat untuk Paus.
Kedua bersaudara melakukan perjalanan pulang selama tiga tahun ke Laya di Hermenia sebuah pelabuhan dimana kapal Asia tiba melalui Tabreez dan banyak pelayaran ke Italia,
Pada April 1269 mereka tiba di Acre dimana terdengar berita kematian Paus Clement IV, mereka kembali ke Venesia, menunggu pemilihan Paus baru yang memakan waktu lama.
Ketika Gregory X dipilih sebagai Paus, kedua bersaudra Polo memulai perjalan kedua ke Istana Kablai Khan pada bulan November 1271, saat ini membawa putranya Marcopolo.
Dari Acre ke Ayas and Sivas, kemudian ke ,Mosul,and Baghdad , Ormuz , pada muara Persian Gulf, dengan harapan menuju China liwat laut.
This they were not able to do , and so, turning their faces landward, they traversed successively Kirman and and Khorasan , Balkh and badakhshan, and ascended the upper Oxus to the Pamir plateau, a route not known.
Crossing the steppe of Pamir, the travelles proceeded by Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khoten , and the vicinity of Lake Lob , through the Gobi desert to Tangut , until at lenght , some time during the midsummer of 1275 ,they arrived at the the stately pleasure dome of Kablai Khan in “Xanadu” (Shangtu).
They Afterward proceeded with the Kakhan to his capital ,”Camalu” now Pekin They rose rapidly in the grat Khan’s favour,
Marco was entrusted with several missions in different parts of the empire, and in Champa or Southren Cchin-China , and the Indian Seas , and Southren India; while toall the hints of the Venetian Merchants to be allowed to return home with their gathere wealth, the aged emperor growled refusal.
Hulaku, the founder of the Mongol Dynasty of Persian (Lord of the Levant) was succeeded by hs son Abaka, who merried a dughter of the Greek emperor Michel Palaeleologus.
His brother Nicolas, who succeeded him, became a Muhammadian , but his son Arghun Khan was hostile to the Mohammadans .
He sent embassies (conducted by a Genoese named Buscarelli) to the Pope and the King of France and England , proposing an alliance against the Saracens and Turks; and in 1290 Edward I sent Geofreey de Langley on return mission to him.
Argun Khan ,having lost his favourite wife in 1286, sent to Kablai Khan to select another for him; and about the very time that Geofrey de Langley mission was setting out for England, the Polos were commissioned by Kablai Khan to escort te new bride he had chosen for his great nephew from Far Cathay by sea, go Persian court.
The bridalo party sailed from the port of “Zayto”(Chinchau) in the spring of 1292. They touched at eylon, at a part on the Coromandel coast, at Kayal , a port of Tinnevelly, the Koil of te present pearl fisheries, and at other ports on the Malabar and Konkan coast of Westren India, at one of which they passed the mansoon of 1293’
Marco Polo notices the fine cotton of Coromandel , the aboundance of pepper and gingr of Malabar , the incense of Tannah, and the peper,ginger ,indigo , and cotton of Gujerat.
Sailing on the close of the mansoon fro India, the party reach Ormuz about November 1293, and the Persian camp two month later.
Here the fair princess wep; as she took leave of the three Polos, who went on to Tabreez,and,after a long halt there, proceeded toward Venice , where they arrived aome time in 1295, having been absent from home nearly 24 years.
From the time of the Saracen conquest of Egypt ,Syria , and Persia , Christian had been forbidden to pass through those country to the east , and direct overland trade of Europe with India had entirely ceased .
Marcopolo ,therefore, was the first after Cosmas Indicopleustes (era AD 535-550) to give a written account of India, and yet we owe its existance to the Accident of his leaving late in life been taken in a sea fight by the Genoese, and thrown into prison , where he was pesuaded by a fellow-prisoner to dictate his narrative to relieve the tedium of their captivity.
In Marco Polo old age, and the Years following his death , a reamarkable land trade, but temporary , sprang up between Cina and the trading cities of Italy, of which curious detailsn are given in the book of Pagoletti . The chief import from he east were the rich satins and damask of China .
European linen were carried for sale on the way ; but china itself, in general , only silver , to purchase goods there. Factories of Genoose marchant were established at Fohpkien.This trade was apparentely carried on entirely own purchases.(*Sir George Birdwood; India office record)
c.The Travelling followed Polo
The publication of The Book of Ser Marco Polo became one of the influences which inspired Colombus.
It was thought that n great breadth of ocean rolled between Westen Europe and Eastren Asia, and full of this Idea , Colombus launched boldly on the Atlantic , convince d that the first bshore reached by him would be those of “Chimpagu”(Japan) ,Cathay,”Chamba”(Cochn China), and India.
2) Benedict Goes
a route like Polo , from The gulf o Persian, landward Kirman,and Khorasan , balkh and Badakhsan , and ascended the Upper Oxus to the Pamir plateau in 1602-1607.
3) John Wood
An expedition of the Indian navy in 1838.
d. Portugoeus Voyage
1)Vasco de Gama
In 1444 , the Portuguese had obtained from the Pope an ordinance bostowing on them the sovereignity over all land s which had till the bee discovery by them , and all that should be discovered as far as the indies.
An Immediately after the discovery of America, by Colombus , the Pope, by an edict of 4th May 1493, while confirming the King of Spain in the sovereignitry of America, and strictly prohibiting all others from touching at any port 100(afterwards 250) Leagues westward of the Azores, declared that the Portugeuse were to posseses all eastwards of the line.
Accordingly , on the8th of July 1497, an expedition, commanded by Vasco de Gamma, sailed from the Tagus for India,
The expedition was not in favour with the people, but King Eamanuel, who in 1495 had succeede John II, was determined to prosecute the project of Prince Henry.
Prince Henry had ben the Gand Master of The Order of Christ, and his hopes had ben as much for the conversion of the heathen as for the extension of the commercce and dominion of his nation.
It was in this spirit that the future acts of the Portugeuse were, and continue to be, regulated; while the British , who at the present day hold away over many places once dominated by The Potugeuse , have followed the system of non-inteference in religious and social metters.
Vasco de Gamma rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and saw the east coast od Afrivca. On te 22nd November 1497 , and reached Calicut on the 20th May 1498.
In 1502 , Vasco de Gamma sailed a second time to the east, with a fleet numbering twenty vessels. He formed an allience with the Rajas of Cochin and Cannanore against the Zamorin of Calicujt, and bombarded the latter in his palace.
In the second expedition , consisting of thirteenth ships and tweleve hundreds soldiers, under the command Cabral , was despatched in 1500.
On his outward voyage, Cabral was driven by stress of weather to th coast of Brazil. Ultimetely he reached Calicut.
3)Antonio d’Abreu(1511) , Francesco Serrao 1515) and Antonio de Brito(1522), Portugouse voyage to Ambon Indonesia
e.Ibnu Batuta Travellings(Lee’s Ibnu Batuta ;Bird-wood Report ,India in the 15h century;Tr of a Hindoo; Yule’s Cathay,1829 translate from Arabic)
1)Born A.d.1304,Died 1377-1378
2)The great travellers of the Arab race, he spent 24 years(from 1325-49)in travelling throughout the east.
3)1334-1334 travelling to china
THE END @COPYRIGHT Dr WIAN S 2010.