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Vietnam War 2.2 – Ancient Vietnam
October 18, 2009 by uniquecollection
1.2. ANCIENT VIETNAM AFTER EUROPEAN CAMES (BEFORE FRENCH) 1.2.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY 1.2.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONONLOGY LITERATURE 1.2 ANCIENT VIETNAM AFTER EUROPEAN CAME (BEFORE FRENCH ) 1.2.1.THE VIETNAM DYNASTY BEFORE FRENCH CAME. 1)LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1407-1780) a).Early Le’ (1428-1778) @LE LOI (1428-1443) b)Restored Le’(1553-1788) *Mac Dynasty (1527 -1592) c.THE LE-MAC FIGHTING(1527-1592) d.Northern and Southren Dynasty (1533-1592) *Trinh-Nguyen War (1627-1673) (1)Northern Dynasty * Trinh Trang (2) Southern Dynasty * Vin Tho (1655-1661) * Thien Minh ( 1739-1766) 2). TAY SON DYNASTY.1788-1802) *Quang Trung ( 1788-1792) * Canh Thinh ( 1792-1801) 3) UNITED DAI VIET(1802-1885) ( Emperor of Dai Viet) a) Before French came * Gia Long (1802-1820) * Minh Mang(1820-1841) * Thieu Tri (1848-1847) * Tu Duc (1848-1883) b) After French came * Kien Phuc(1883-1884) * Ham Nghi (1884-1885) 1.2.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.) 1) LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780) (1)1428 Both Trinh and Nguyen families were descended from close friends and aides to the hero-Empero Le Loi who freed Vietnam from Chinese rule and strated the Le Dynasty in this year. (2)1450 By this year, the Muslims had occupied Spain and Portugal for seven centuries , and to Henry , a militant Catholic mystic, their destruction was a sacred duty. He fought them in Africa as a youth, but gradually shaped a geopolitical strategy that also offered commercial advantages; by opening sea lanes to Asia, he would contain Islam, promote Christainity in the East and futher trade. Accordingly, he perfected the Portuguese fleet and established Euro’s first maritime academy to train sailors scientifically.(ibid S.Karnow) (3)1454 Pope Nicholas V endorsed Henry’s enterprise with a bull granting Portugal the exclusive franchise in Asia to “ bring under submission …the pagans of the countries not yet inflicted with the plague of Islam and give them knowledge of the name of Christ (ibid.S.Karnow) ( Christian were too late because the Islam had gave the “ light” to off the “darkness’s wolrd To Asia countries especially Malay straits , Sumatra and Java with the teaching of reading’s , writting ‘s , hygienie’s and islamic only one god,s phillosiphy , everybodies fill the had came out from the darkness to the more lighted lifes, only at the very far island like Flores and Eastren Timor the Portugeus were succeeded – auth) (4) 1494 After Colombus had discovered America, the Portugeuse reconfirmed their Asian domain in a treaty with Spain that recognized Spain ‘s prerogative to exploit the Western Hemisphere , during the century a head, Portugal would explode out of Europe in a spectacular busrt of energy. (5) 1498 Vasco de Gama, the greatest Portuguese explorer, led an armada of four ships around the cape of Good Hope, landing on the westren coast of india. (6) 1503 Vasco de Gama’s pioneer journey to India, the portugeuse couldnot be stopped. They consolidated Goa as the capital of the Indian territories, then pushed eastward to capture Malacca, the gateway to the China Sea, fanning out from that pivotal Malayan port to assert their presence nearly everywhere in Asia. They journeyed to the distant Molucca island in quest of spices, secured commercial concessions in Burma and Siam , and even sailed to forbidding Japan. Bold Portugeuse were probably the earliest Europeans to gaze at Ankor , the fantastic ruins of the vast Cambodians local rulers as mercenaries.(Ibid Stanley Karnow) (7)1520 BY 1520 A SUCCESSION OF WEAK OR EVIL KINGS had brought the country into a state of civil war (Le Dynasty’s Civil war for as allies against the usurper Mac Bang Dong. In theory , they both (Tri & Nguyen families) were fighting reality, Emperor was a figureheadwith little or no power. (8) 1525 The prime in the period from this yeare onwards, was Nguyen Kim his daughter married the young head of the Trinh family Trinh Kiem . (9) 1530 Around this year , the rebels were forced into exile in Lan Xang ( now Laos) . (10)1535 The first European sailled to Vietnam to plant a durable settlement there was Antonio Da Faria, who in this year found a suitable site for a harbour at Faifo, a costal village fifteen miles south Tourane (now Danang). Da Faria, had hoped to make it a major Portuguese enclave, like Goa and Malacca, but Faifo never flourished. The Portuguese left a permanent souvenir of their presence there, the name of Cocchi-china. They labelled that area deriving of “Gauchi” from “Giao Chi” the Chinese characters for Vietnam, and adding “China” to distinguish it from “Cochin” , another of their colonies in India. Later , the French, to potray Vietnam as disunified, reffered only to the southed third of the country as “CochinChine” and called the center Annam ( Annam still same with vietnamese char. Means Pacified and Northern Tonkin derived from Dong Kinh an old chinese named of that area, dong mean North -auth) (11) 1545 When the rebels gathered new army and capture some southern province in this year. Nguyen Kiem was assasinated and his son-in-law, Trinh Kiem took control over the Royal army 13 years later. (12)1557 The Portuguese built a base at Macao , on the southern edge of China (remains until XXth centuried and then back to PRC authority as the autonomy area-auth) (13) 1558 Trinh Kiem, the son-in-law of nguyen Kien, took control over the Royal army. He gave the rulership over the southern most province of Quang Nam to Nguyen Huang to the son of Nguyen Kim and his wife’s brother. The ill-will between the two families dates from around this time. (14) 1559 For the next 55 years, Nguyen Huang ruled Quang Nam. He gradually asserted his control over the province and extended his control south into the remaining Champa lands. Periodically, he sent military forces north to help the Trinh in their long fight against the Mac Dynasty. (15)1570 In this year Trinh Kiem died and was succeeded by his second son Trinh Tu’ng. (16) 1572 Trinh Tung was a very vigorous leader and he captured Hanoi from the Mac King in this year. (17) 1592 The Mac king (Mac Mau Hiep) recaptured the Hanoi city in this year after control 20 years by Trinh Tung. In this year Tung, again captured Hanoi and executed theMc King in this year. (18) 1593 Nguyen Hoa’ng went personally to the court, he brought money and an army to help destroy the remaining Mac armies. Once the Mac were defeated, the Trinh became increasingly unhappy with the independence of Nguyen Hoang who ruled as an independent prince in the south . (19)1600 For reasons that are unclear in this year the old Nguyen ruler broke relations with the Trinh court and gave himself the title Vuong ( Prince or King). (20) 1603 Scarcely a century after their dramatic expansion, the Portuguese began to lose their graps in Asia, partly of their own avarice, corruption and msimanagement, and partrly because their fortunes were declining in Europe.(D) (21)1613 Nguyen Hoang finally died in this year and the new leader of the Nguyen, Nguyen Phuc Nguyen, continued his father’s policy ofdefiance. Nguyen Phuc Nguyen also initited friendly relations with the Europeans who were now sailing into the area. A foreign tradingpost was set up in Hoi An. (22) 1615 In this year the Nguyen were producing their own bronze cannons with the aid of Portuguese engineer. (23) 1620 In this year Nguyen Phuc officially refused to send taxes to the court in Hanoi. A formal demand was made to the Nguyen to submit to the authority of the court. (24) 1623 In this year Trinh Tung died and was succeeded by his son Trinh Trang. Now Trang made a formal demand for submission and again Nguyen Phuc Nguyen refused. The Tri- Nguyen War between North and South Vietnam (1627-1673) (1)1627 (a)Finally in this year open warfare broke out between the Trinh and Nguyen. (b)For four month A large Trinh army battled against the Nguyen army but unable to defeat them. The result of this war was that Vietnam had effectively been partitioned into Northen and Southern region, with the Trinh controlling most of the north and the Nguyen most of the south, the deviding line was the Gianh River in Quang Binh Province. This border was very close to the Seventient paralel ( in actually the Ben Hai River located just to the Swouth in Quang Tri Provinces, witch was imposed as the border between North Vietnam and South Vietnam during the Partition of Vietnam, (c)The Tri-Nguyen war begun and Vietnam was then torn by a civil war between regional factions, the TRINH in the North and the Nguyen in the south . European sold weapons to both sides- a risky business, sine supplying one camp antagogized the other. But they could not brutally subdue the Vietnamese as they had more passive Asians, like the Malays and Javanese. Whatever their own differences, all Vietnamese hate foreigners, and their sophisticated administrative structure, modeled on China’s, could effectively mobilize resistance against westren intruders. Besides, the Europeans were too preoccupied with fighting among themselves to mount campaigns of the kind that would have been requairred for conquest (ibid S,Karnow) (b) Rhodes , who born in the southern French town of Avignon, once a papal seat, he arrived in vietnam under Portuguese tutelage in 1627, when he was twenty –eight. At first he recoiled the language, which sounded to himlkike “twittering birds”, but within six months, he was fluent enough to preach in Vietnamese- and he later mastered Japanese, Chinese, Hindustani and Persian, And offcourse , he revolutionized the Vietnamese tounge with his streamlined alphabet. Impressed by his linguistic skill, the Jesuit hierarchy assigned Rhodes to Hanoi, where he wooed the nothern emperor Trinh Trang with such gift as an intricated clock and gilded volume on mathemetics. The delighted monarch allowed him to stayed .(D) (c) While the Trinh ruled over a much more popupous teritory. The Nguyen were able to take advantage of their geography was favorable yo them, as the flat placed of European weapons and hire European military expert and suitable for large organized armies is very narrow at the mountains nearly reach to the sea. After first assault, the Nguyen built north of Hue near city of Dong Ho’i. Nguyen defended these lines against numerous Trinh. History from this time was that the great military engineer was a Vienamese general who given the credit in Vietnam for succesfull desing of the Nguyen walls. Against the Walls the Trinh mustered an army of 10.000 men and 500 elephants, and 500 large ships. The initial attacks on the Nguyen wall was unsuccessful, because the Nguyen to get around the wall. 2) 1629 (1) 1629 After two years of the Rhodes allowed to stay at North Vietnam, according to his own careful records, he delivered six sermons a day and baptized 6.700 Vietnamese, including eighteen nobles. But the emperor and his counselors reacted against Christian subversion, their supicions kindled by the court concubines, who denounched the Christian injunction against polygamy to thewir position. 3) 1630 (1) Christian were banished from the North in 1630, Rhodes retreated South, only to discover that the rival Nguyen dysnasty had equally hostile. 3) 1633 In this year the Trinh tried an amphibious assault on the Nguyen to get around the Wll, The Trinh first won the battle of Nhat Le. 4)1635 Around this year, the Trinh copied the Nguyen andsought military aid from the Europeans. Trinh Trang hired ships for the Royal army. 5)1642 -1643 The Trinh army attacked the Nguyen wall. With the aid of army broke through the first wall but failed to break through the second at the sea, the Trinh, with their …and woekende Book were defeated by the Nguyen fleet with their Portuguese ships. 6) 1648 Trinh Trang staged yet another offensive in this year, but at the battle of Truong Duc, The Royal arny was back because the new Le’ king died around this time, perhapsas a result of defeat. This now left the door open for the offensive. 7) 1653 The Nguyen launched their own invasion of Vietnam in this year. The Nguyen Army attacked north Duang Binh Province was captured then Ha Thinh province tell to the Nguyen army in the following forces made attacks into Nghe An province. Under a new Trinh Lord, tha capable Tring Tac defeated it. The Nguyen were fatally weakened by a divission between their two top generals. 8)1655 (1)1655 Vin –tho ascended the throne, during his reign issued 1 phan cast coins “Vin Tho Thong Bao” (Uncommon coins during the Tri-Nguyen war-auth) 9)1656 The Nguyen army was driven back all the way to their originals walls. 10) 1660 Rhodes was death. 11) 1661 Trinh Trang tried to break the walls of the Nguyen , but like so many attacked before it failed to break through the wall. 12) 1664 (1) 1664 The Vatican finally accepted Rhodes program , though he died before it wentr into action . In this year, French religious leaders and their bussiness backers formed the society of Foreign leaders to advance Christianity in Asia. (b) by no coincidence, French business leaders and their religious backers created the East India Company to increase trade. Their similar aspirations were apparent in their cooperation. A commercial firm established in Rouen at the time paid transportation for missionaries to Vietnam in exchange for their services there as sales agents and bookkeepers. And Francois Pallu, afounder of Missionary association, pledge to give the East India Company “as many promoters…as there will be bishops, priests and believers in Vietnam” Observing this cozy relationship in Vietnam , an English competitor reported home that French had arrived “ but we cannot make out whether they are here to seek trade or to conduct religious propaganda”. Their objective , of course, was to do both, But they accomplihed little during most of the eighteenth century, since Vietnamese emperors continued to harass or restrict foreign’s mission-aries and merchants. Back in French, mprever, the idea of acquiring overseas teritoriesw enthralled neither the public nor government officials. Thet focysed on other concerbs, such as France ‘s domestic, economic and social problem s and its conflicts with England in Eurpre and America. But the imperial dream was kept alive by a handful of determined individuals and groups which in present-day Yargon, would be called vested interest. In Paris, they were constantly drafting blueprints for the conquest of Vietnam, while irrepressible adventures in Asia connected schemes that would prove to be fruitless, One was Pierre Poivre, The son of a prominent Lyons silk tycoon.( ibid S.Karnow) 13) 1672 Finally in this year , the Trinh army made a last effort to conquer the Nguyen, The attacking army was under the command of Trin Can, while the defending army was under the command of Nguyen Phuc Tan’s son Prince Mguyen Phuc Thuan. The attack like all the previous attack on the nguyen walls failed. This time the two sides agreed to a peace . With mediation supplied by government of the Kngxi emperor, the Trinhand the Nguyen finally agreed to end the fighting by making the Linh River the boeder between their land. Lthough the guyen nominally accept the Le’ king as the ruler of Vietnam, the rality was, the Nguyen ruled the south and the Trinh ruled the north, Thisdivision continued for next 100 years,The boerder between the Trinh and Nguyen was srongly guarded but peaceful. 14)1673 The Tri-Nguyen war was overed. _______________________________ After the Tri-Nguyen War, 1674- ______________________________ 1) 1676 Other European powers raced for Asia wealth. The Dutch took over the Spice Islands of Indonesia and the English would dominate India. In this year, the French Latecomers to scene establishe a station at Pondicherry, on the east coast of India south of Madras, but Europeans made little headway in Vietnam. 2) 1677-1738 Not yet information 3) 1739 Thien Minh ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Thien Minh Thong Bao” ( Very rare coins ,but this coins used very long 1739-1766, why??? may be there were War ??, please comment –auth) 4) 1740-1749 Not yet informations 5)1750 In the middle of eighteenth century , Poiver started out as a missionary in Vietnam, then switched to commerce and obtaineda license from the southern Nguyen rulers to open a trading post at Tourane (now Danang city).(D) When the operation collapsed for lack of enthusiasm in France, he blamed local Vietnamese Mandarin for swandling him and decided to punish them. 6)1751 no info 7) 1752 In this year Emperor Quang-Trung ascended the throne. Coin minted under Emperor Quang-Trung (1752-1792) to celebrate his glorious victory over the Qing (chinese) dynasty troops in the Lunar year of the Cock (ky-Dau) 1789. 8)1767 Not yet information 9)1768 in this year, Poivre teamed up with Charles Hector d’Estaing, ( an Aristocratic buccaneer whose in-direct descendent to Valery Giscard d’Estaing , became president of France in 1974-auth) Spoil for action, Hector d’Estaing had earlier been deterred by a storm from mounting an elobrate attack on the palace at Hue , the ancient imperial capital in central Vietnam. He and Poivre proposed to muster a con tigent of three thousand troops, seize Tourane and drive inland to invade the country The plan was carried out a century later, but at the time it fizzled and D’Estaing transferred his energies to the American War of Independence, in which he distinguished himself by blockading the English fleet outside New York Harbor. He died on the guillotine during the French revo-lution .(ibid S.Karnow) 1769-1771 Not yet informations 9) 1772 (1)1772 The Tayson insurrection, which erupted in 1772 against the Nguyen rulers………………….. 10) 1773-1786 Not yet information 11) 1787 In 1787, Monsignor Tierre Joseph Georges Pigneu de Behaine, bishop aof Adran, returned to France after two decades of extraordinary ad-ventures in a remote Asian Land, then know to Europe as Cochin-china. He dazzled the countiers at Versailles, the barouque palace of Louis XVI. His pious demeanor, flavored by a touch of oriental mysery, intriqued the ladies, and his infallible politeness even disarmed potential revals for royal favors. But he was upstaged by a child whom he had brought with him Nguyen Canh , the seven –year- old son of a pretender to the throne of Vietnam . The little prince dressed in red and gold brocade, an incongrous Hindu turban atop his head, the little prince exuded exotic charm. Queen Marie Antoinette bestowed her patronage on the boy by permitting him to play with the Dauphin-the heir apparent- and a court musician composed a hym to honor the “illustrious infant (look at His vintage pictures-auth)(D) Her personal hairdesser celebrated the visitors with a chic new coiffure, Le Chignon a’ la cochinoise , and a court poet acclaimed Pigneu as successor to the legendary mission-ary Saint Francis Xavier. Pigneau had a deeper purpose, he had come to France to lobby for an ambitious scheme the creation, under French auspices, of a Christian empire in Asia, he propelled France toward the conquest of Vietnam a hundred years later. Other Europeans had preceded Pigneu to South East Asia . Indeed , for a mixture of motives. Westren expansion in Asia had been gaining momentum since the fifteenth century. The riches of the East , real and fabled, tantalized Europe. Traveller like Marco Polo had returned with breathless tales of Burmese temples “Covered with gold a full finger thick” and Indian Shores whose “ Sands sparkled and glittere with a gems and precious ore” but no Asian treasure matched its pepper, nutmeg, clove and other spices essential to preserve food, especially in the warmer climates of Southern Europe. Unlike sils and jewels, which only the affluent could afford, spices were in universal demand, and they tield profits of a thousandfold or more on European Market. Importing them from Asia, though, was a dangerous business.Marchants braved storms , pirates and cruel competitors to transport their cargoes , and many perished in the effort, “Where wouldn’t they go for pepper!” wrote Joseph Conard in evocation of their memory “ For a bag of pepper they could cut each other’s throats without hesitation, and would forswear their souls…The bizarre obstinacy of that desire made them defy death in a thousand shapes : the unknown seas, the Loathsome… diseases; wounds, capicity, hunger, pestilence and despair. It made the,m great! By heaven! It made them heroic; and it made them pathetic,too, in their craving for trade with the inflexible death levying its toll on young and old.(D&P) 12)1788 Quan Trung issued 1 phan cast coins “ Quan Trung Thong Bao” ( common coins-auth) 13) 1789 The coin minted during Emperor Quan Trung in this year to celebrate his glorious victory over the Chinese Qing troops in the lunar year of the Cock (Ky-Dau) ( I have found this special coin in Ho Chi Minh city at my last visit July 2009, the tin coin with the Cock impress design, no one know about this , the first report by Nguyen Bao Tung, please comment because I never seen Tung collec-tion, auth) 14) 1790-1791 Not yet information 15)1792 Canh Tinh ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Canh Tinh Tong Bao” ( common coins-auth) 16) 1793-1801 Not yet information. __________________________________ 4) UNITED DAI VIET DYNASTY (1802-1885) ___________________________________ 1) 1802-1819 :Gia long reign (1) 1802 (a)Reunification decree or Hung-Quoc Khan-Niem by emperor Gia Long, the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty that ruled Vietnam people from this year to 1945. (b) Gia Long ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coin “ Gia Long Thong Bao (common coin-auth) (2) 1803-1819 Not yet informations 2) 1820-1840: Minh Mang reign (1) 1820 Minh Mang ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coin “ Minh Mang Thong Bao”(common coin, the character Mang like the picture of “House”, in Bali Indonesia the traders called House’s Coins, rare in Indonesia but many in Vietnam-auth) (2)1833 A Coin minted under the Minh-Mang reign to commemorate the solemn inauguration of the Noon Gate or Ngo-Mon of the imperial Palace in Hue. (reported by Nguyen Bao Tung, if someone have this coin please show us- auth) (3) 1841 Minh-mang died in this year, and Vietnam policies toward Cambodia lost some of their momentum. Nibh-mang after all had been a firm believer in Vietnam’s civilizing mission. 3) 1841- Thieu Tri reign (1) 1841 Thieu Tri ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Thieu Tri Thong Bao” ( common coins, many found in Indonesia –auth) (2) Minh-mang son Thieu-tri(1841-1848) was less committed to this. He began his reign looking for solution to the Cambodians problem, that would acceptable to the Vietnamese elite and to the Cambodian as well, if not necessarily to Siamese. Distance, distrust, and the ongoing momentum of the war, however, as well as the ambiguity of Vietnam long term objecttives in Cambodia, kept the fighting going until 1847. For several years, Siamese and Vietnamese troops, aided by rival Cambodian factions, fought each other and devasted the landscape in a ferocious pattern not to be duplicated until us, no rice was planted in much of the country, and the population reverting to seminomadism, survived to a large extend by eating leave and roots. It took yhr country several decade to regain its balance and momentum. (2)1846 Negotiation calculated to save face for two exhausted armies and for rhe rival monarchies in Hue and Bangkok lasted until until 1846, when Siam and Vietnam agreed to withdraw from Cambodian territory and to accept Duang as Cambodian’s King . The treaty heralded the resumption os Siamese influence at the Cambodian court and the end of Vietnam’s civilizing mission. (3)October 1848 Duang was crowned in Udong at this day on an astrologically suspicious day, in the presence of represen-tatives sent from Bangkok and Hue, but the Siamese, who took Cambodian’s regalia back with them to Bangkok, had clearly become the dominant force in Cambodia polities even though their army had left the country. Comunicated with the French court, transmitting a letter to Emperor Napoleon III that offered his homage in exchange for the emperor’s friendship. The present that accompanied the letter- four elephant tusks, two rhinoceros horns, and quantities of sugar and white paper- were lost en route, and Napoleon’s reply, if there ever was one, has also disappeared. (Three years later a French official named Montigny came to Cambodia to negotiate a full-scale commercial treaty , but Duang backed off, because he knew that Montigny had dis cussed the treaty with Siam court which disapproved of it, When a French missionary later urged Duong to accept France as an ally, the kind replied :” What do you want me to do ? I have two masters already, who always have an eye fixed on what I am doing. They are my neighbors, and France is far away” In 1860 when Duang died in this year, his elder son, Norodom, suc-ceeded him. Over the next few years, the new monarch still un-crowned .-auth) 4) 1848- Tu Duc reign (1)1848 Tu Duc ascended the throne , during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Tu Duc Thong Bao” ( common coins-auth)