South Vietnam Army(AVRN) vs Vietcong &Vietnminh Army 1955-1962 Ngo dhin diem Era
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I. PROLOG DIEM REGIME (1955-1957)
a.TRANSITION PERIOD -1954
1) October 1954
(1)October ,23th 1954
(a)The President Eisenhower’s latter to Diem :
Dear Mr President,
I have been following with great interest the course of developments in Viet-Nam , particularly since the conclusion of the conference at Geneva.
The implications of the agreement concerning Viet-Nam have caused grave concern regarding the future of a country temporanly divided by an artificial military grouping, weakened by a long and exhausting war and faced with enemies without and by their subversive collaborators within.
You recent request for and to assist in the formidable project of the movement of several hundred thousand loyal Vietnamese citizen away from areas which are passing under a de facto rule and political ideology which they abhor, are being fulfilled .I am glad this humanitarian effort
We have been exploring ways and means to permit our aid to Viet-Nam to be more effective and to make a greater contribution to the welfare and stability of the Government of Viet-Nam.
I am,accordingly, instructing the American Ambassador to Viet-Na,m to examine with you in your capacity as chief of government how an intelligent program of American aid given directly to your Government canserve to assist Viet-Nam in its present hour of trial , provided that your Government is preparedto give assurances as to the standars of performance it would be able t main tain the event such aid were supplied.
The purpose of this offer in tp assist the Government of Viet-Nam in developed and maintaining a strong, viable state, capable of resisting attempted subversion or aggresion through military means .
The Government of United States expects that their aid will be met by performance on the part the Government of Viet-Nam in undertaking needed reforms.It hopes that such aid, combined with your own continuing efforts, will contribute effectively toward an independent Viet-Nam endowed with a strong government.
Such a government would, I hope, be so responsive to the nationalist aspiration of its people, so enlightened in purpose and effective in performance, that it will be respected both at home and abroad and discourage any who might to impose a foreign idelogy on your free people.
Dwight D. Eisenhower.
(source : Modern History Sourcebook)
(b)The Photograph of President of South Vietnam Ngo Dih Diem with President USA Eisenhowrer at Whasington National Airport.
b. The First year of Diem regime-1955
(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army
(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan, in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)
(2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945, were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.
The recieved of Rayon Ford Car’s repaired station Saigon with the earliest used rare Vietnam Thue Coniem brown revenue 0$50 .
“Nghan do phu tung (Rayon Pieces Detachees) Ford” Saigon 1.2.1955 for Charger two charger of car EOA 1130 = 224 $ + Cahes 3$96 total 232$96, revenue 0$60 total 233$56,
(Best collection for showed-auth)
After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.
4) April 1955
(1)Diem crust the Binh Xuyen sect
at the period end of French forces and their Vietnam auxillaries to deploy to South, and for Vietminh troops to regroup in the North.
5) -6) no info
7) July 1955
(a)The man of action formally extended Phillipine recognation in a diplomatic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col.Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969)
(b)The late used revenue of Etat du Vietnam thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60. with red squered stamped “Garantie & Mois- Sauf Cases.” And red round stamped “ Ban Quan horlogerie-97 Boulevard Charner- Saigon.”
Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States
(3) July 22th 1955
Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem
He proceeded to prove the following contentions :
(a)”That South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”
(b) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese to support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriendly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”
(c)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and communism is to indulge in fiction.
True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more prfitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dangerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnamese people.
In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.
Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnam-ese people”
Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’
Not yet information.
9) September 1955
Not yet information
10) October 1955
(1) October.23th 1955
Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum .
(a)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.
(b) Three days after Senator Recto attack on Magsaysay for the recog-nition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime, which according to him had been done in obedience to American dictates, Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.
The information had appeared in the November 23.1953, issue of Time Magazine. Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.
(The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information-auth)
(c) The Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also another type ship like High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505.(P)
(a)The small Book’s Covers with red native vietnamese ‘s Picture illustration“Ca Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955”, Muc Luc Hieu Tu, Nu tac and Nich ai vong an, and at the back cover propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)
This cover used as the cover of handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac”
Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.
Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.
La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.
Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.
Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.
Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.
Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.
Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu chung toi cho khoi chet chim, thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.
Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.
Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD)
( What the meaning of ca ve cu sau ? please comment and tranlate the handwritten “Kinh cao cho mau an giac “-auth)
(b) The best of Nguyen Bao Tung Phillatelic ’s colection contains stamps from the Government led by the late President Ngo-Dinh-diem from 1955 to 1963 and he had the covers with Diem signed and official sealed stamped
11) November 1955
(1)The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese’s soldier party at the restaurant “Nghi Xuan”
The soldier with civil complete dress, and two flag there, Vietnam Cong Hoa ‘s yelow three green strip and the military AVRN flag ,s one bigger star.
“Buoi tiec dtai chien si Hoang Dieu tai nha hang Nghi Xuan “
( best flag thematic photo’s collec-tions, auth)
12) December 1955
(1) December ,9th.1955
The two original vintage black-white photos of a Vietnamese traveler’s group to an ancient building
“ Cuoc du lich o Nam-vian na De Thien De Thu trong 3 ngay 9-10-11 Decembre 1955.”
(Please someone translate, where Thien De Thu trong 3 ? auth)
(2) December,11th 1955
The Refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day , very rare in mint never hinged stamps. 30 and 100 piastres.(the used stamps were found in Indonesia, the mint not yet found, I have seen in HCM city-auth)
c.Diem’s Regime in1956
1) January 1956
(1)in 1955 and 1956,
(a) Thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North.
The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.
(b)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)
2) February –4)April 1956
Not yet info
5) May 1956
The very rare Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue with anxient Building, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956.
The complete Khai Sinh form :
Quoc –Gia Viet-Nam Chung Thu Thay Giay
==ooo=== KHAI SINH
Lang Thun Doang Son va dtoi choi
Quan Yifoa Vang
Tinh Quan Nam
Ten ho dua con : Nguyen Nhan
Trai hay gai : Trai
Sinh cho na’e : Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa Vang
Sinh ngay nao : Nam 1908 Ngay 16 thang 3
Vung moi Sau thong Ba Nan mot ngau Chin trai le Tam.
Ten Ho Cha : Nguyen Khue
Nha ciro o’ dau : thon duong Son xa Hoa theu quan Hoa vang
Ngep-ngep : lam Nong
Ten ho me : Dang thi Sifaul
Vo chanh hay thu: Vo Chanh
Ten ho nguoi khai: Nguyen Khue
May Toi : Sot tam Nuoi tuoi
Ngep-ngep : Lam Nong
Nha cua o’ dau : Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa vang
Ten ho nguoi chung thu nhat : Nguyen quan(50t) Nam muoi toi
Tuo,ngep-ngep ,noi o’; thay thuoi Thoi LUONG soi,pa dtoi thai
Ten ho nguoi chung thu’ ba : Nguyen Dui Ngu(60 t) sau muoi tuoi
Tuoi,nge-nghiep ,noi o: Lam Nong thoi Duong Lon Xa Hoa thai
quan Hoi vong.
Lam tai Thoi Duong son xa ,ngay 10 thang 5 nam 1956.
NGU’OI KHAI Do’ng Hu’ong-Chinh Xa Hoa Thoi
Nguyen Khue squered stamped “ Thih-Quang Nam-
Quan –Hoa-vang-Hoi Dong Huong
Chinh –Lien Xa-HOA-THAI
Nhung nguoi Chung Nhan thiet chu ky cua Hoi-Dong Huong
Chinh Xa Hoa Thai
Hoa Vang ngay 11 thang 5 nam 1956
Signed and red circle stamped
(the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where the location ? please comment-auth)
4) June 1956 no info
5) July 1956
(1)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.
6) August 1956
(1) Nuoi Ngot 1956
The original vintage photo of the vietnamese lady in the beach of Nuoi Ngot.
(2) Long Hai 1956
The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese lady in the front of the traditional house at Long hai.
7) September 1956
(1) September,17th 1956
The Admission’s card of Franch –Vietnamese University at President TINH street Saigon.
14 Rue President Tinh PHOTO
M Do Thin Muoi
Est admis aux Cource de:
- Vietnamienen 1 degre A 30
- Francais A 66 Age……………………………………………….
- Anglais debut A 40 profession ……………………………
Saigon ,le 17-9 1956 Adresse………………………….
Le Directeur Le Titulaire
10) October 1956
Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN
In the back , rare ephemera vintage handwatch Pronto automatic ,”Ban va Su’a” and Montresz-Stylos , BAQUAN, 97 Boulevard Charner tel.No 2.414 SAIGON (OD)
(2) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.
November 1956 no info
9) December 1956
(1) December 7th 1956
The rare earliest Regional taxes Saigon Cholon revenue, on Health certificate. Sign By the Chief beraue archive signe Guiges , and sign legalized 7-12-52 with red cross Bac-Si-Nguyen red stamped.
(Rare health record document with regional saigon cholon 10$00 yellow revenue, because this revenue from 1960 every years was overprint with year to 1975, and unoverprint on piece difficult to find, only three found another 29.4.1957 and 16.3.1959-auth)
4.3.2 DIEM REGIME WAR 1957-1963
a. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
a) IBID Stanley Karnow & Nguyen Ngoc Vy
The South vietnamese Communist ,the Vietcong, began organising in the countryside in 1957 , planning the assasination of Diem’s village headmen and official. But Ho Chi-minh was still holding back.
Diem’s authoritarian rule, his rustlessness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among peasants but among all those groups excluded from power and from a share in the loot.
The Vietcong assasinations soon made themselves felt, exciting deep unease throuhout the country.
Murder of government officials increase from 1200 in 1959 to 4000 a year by 1961.
Diem’s response was to drive the peasant into foryified hamlets, but this proved both ineffective and couter-productive , alienating the peasantry, who objected to being placed under military commanders and were any-way caught between Diem’s reprisals during the day and the Vietcong at night.
The US administration failed to appreciate that the Vietcong were not lackey of the communists in the North but were an expanding and powerfully organisd army of south Vietnam engaged in a guerrila civil war.
Clearly South Vietnam stability was deteriorating , though Diem was still in control of the cities and much of the countryside of South Vietnam.
That was most unwelcome to the Americans, since the communist regions of the country bordered on North and South Vietnam and so acted as a passage for suplies and men along the maze of Jungle trails as the Ho Chi-minh trail, by which it took two months to reach the South from the North.
This sparsely populated country of some 2,5 million bordered not only on North and south Vietnam , but also on China,Burma, Thailand and Cambodia, and so was a potential cockpit of struggle between more powerful neighbour.
SEATO , “the South –east Asian collec-tive defence treaty”, organised by Dulles in September 1954, onlike NATO had no standing Armies, nor had its signatories promised military support in each other. So,although it as extended to cover the defence of Cambodian and South Vietnam, it provided no guarantees of help and proved of limited value when the United States did appeal for Military assistance.
The Eisenhower administration also sent military advisers to South Vietnam and to Laos, yet the Laotian Royal Army never became an effective fighting force capable of dealing with the guerilla tactics of the Pathet Lao.
The influx of American and dollars, more, corrupted and undermined the South Vietnamese and the Laotians.
American advisers, in anycase , suffered from one disability they couldnot overcome : they were foreigners white oustsiders.
The Vietcong , for all the violence and disorders they bought to their fellow countrymen , were their own people.
An enormous amout of financial aid was poured into South-east Asia ; most of it went to the military or lined the pockets of corrupt officials.
What the pattern of military aid reveal are the priorities of the United States in South-east Asia from mid-1950s to the mid-1960s. By far the largest amount of aid as calculated per head of population was sent to Laos and south Vietnam during the decade from 1955 to 1963, about half that amount per head went to cambodia and the Phillipines.
Eisenhower was committing technical,financial and military ait to enable the anti-communist forces in South-east Asiato defend themselves against the communist. But he was opposed to using US military forces on the Asian mainland ( except in South Korea). The mighty US Seven Fleet with its nuclear weapons was close by. What if the nuclear threat did not deter the Vietminh, while supplies continued to reach them from China and the Soviet Union ? What if, despite US ait, the anti-communist groups were too weak to resist effectively? That dilemma Eisenhower bequethed to his successors,
In November 1960 the Democratic Senator from Massachusets J.F.Kennedy won the US preidential election.
Indochina lay at the heart of the “Unfinished bussiness” left over from the Eisenhower administration and the issued came to the boil within the fitst sixth months of 1961. A speech by Khrushchev on 6 January 1961, declaring that the Soviet Union would support waht he called “National liberation movement” in the under-developed countries (including South Vietnam-auth)
April 1961 was a critical month for the White House . Vietnam became the focus of crisis management.
Kennedy order a review of what military,political and economic action-overt and covert- it would be necessary for the United States to undertake to prevent the communist domination of South Vietnam.
There was wild talk by the military of air strikes against North Vietnam and Southern China.
Although Kennedy frequently showed a better sense of propotion than smoke of his advisers about the dangers of escalation following the despatch of US troops, he never departed from his policy of increasing the US Commitment as much as he judge necessary to defeat Viet cong.
First and fore most it was ignorance, a failure to understand the true nature of the conflict in Vietnam, reducing it to the simple formula that it was part of the worldwide struggle berween the free and the communist.
But it was not a war arising simply out of communist aggression from North Vietnam . The Vietcong were a south Vietnamese force, the expression of political opposition and disaffection with the ruler of South Vietnam.
It was this misreading of the situation that underlay the US decision to intervene on a massive scale,
The belief that superior technology, the bombardement from the air, coul break the will and capacity to fight of the North Vietnamese and the Viercong caused heavy loss of life and terrible destruction, but in the end was in effective.
Nor could the ground forces defeat ab enemy prepared to naswer escalation with escalation.
The military experts were wrong in their optimistic assements and once more President Johnson had engaged America prestige he found it impossible to pull out and to admit defeat.
But meanwhile that war had been Americanised abd, after Tet, the propping up of an unviable South Vietbamese gevrnment became increasingly problematical.
The US had been sucked into a civil war and faced a determined and rushless enemy. Attrition in the end broke the American will to continue fighting in a country thousands of miles away and for a cause that could not be won.
b).AIR WAR IN VIETNAM (Above and Beyond,vol.4,New Horizon Publizher Inc.Chicago,1968)
Airpower has been the critical element in US military operations in Vietnam.
Massive,unprecedented use of airpower has provided important advantages fro US troops that no conventional army ever enjoyed in a large-scale war against well-organized guerilla forces.
( This book have written before the fall of Saigon, that is way the writter and US armed forces still have the arogan to win because they don’t understand the Vietcong and vietminh people powers and in the Iraq war the used most modern aircraft and startegic attack especially the bunkers, read another book “The unique Iraq War’s docu-ment and postal history collection”-auth)
The main advantages of modern airpower are completely new levels of mobility and firepower, Helicopter, employed by hubdreds, have brought the new mobility to ground operations. Most US infantry in Vietnam move into position for its sweeps and assaults by helicopter, which is more than ten times faster than any ground trasportation, high speed move,ment of large forces gives US commandrs a much greater opportunity for suprissing the guerillas than was possible in the past.
More important, in the fact that moving primarly in the air, instead of by road,largely robs the guerrilla of the opportunity for ambush.
Aerial firepowe, unprecendented in the swiftness, had been turned against the Viet cong and the North Vietnamese(Vietminh-auth) army in South Vietnam.
Attack aircraft are spread throughot South Vietnam in such numbers that they usually can respond to any call for help in less than 15 minutes and very often within five minutes.
When the enemy does attempt an ambush of ground forces, or stage a suprise attack on a fortified village, strike fighters can almost immedietely bring tons of the heviest ordnavce down on the attackers.
The ability to respond quickly, and massively to any assault has been a key factor in stopping the capture of isolated settlements by guerillas, and in keeping small friendly units from being overrun by larger Vietcong forces.
Bombing by B-52 bombers, the most massive use of firepower in any guerillq war, has been a key US tactic because it deprives the Vietcong of its mountain and jungle sanctuaries.
Guerilla armies traditionally have operated from a sanctuary in rough country where safe from attack and could rest, train new troops, prepare their operations and treat their wounded.
The B-52 raids have knocked out many of the large tunnel complexes in mountains and junges which served as major Viet Cong and Vietminh bases.
Air supply also has been important in Vietnam. Daily movement of tons of food, ammunition, and fuel is needed to support helicopter-borne troops, and this supply movement is provided mostly by fixed-wing transports. These military air transports also provide what amounts to a scheduled airline service between the major towns of South Vietnams, carrying both and freight war’s
(including postal, that is way every Vietnam covers were Airmails-auth) .
The vital role of airpower is Vietnam is best illustrated by contrasting the US position in the late 1960’s with that of the french in the early 1950’s because the French army had mobility and firepower as same as the guerilla vietminh, they don’t use aircraft helicopters. (very rare airmail potally covers during Vietminh war 1952-1955 aut)
Most dramatic and important innovation of the Vietnamese war (Vietcong war-auth.) is the mass employment of helicopterss. For the US and South Vietnamese infantry , is often is called the “helicopter war”, for helicopters carry him into battle, provide part of his fire support, usually allmof his resuplly of ammunition and food, and then vacuare him in case he is wounded or when the operation is over.
More than ten years (situation in 1968 when the information had written-auth), were required to bring airmobile, helicopter-army from concept to reality.
A small group of Army Generals, of which Lt.Gen. Hamilton H.Howze was one of the most persistent, fought for the new idea and by 1956 brought about the formation of experimental helicopter (air-cavalary) units at Fort Benning, Georgia technology strongly to the aid of this new concept in form of the long-range, reliable turbine-powered helicopter which appeared in the early 1960’s
b. Diem regime war collections.
a.)Diem vs Vietcong in 1957
1) Jan 1957
(1)Soviet Union, favoring a permanent division of the country , proposes that North and South Vietnam be admitted to United nations as separate states .(D)
(2)The Vietcong (South Vietnamese communist) began to organized at countryside in this year.
The receipt of Car service station “ Nhanh do phu tung Ford-Cholon” 1800$00 and the earliest used the bigger Vietnam Cong-Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 and 0$60.
(The early republic of Vietnam -vietnam Cong Hua Con niem/revenue – was the histroric proof that the transition period between the Franch power to Nationalist power in South Vietnam had finish and thenationalist characters were begun –auth)
2) February 1957
The earliest used of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 40 cents, on the receipt of car station”Ford” saigon, paid 147$64, RATE REVENUE 40 CENT.
(1)March, 11th 1957
The original photo of vietnamese lady at Long Hai.
The rare Etat du Vietnam Quc-Gia Con Niem revenue 30 cents on the receipt of car statin”Ford” Saigon, paid 93$- ,revenue rate 0$20,
(Because the 20 cent revenue didn’t exist because too many used as the postal ‘s porto , prevent against the law, they used 30 cent. DUE TO THIS SITUATION, the fiscal authoritiest must issued the emergency overprint 0$20 revenue to prevent the people paid more than the law order, look at another collection with that emergency revenue. –auth)
4) April 1957
(1) April, 27 1957
The Vo Giay Ban Nha certificate, with Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes Regional 10$00 revenue, the complete document :
(Chong) Toi ten la’ Do-van –Pho , so’ Kiem tra N.1706.A0053 cap tai Quan sau Ngay 13 thang 7 nam 1955.
(Vo) Toi ten la Nguyen le Nguyen-thi-kiem lan the kiem tra so 090069. 20 B .003751 cap tai quan Co Vap ngay 18 tahang 5 nam 1955,
Vu Chong toi ky ten duoi da’y , dong y’ ba’ng lo’ng
Ba’n cho o’ng Tran van-Rue, so keim tra 1703-31-A006414
Mocan nha so 509.8 duong truong Minh Giang noi dai cat tre dat chua cu Tay. Vo chong toi hien ngu tai so nha 183.A duong Yen-ro. Vo chong toi ky ten duoi day co nhan du so tien cua ong Tran-can-Ruo la’ 19.500$00 (MUOI CHIN NGAN TRAN DONG BAC) de’ ban mot can nha so’ 309.B. Hai ben vach xay gach va ngang la 3m/2 Be dai la 8 m thuoc ve quyen so huu cua ong Tran-van-ruo so tra du so tien mua can nha 309.B. cho chung toi roi. Khoi su ngay lam to giay nay. Tran –van-Ruo lam chu thiet tho gian nha noi tren, va pha tra tien dat, cho chu dat tuy theo ngieu 1 t can nha so 30 ma tu tro di khong con quyen so huu cua chang toi moi.
Hung toi bang long ban gian nha so 309.B. cho
Tran van Ruo nan san nay co ad lam ai tro ngai co o
Tran van Ruo thi chung toi xin chiu hoan toan trach nhie.
Lam tai saigon ngay 29 thang 4 nam 1957
Ong Do-van-pho Ba nguyen thi-kim
Ban nay lap thanh hai ban, ban chanh ong Tran-Ruo giu de lam bang, con ben phu thi ong Do-van-Pho va ba Nguyen-thi –kim-lan giu.
Thi nhen chu ky ten tren tuy ta cuc
O’ So Van Pho cap
Nguyen thi Kim Lan
Saigon nge 30 thang 4 nam 1957
Blue double circle stamped “ VIET-NAM CONG-HOA* DO THAN S.C. TRUONG QUAN-RA*”
(THE LATEST SAIGON-CHOLON TAX REGIONALES REVENUE-AUTH)
5) May 1957
The receipt from Rayon pieces Detachees (nganh do phu tung) ford Sai Gon ,Car repaired 1978$.
Very rare revenue “Vietnam overprint 0$20” with 3x 0$40 Vietnam Conghoa CON NIEM (THE EARLIEST USED),red ”PAYE” stamped
(a)The rare Etat du Viet-Nam Quc Gia Con Niem 2 piastres, on the receipt f car statin service “Ford” saigon for paid 994$00, with ravenue rate 2$00.
(The latest used the old franch currency piastres, and etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia very short time, and change to Vietnam Thue To and then Vieetnam Conghoa-auth)
(b) The Vuon-Gia-Can’s Pilot Identity card, signed at Saigon, in the back authetication violet double circle stamped “VIET-NAM CONG-HOA * DO-THANH S.C. QUAN-BA*”, on Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes regional 10$00 revenue,the complete documen :
46,Legrand de la Liraye-DAKAO
Certifie l’Authenticitie CARTE D’IDENTITE
de la signature de le Directeur de L’Ecole VUONG- PHOTO
Monsieur VUONG-GIA-CAN GIA-CAN soussigne pertifie
Opposee ci-controle que le nomme Nguyen tu Sai
Saigon le 21.5.1957 No M1e 157 ne le 3 Aout 1940
Stamped a’ tan an Vinh Long
Tun Authentic Saigon-Cholon fils d M,Nguyen van Tri
TRUONG QUAN-BA et de Mme Nguyen ngoc Hoa
SIGNED & VIOLET domicile 30 Bui cheu Saigon
DOUBLE RING CIRCLE STAMPED est bien eleve du ditetablisment.
“Vietnam Cong Hoa*Do thanh Saigon, le 8-Mai 1957
S.C. TRUONG QUAN BA*” Le Directeur
Signed & Red double circle stamped
“ VUONG-GIA-CAN * TRUONG –HOC-
TU-THUO* 46 PHAN-THANH-GIAN.
( very rare Pilot ID with the bad official printed revenue, but because the situation still used .
Later in 1960 the design still used but change from S.C or Saigon-Cholon province to Do-Thanh Saigon ,the new province’s name after assasination Diem. Taxes regional ,Franch style was changed to the vietnamese with same meaning “Niem thue “ .
Due to the bad quality , on the revenue were surcharged with the year from 1960 -1975 ,except 1963 not yet found-auth)
Diem arrives in U.S. for ten day visit . President Eisenhower reaffirms support for his regime.(D) and Ngo Dinh Diem waves to New York lunchtime crowd as a parade in his honor proceeds up Broadway. Very few Americans could have then found Vietnam on a map (P)
The First Covers of Stamps” Tem Tho Cau Nguyen “stamps design native army with elephants, CDS Saigon June 7th 1957 found in Indonesia
(After Afro Asia conference in Bandung 1955, many South Vietnam stamps and first day covers send to Indonesia, auth)
The reciept from Saigon Rayon detachee Ford for car repaired 124$40 with revenue 2x Overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia revenue
(very rare strip two overprint revenue of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia ,the transition between Bodia to Ngo dien diem authority-auth)
The Reciept of Service station Vespa-Ford Saigon , 928$00 with added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem 3 x 0$60 ,rate 1$80
(The earliest Diem’s revenue of Vietnam Conghoa or the Republic of Vietnam in trhe South ex Cochin Chine -auth).
The rare combination revenue Vietnam Thue Con Niem 3$(without 00) with emergency overprint 0$20 Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 80 cent.on the receipt of car Service station “Ford” saigon , paid 1561$00 added revenue 3$20.
(The Serial Reciept with revenue of the Car service station “Ford” Saigon with various type revenue, were the best collection for show –auth)
The reciept from Rayon Detachee Ford for repiared car, 2.075$20, revenue etat du vietnam Quoc-Gia overprint 0$20 and 5 x new type brown Viet-nam revenue 80 cent (rate 4$20) .(rare transition revenue, the vietnam revenue used very short times -auth).
7) July 1957
(1) July.16th 1957
The Reciept of Bo Thanh Saigon ,Ty Tai Chanh vung Saigon for 22$10 for Gia moi thuoc khoi,Tien muon thuy luong ke & Tien tu-bo dan nuoc ,thue truong Ba. With overprint 0$20 Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia revenue
(rare revenue, I have only three that kind revenue on complete docu-ment,best variation rate, this the best transition revenue during the earliest of liberation war-Diem era, I hope one day will put on show in USA and Saigon- auth)
The Receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon 2108$00 added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 8 x 0$60(rate 4$80) ,
( rare eight revenue, strip of five and three revenue 0$60.-auth)
The Receipt of Car service Station Ford Saigon 538$00, added 3 x 0$40 (rate 1$20) bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue.
The rare combination common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80 with rare emergency overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia con niem revenue 80 cent. On the receipt of car servive station for Saigon 470$00, rate revenue 1$00.-
(rare the Quoc Gia revenue 1$00 that time-auth)
The very rare combination emergency overprint 0$20 Quoc-Gia Etat du vietnam revenue with 3 x 0$80 Vietnam thue Con Niem revenue 80 cents (rate 2$60), on the receipt of car repaired station “ford” saigon ,for paid 1.220$20.
(unusual revenue rate and cmbination rare type revenue, best collection for show , the late used of vietnam Thue Con Niem sea-fauna type revenue -auth)
(6)July ,30th 1957
The receipt of car&motorbike service station Vespa&Ford Saigon , Ringlauer cable complete, 87$00, added very rare emergency revenue “ Overprint Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia con niem black 0$20 on 0$80 this time difficult to found revenue Etat du Vietnam Quc Gia 0$20”
The receipt of Car Service of Ngahn du Phu tung Ford Saigon , 2981$00 added Revenue Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00.
(The serial reciept with complete nominal value revenue in 1957 until 1959 will showed us the transition period including the emergencies overprint revenue were best collection to show look at that varition revenue-auth)
The rare combination between common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa coniem revenue 0$40 with rare Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue 2 Piastres , on the receipt or car servive statin “Ford” cholon, 1138$ , revenue rate 2$40.
(still used Piastres revenue-at transition period -auth)
The unusual nominal value of revenue only 2$ without 00 (the right must 2$00) Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue on the reciept of car station service “Ford” saigon 1012$00, rate revenue 2$00.
(Unusual print without 00 after 2$, only 2$ , the right was 2$00, before another type 3 piastres -auth)
The Contant Receipt of Societe Indochinoise De Transport for car service SIT Saigon &SIT Phon Phenh “Bobine Lucas 12v-237706” 328$00 with bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80
(The Indochine old form still used-auth)
10) October 1957
Communist insurgent activity in South Vietnam begins in accordance with decision reched in Hanoi to organized thirty seven armed companies in Mekong delta.
During the year guerrillas assassinated more than four hundred minor South Vietnamese official.(D)
(2) , The South Vietnam Communist, The Vietcong , began organising in the countryside, planning the assasination on Diem ‘s village headmen and official,
(3) The photo of Diem in the front of Saigon Bishop and another officials, he sat at law chair (TT Diem tam Cao nguyen Trung phan 1957) (P)
b)Diem AVRN vs VIETCONG GUERILLA’S in 1958
1) January 1958
(1)Diem in 1958
Diem’s authoritarian rule, his ruthlesness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among pheasant bu among all those groups excluded from power and from a share .
2) February 1958
The receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon, 1667$00, added Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 + 0$60.(rate 3$60)
3) -4) 1958
5) May 1958
The receipt of Indochine electric company 61$20 with Vietnam Cong Hoa common bigger type 0$20. the form write in Franch langueges.
6) June 1958
(1)Vietcong form a coordinated command structure in eastren Mekong delta .
7) July 1958
The receipt of Car Service station Ford Saigon , 800$00 with Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 2 x 0$80 (rate 1$20)
The Military certificate, “ Quan-Doi Vietnam Cong Hoa” De Tam Quan-Khu. “CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN-MON SO 1 Bo-Binh” (Quan/Military certificate/Chung Chi), the complete certificate with armed walfare illustrations. :
Hoi-Dong Giam Khao ky thi man khoa lai T.T.H.L/SDKC 14 ta ngay 23 thang 6 nam 1958 den 28 thang 6 nam 1958 .
Chung nhan Binh nat TRAN-VAN-KHIET so quan 400.052
Ta trung tuyen ky thi CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN MON S 1/BO-BINH.
Voi diem trung binh chung 13,23/20 . thung hang 43/71 .
Chuyen mon : Bo-Binh
Lam Tai KBC 4.061, ngay 15-8-1958
Chan cu kao
Thieu-Ta Nguyen –Luong-Khuong
KBC 4.098 ngay 25/9/1958
Trung –Ta Bui-Huu-Nhon
Q Tu Linh-Do Tam Quan-khu
(the interesting for South Vietnam military document ‘s showed with the picture of green black military action around the certificate, sign at KBC 4061(?) and 4098(?) not list in IMNAHA KBC number please comment the complete area from KBC 4027 – Dalat National Military academy to KBC-4100 Thu Duc infantry school.
This was the trung tham certificate? Change thingking? Because only 12 days training,what kind of training and where the location -auth)
9) September 1958
(1) September.27th 1958
Tet Nhi Dong Saigon (Tet New Year Holiday) covers with the tet Stamps and special first day postal stamped In this day 20 years laters Vietcong suprise attack (PH)
10)-11) 1958 no info
12) December 1958
(1) by 1958 almost all the residual insurgent had been wiped out.(P)
c) Diem ARVN vs Vietcong in 1959
1) January 1959
(1) Murderer of Gouvernment official by Vietcong 1200 per years.(D)
(2)Since 1959, the best Vietnam phillatelic collector Nguyen Bao Tung was a member of South Vietnam’s council for planning new stamps design and secretary General of the Vietnamese-American Association Stamp Club in Vietnam
( please Mr Tung or his native Vietnam phillatelic ‘s friend help me with more comment and information-auth)
(3) The original vintage photo Vietnamese army (AVRN) wiyh his sister (4 womens) , in the back of photo written “ Ky niem Hoi con tic 1959 Bihuy.”
2) February 1959
(1)February ,18th 1959
The picture postcard of Nha Trang beach ‘Cha”ng ca’nh , Dai ta’nh” postally used (stamp off) CDS NHA TRA(NG) , 18.(2).1959 TO Cholon.
Nha Trang 14.2.59 cds Nha trang
Cordial souvenuer 18.2.1959
Nuedley vocine Nguyen Ba Luon
Pour l’annee Profeneur
Ky’ Hoi E’cole Francaise de
(2)February .6th 1959
The rare reciept of Police D’Abonnement Au Compteur, appreil instalattion than-chan ,Trinh , money 9114$63, with the rare highest nominal value bigger type green Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 10$00.
(This revenue document very find condition and very rare the Police ambonnement of Compteur, for high price installation nine thousand $ , and high nominal 10$00 revenue- the show piece collection-auth)
3) March 1959
(1) March,1st. 1959
BINH CHUNG RA-DA. Don Vi Anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng. Vu Trang Nhan Dan (D)
(2) March,3rd 1959
The HOC CHI of Truong Trung Hoc Tu Thuc Cong-Hoa, 139 ,Duong Pasteur saigon. DE Tu Nhien Khoa 1958-1959.
Signed by Hieu Truong Phan van Van with rede doublke circle official stamped.,
Autheticated with regional Cholon-Saigon taxes regional 10$00 yellow revenue. By T.U.N. Do Truong Saigon,Truong Quan cuan Na with official stamped “ Vietnam Cong-Hua* D0-Thanh S.C. Truong Chan Ba.*”
(The lattest used of the regional revenue, after this regional revenue will ovrprinted with year from 1960 to 1975 except 1963, the best serial regional revenue and best for showed-auth)
(3) March 14th 1959
The stamps of Trung sister on Elephant were issued in this day, the 6 pi uncommon in mint no hings condition.
(The Vietnam hero’s Trung sister very popular but the Lady Trieu didn’t issued because the people hate Madame Ngu because she said that she was the reincarnation of Lady Trieu and she made the statue which broken out after the Diem regime fall, read the chapter I Ancient Vietnam War, -auth)
4) April 1959 no info
5) May 1959
(1) North Vietnam forms Group 559, to begin infiltrating cadres and weapons into Southy Vietnam via the Saigon Trail.(D)
6) no info
7) July 1959
(1) July 1959
Group 759 organized by Vietminh to suplies to the south by sea.(D)
The Dalat” Chuc Pongouh” water-fall vintage picture postcard send from Dalat in French char. In the back in franch:
Dalat le 12.7.50
Alur tres …ne nouvelle a vous
aunoncre, j’ai trouv …..juine (JUNE) fille pour vous et j.
..re, quu’elte vous flavia.Je vous la prisenter , Ju mon retour.Si Vous e les presse, regadez en attenolant la
photo qua Germaine Vous a envorjee.Je cois qu ‘slle yest de dana (Danang) .
#Bientiet et Bon counage. Signed
(Please somone translate this latter ,thanks,auth)
To Khai Gia Dinh ‘s Bo Thanh Saigon ‘s document from Canh Sat Cuoc Quan ,Khu 7
signed by Gia-truong dung Khai ,ky ten and Kien-thj , le canh sai truong with red double circle Sat quoc quan with bamboo / flora disign.(OD)
(4) July 24th 1959
Ban Xa-Hoi Quan Tan-Binh
AU-TRI-VIEN PHU-NHUAN B.N. 10$
Nha Lanh cua Bo Dinh thi Nam SO BAC LA : Mui dtong bac :
Giup vao Quy Au-Tri Vien phunun.
T.U.N BAN CHA’P HANH XA HOI
Chu Tieh signed Nguyen –Thi-Lieng
Red Stamped BAN XA-HOI Tinh Gia-dinh
(What the meaning : “Au-Tri-vien”? auth)
The red “The’ Cu’ Tri (election?) Card” in vietnamese language , 1.8.1959 :
THE’ CU’ – TRI
BAU CU’ QUO’C HO’I NAM 1959
No. 0634621 A/IX
Ho’ Te’n Nguyen Thi Thuan
Ngay sinh va sinh : 29 tuoi
Dia-chi 9 –B- Be’n Nguyen Duy
The’ co’n cuo’c so’ B .003.539 nga’y………ca’p toi…..
Cha ‘ ky’ cu’a Zua’n Ta’m ngay 1 Thang 8 na’m 1959
Nguo co the Chu’ ky’ va’ da’u cu’n
Nha chue’ tra’ch ca’p tha’i
CHU’ Y’ .Ai du”ng the’ cu-tri cu’a ngu’o’i khac’ hoa’c dua the’ cu’-tri cua
Minh cho ke’ kha’c du’ng de’u bi truy-tp’ theo hinh-tua’t.
9) no info
10) October 1959
(1)Notre Dam Basilica (Saigon)
This church up to the Basilica in 1959 during 300 years Saigon Bishop (D- in the front of Basilica no Marie Madona statue) and private photo of the Basilica (OP- i964, there were Madona-Marie statue, may be made after Diem assasination)
When my visit in 2007, in the front of this Basilica I saw the Madonna statue and I have prayed at the front of that statue : “Please help me to get the best vietnam war postal history” and when I turned to the right I saw the small native stamps shops where some Vietcong postal history were found-there, difficult to seek the stamps shop in saigon because everybody did.t understand where the antique or phillatelic shop, you must told them Buu chin shop, also the Stamp catalogues.
In my last visit july 2009, I have went by foot, walking from Phi Vu Hotel Nguyen Trai street , through the street in the front of the Hotel two block –to the right I came to the Back of the Market at front of Saigon Bus station, the to the right two block came to Ho Chi Minh City Museum where show the Vietnam War weapon, helicopter, jet and tank, granat,gun, archive ,photo and document of Vietnam Liberation war including Vietcong collections, but not the revenue and pstal history, also traditional wedding ceremony, and the Vietnam cultural ethnic collection and Saigon history, then turn to the right found Pasteur street(Duong),
More two block turn left I have seen the Basilica, seen inside , many brides have made the antique photo, a Chinese Oldman help me to take photo of myself , in the front Mary statue at the front of Basilica,
At left side of the basilica, I met The Antique Saigon post office where I made two CTO cover, one for my friend Adi Darma with the 2006 sheet stamps chinese shio, and for my collection Ho Chi Minh stamps block four, but very pity I cann’t find the Stamp shop anymore after asking many persons because I still have the name card, after that by bus I go to Saigon bus station and met my friend in the front of that bus station and her husband bring me to her house at Chilon by motorbike, where I found complete revenue , postal and document history’s collections to add what I have found yesterday -auth)
11) November 1959
(1) November,28th 1959
The official first day postcard of first anniversary Republic du Tchad ,first day CDS “Premier Emission”, and the picture of flag blue-white-red, very pity the stamp was taken off.
This unused postcard issue by “ Aevres sciales, office Equatorial des Postes et Telecommunication. (please told me what kind of stamps, vietnam or Franch stamps? –auth)
(2)Ecole Lamartine L.M.C. Billet D’Inscription Card.
Aunee Seolaire 1959-1960.
Nom : Vo Thi Thao
Classe: 10 eiue A
Venant de 11.
(1)Soon after consolidating its power in saigon, the diem regime embarked on a massive campaign to liquidate in South Vietnam.
Many were imprisoned in reeducation Camp “TRUONG TAM “ or Center to Change thought.
(IMNAHA report postally used cover from Truong Tam, look at July,10th 1967-auth)
(3) December,12th 1959
The traffic accident of two car NCC 578 and NBO 096 report with the road map of accident’s situation, for repaired.
(If someone will translate the document, the complete document will showed in the blog, very rare accident that time because not many cars in Saigon-auth)
d) Diem’s ARVN vs Vietcong GUERILLA’S in 1960
The turbine-powered helicopters appeared , and the US and South Vietnam infantry called the “ Helicopter war “.
The two turbine-powered helicopters which emerge as the backbone of the new airmobile Division were the Bell HU-1 “Huey” and the larger Vertol CH-47 “Chinook”, without such aircraft the airmobile concept could not been implemen-ted.(D)
(2) Eighteenth prominet South Vietnamese petition Diem to reform his government.(D)
2) February 1960
The Vietnam Cong Hoa Ho-Tich Tric-Luc B Khai Sanh , Bo thanh Saigon be thieu II 832 certificat , with Regional Saigon Cholon revenue overprint red 1960, yellow revenue 10$ + green revenue 5$ .
(The earliest year of overprint regional Bothan saigon revenue in 1960 and the latest 1975 during the fall of Saigon, the overprint on two type regional Bothan Saigon revenue 10$00 revenue yellow bad design and green 5$00 fine native building design revenue , what is the meaning of Tri Luc Bo Khai San, I have the complete sertificate from 1960 until 1975 except 1963 with regional Bo Than Saigon revenue, very best collection to showed, please comment about the 1963 the worst & Diem’s assasination year-auth)
(1)April 2nd 1960
The U’U-Dai Card (what the meaning ? please someone tranlate-auth)
(a)the Front of U’U –Dai card
THE U’U-DAI CARD,
XIN GIU NAY DEN NAM TAM CUNG MOT S XE.
DUOC MIEN PHI RUA XE, BOM MO
VA XIT DAU MOT LAN
(b) The Back of U’U Dai card.
195 DAI-LONG TRI-PHUONG CHOLON
So xe : NSF 338
Eua,Bom Mo.Xit Dau -2 AVR 1960
Nhot May : Mo Bi Loi L AF
Nhot Hop Soo :Sx Go
Nhot Bong Sau: Sx Go
5)-8) no info
9) September 1960
(1) September,5th 1960
Long Dong congress opens in Hanoi, stresses need to combat Diem regime. (D)
10) October 1960
Station Service facture NCC no 518 marque(merk) Peugeot , 120$ with common type bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 0$40.
11) November 1960
(1) November,8th 1960
J.F.Kenney defeat Richard Nixon for the prisidency.
(2) November,11th 1960
South Vietnamese army unit un-successfully attempt to overthrew Diem.(D)
12) December 1960
(1) December,20th. 1960
(a)Hanoi leaders from National Liberation Front for South Vietnam , which Saigon regime dubs the “Vietcong” meaning communist Vietnam. The movement was formed on directives from Hanoi(D)
(b) Nguyen Huu Tho, head of the National Liberation front, as the Vietcong was officially called.(P)
e).Diem vs Vietcong Guerilla in 1961
1) January 1961
(1) Murderer of Gouverment official by Vietcong 4000 per year.(D)
(2) The communist regions of the country border on North and South Vietnam so actees as a passage for supplien and men on the maze of jungle trails known as the Ho Chi-minh trails.
(3) January,6th. 1961
Khruschev declaring that the Soviet Union would support what he called “National Liberation Movement”
2) February 1962
The reciept of car repaired station service Tan-Sn-Nhui Saigon 270$ with Vietnam Conghoa Con Niem (revenue) 0$40 .
3) March 1962 no info
(1) April,29th. 1961
(a)US troops deployment to South Vietnam were discussed within Kennedy administration.
(b) Common President Ngu Dienh Diem second issued stamp. The uncommon mint 9 pi stamp,
(I found this stamps , used off cover, in Indonesia-aut)
5) May 1961
(1)Alerts went out to American bases, a modest 100 –men increase in the nearly 700-strong American advisory mission in South Vietnam was approved.
Aproval for the despatch of a further 400 special Forces troops was goven. Extra military resources were provided, enabling the Vienamese army to be expanded from 150.000 to 170.000 troops. Finnaly US Troops were stationed in Thailand. (D)
(2) Vice-president Johnson chatting with Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon . Johnson, whom Kennedy had sent on an ambassadorial world tour, exuberantly praised Diem as the “Winston Churchill of asia” which reassured Diem of American support(P)
(3) Autumn 1961
General Taylor had recommended to the President the despatch of 8000 US combat soldiers becuase in a memorandum the Joint Chief of Staff had estimated that 40.000 US troops would clean up thew Vietcong threat, that if the North Vietnamese and Chinese intervened another 128.000.
(4) A second Geneva Conference to “neutralise”Laos.
6) June 1961
(1)President Diem at Presidential palace on 7th anniversary as President
The reciept of electricity in Franc char .”Compagne Des Eaux Et D’ Electricite De L’Indochine” 67$20, with rare small type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem (revenue) 0$20. signed at Saigon 4 juin 1961 by P.P. De La C’Des Eaux et D’Electricite De L’Indochine.
(very rare 1$00 small type Vietnam Conghoa Coniem revenue used at 7th Diem’s presidential day anniversary ,please comment if someone have another nominal, look at the differents size at the photo illustration-auth)
The certificate of Ho – Tich “Trich-Luc Bo Khaisanh” with regional Saigon Cholon revenue ,yellow 10$ ,red overprint 1961.
7)-10) no info
11) November 1961
(1) November,11th 1961
The receipt of S.A.R Kaswa than chettiaa 23 dung 104 toat tich , propitaire Saigon , from Huyenh Xien 51$ with Vietnam Cong Hoa CON NIEM (REVENUE) , 0$20, F OR PAYING 36 M2 ve khoan tra tien muon dat o duang (Huose’s LAND TAX?) month 10 1962.
(I have the same receipt from 1-7-1961 , every month t 1-12-1962-auth)
(2) November.21th 1961
The reciept of contractor Loan”TUE-NGHIA-DUONG SAIGON –CHOLON” the form with vietnamese and chinese char, from (nhan cua) Pho-Vu,cholon street (duong) Phai Tu so 42, maney
2216$ , Con Niem (revenue) type Vietnam Cong hoa Con Niem 5$+ 1$ (rate 6$) with red chinese char stamped.
f)Diem AVRN vs Vietcong in 1962
1) January 1962 no info
2) February 1962.
(1) February ,6th 1962
American Military Assistance Command (AMAC) and CORDS (Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support) formed in South Vietnam
(IMNAHA report the postal history of AMAC and CORDS team , look at Andrew Crasshow blog.-auth)
The Hoc Sinh(Born/birth ) card, for 1961/1962, with yellow Saigon Cholon regional revenue 10$ overprint red 1962 sign by Hieu truong Nguyen Van Phu with Official Vietnam Conghoa quan truong quan nha sign & red stamped authentication, (may be this was the first The Hoc Sinh Card, or she forgotten to made in 1961-auth)
(3) February,27th. 1962
(a)Two South Vietnamese pilots bomb Diem’s palace but Diem and his family survive. Diem and family miraculously escape injury, but Madame Nhu(Diem brother,s wife) slightly hurt.(D)
(b)Sometime laters, madame Nhu inspect the bomb palace (P)
3) March 1962
(1)March .10th 1962
Find condition , Rare Saigon vietnam Dien Tin (Telegramme) cds Saigon-T.U.V.T Vietnam 10.6.1962
From Xuanloc to Le-thi-phuoc 52 Nguy enphi Khanh Saigon. “TRINH BIEN TRONG (work in ?) 24 GIAO , HIEN TRUONG”
(The rare and only one telegram found during vietnam war in 1962-auth)
(2) March,20th. 1962
Postally used cover with Vietnam Buu Chin Cong Hua’s Unesco comemmoration stamps 3×1 Dong (rate 3 Dong) send from Saigon (round CDS) to Kinh goi ong Le-Van-Hai, Giao-Vien Lop Nhut”B” Truong Nam Tieu-Hoc Long-Xuyen.An-Giang (rare destination PH)
The Facture Reparatins ‘s receipt of Saigon Xe hoi Cong-Ty 34vBoulevard Thong-Nhut Saigon. From Mr Giang Thi Naoh money 636$77, with two type revenue Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem small size 1$00 and bigger size 0$40.(This the rare earliest small size VCH Con niem type revenue-auth )
4) April 1962 no info
5) May 1962
(1)Vietcong formed battalion-size units in central Vietnam.(D)
6) June 1962
(1) June, 19th. 1962
The VERY RARE ,Vietnam Telegram “Dien Tin” send from Saigon Telegram date stamped SAIGON. T.U.V.T-VIETNAM 10.6.1962.
: : :
: DIE’N TIN : VIET-NAM CONG-HOA :
: TELEGRAMME : REPUBLIQUEB DU VIETNAM :
: ____________________________________ ______________ :
: : GUI BI : GOC O : : B U U – D I E N :
: 2 ______________________ : POSTES ET TELECOMMUNICATIONS :
: : SAIGON :XUANLOC :
:______________________________________ : Le –Thi-Chuoc 52 :
: :Nguyen Phi Khanh Saigon:
: Trinh Zie’n trong 24 gio’ =
: Hie’n Truo’ng : :________________________________________________ :
Chinh-phu’ kho’ng chiu trach-nhie’m va’ vie’c do’i tin tuc cua tu- han bang dien-tin
L’etat n’est 0 du chine resposabilite a’ raison de la correspondance par la voie telegraphique
(2) Mid 1962
Amerivan advisers increase from 700 to 12.000.
The best South Vietnam capture the Vietcong ‘s photography in 1962
(a)Vietcong capture by South Vietnam army (ARVN) were put at prison camp ‘s Kham Duc compound (Photo)
(b) South Vietnamese Infantry warly moving past hut they set ablaze after they found it held communist literature (photo)
(c)ARVN soldiers loading their Vietcong prisoners on small canoe-like boats in Mekong delta.
(d)AVRN soldiers wading into canal to put equiptment in boats to lure Vietcong guerillas from nearby flooded paddies (Photo)
(3) June.1st 1962
The reciept money BP$1479$00, with Vietnam Conghoa ConNiem revenue 3$00, for paying in French “Mille quatre cent si xante dix nuef piastres” from mr Ba Huyn Xiem by LXXX VIETNAM CONG HOA QUAN TRUONG , ve khoan tra tien muon dat dung nguyen che nghia hem lo s n(TF 183) 36 m2, thay mat nguoi chu dat saigon 1-6-1962 handsign. ( I also have the same receipt for 51$ not use france char anymore , date 1-12-1962, with same type revenue 0$20-auth)
7) July 1962 no info
(1) August.6th 1962
The Chung Chi , duong Cong-quyns 132-133 Saigon “Marconi’s school’s certificate, chung ban ong(Mr) Nguyen –ngoc-Siem, sanb (born0 1-8-1934 tai Hien Thanh,Tan-an, da then boc lop Ke-tan tai bon truong, tie ngay 1.2-1962 den ngay 1.8.62 . sign Saigon 6.8.1962, Hieu Truong Nguyen Van Giau. Autentication with overprint red 1962 on yellow Saigon cholon regional revenue 10$. Sign and red stamped Vietnam Cong Hoa official “bamboo design.
9) September 1962 no info
10) October 1962
(1) October,1st 1962
The same “THE HOC –SINH” Card of Miss Do Thi Muoi tai(born) My Tho 2.3.1937, address 23 Ng Thung Chan Saigon above (16.2.1962) WITH Cholon Saigon regional revenue overprint red 1962, BUT DIFFERENT LEAGALIZED : KT.QUAN –TRUONG QUAN NHI WITH VIOLET STAMPED.and hoc lap de IV nien kha 1962 /1963 (informatif document about the change of goverment official and new card for 1962/1963 -auth)
11) November 1962
(1) November ,1st.1962
The prestamped “ Brisbane Qld Aust. 4-PM 1 NOV 1962 POSTED PILLAR BOX, and rolling dated stamped PERTH. INV. ,AU 10 GAME NOV 1962 hand written Acc (Sencored ?) on document’s envelope, send to Lam Huu Sia,36 So That Diem Saigon , S.Viet-Nam.
(rare cover from Brisbane Australia via PERTH (sencored?) to So Thanh Diem street Saigon South Vietnam –very interesting Diem street, what is the name that street now ? a historic information of Diem topicalcollection-aut)
12) December 1962
(1) December.1st 1962
The receipt of S.A.R KASWATHAN-CHETTIM, MONEY bp $ 51, WITH VIETNAM CONG HOA CON NIEM REVENUE 0$20, ve khan tra tien muon dat a duong N.C. Nghia ham la So 5 (36m2 Land ta)