Driwancybermuseum Galery (continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

  • The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum
  • (Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
  • Showroom :
  •  
  • Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum
  • The Majapahit Java Kingdom During War And Peace( MAJAPAHIT MASA PERANG DAN DAMAI) 1293-1525
  • Based on
  • Dr Iwan Rare Old Books Collections
  • Edited By
  • Dr Iwan Suwandy
  • Limited Private Publication
  • special for premium member hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com copyright @ Dr iwan suwandy 2011
  • ___________________________________________
  • TABLE OF CONTENT
  • 1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)
  • 2.The Rise of Madjapahit war 1293-1309(Perang Pada saat Majapahit Timbul)
  • 3.The Golden Age of Madjapahit  War(Perang saat Masa Jayanya  Majapahit)Timbul 1309-1389
  • 4.The Declining Of Madjapahit War(Perang Pada Saat Mundurnya Kerajaan Majapahit) 1389-1476
  • 5.The Setting Of Madjapahit War  (Perang Saat Kehancuran Majapahit )1478-1525
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  • Sumatra and the Malay peninsula,
  • ·         13th century
  • Kertanegara appears to have attacked Jambi in 1275,
  • and his quarrel with Kublai Khan a few years later was partly over who was to receive tribute from Palembang.
  • On the Malay Peninsula, too, numerous small states emerged, notably Kedah, which had had a long history as one of Srivijaya’s less tractable vassals. The most northerly of the peninsular states, Tambralinga and Langkasuka, however, found themselves under increasing pressure in this era from the Thai state of Sukhotai and its successor Ayutthaya. There is even some evidence of a seaborne raid on Jambi by forces from Ayutthaya at the end of the 13th century.
  • The civil war in Java which ended Kertanegara’s rule, and the Mongol invasion which followed, ended Javanese intervention in Sumatra for some decades. By the middle of the 14th century, however, the Javanese empire of Majapahit claimed suzerainty over the whole of Sumatra and over the peninsula as far north as Langkasuka. It is unlikely that this suzerainty translated anywhere into direct rule from Java, but local Sumatran courts, especially in the southern half of the island, certainly paid homage to Majapahit and modelled the ceremony and culture in their own courts on the greater splendour of the Javanese capital.
  • Majapahit’s most important rival for influence in Sumatra may have been the Minangkabau kingdom, which evidently included Jambi and other east-coast ports in its sphere of influence in the middle of the century. Minangkabau itself, however, was claimed by Majapahit as a vassal and its greatest ruler, Adityavarman, may have been part-Javanese.
  • In about 1377, the ruler of Jambi apparently asserted his independence from Java and sought formal investiture by the Chinese emperor. Majapahit reacted brutally: the envoys sent from China to conduct the ceremony were waylaid and killed, and Javanese forces attacked and sacked Jambi itself. Palembang suffered a similar fate about a decade later. Believing that the death of the Majapahit king Hayam Wuruk gave an opportunity for greater independence, the ruler of Palembang repudiated Javanese domination in 1389. In retaliation his city was destroyed, and the administration of what remained came into the hands of local Chinese merchants.
  • 14th century
  • The Minangkabaus from Sumatra settled in Negeri Sembilan in the 14th century under the protection of the Malacca Sultanate,
  • Datuk Perpatih nan Sebatang pada zaman dahulu konon kabarnya sudah pernah berlayar dan sampai ke Melaka serta singgah di Negeri Sembilan.
    • C13th:
  • tentative date of a Chinese wreck found at Kota Cina in Medan Marelan, Sumatra
    • Medan – Tim arkeologi Indonesia dan Prancis menemukan berbagai artefak penting dari penggalian di situs Kota Cina, di Kelurahan Paya Pasir, Kecamatan Medan Marelan, Medan, Sumatera Utara (Sumut). Sayangnya penggalian tidak bisa dilakukan secara leluasa karena lahan masyarakat belum juga dibebaskan.

      Kepala Pusat Studi Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Sejarah (Pussis) Universitas Negeri Medan (Unimed) Ichwan Azhari menyatakan, situs Kota Cina merupakan situs yang penting di Sumut. Temuan terbaru yakni struktur bangunan dari bata yang diduga candi kuno di lokasi ini, menunjukkan kualitas situs itu tersebut.

      Sayangnya penggalian tidak bisa dilakukan secara leluasa karena areal yang akan digali terbentur dengan permukiman masyarakat. Rumah-rumah baru terus bertambah di sekitar situs. Akibatnya tim kesulitan bekerja untuk mengungkap catatan sejarah yang ada di sana.

      “Sejak lama kita harapkan Pemerintah Kota Medan untuk membebaskan lahan masyarakat di sini, tetapi harapan ini belum juga dipenuhi,” kata Ichwan Azhari kepada wartawan, Rabu (20/3/2013) di lokasi penggalian di Paya Pasir.

      Disebutkan Azhari, temuan terbaru tim arkeologi yakni struktur bangunan yang diduga candi, semakin membuktikan situs Kota Cina dulunya merupakan kota perdagangan internasional sekitar abad 12 hingga 16 Masehi. Tetapi kalangan sejarahwan merasa heran dengan lambannya jajaran pejabat pemerintahan Pemkot Medan dalam menyelamatkan situs yang potensial menjadi situs kelas dunia ini.

      “Setahun sejak wali kota meninjau kawasan situs Kota Cina, Februari 2012 lalu, belum nampak kehadiran Pemkot Medan menyelamatkan kawasan ini. Situs Kota Cina semakin terancam dengan semakin banyaknya rumah warga yang didirikan di atas situs,” tukas Azhari.

      Pada Rabu siang Wali Kota Rahudman Harahap menyempatkan diri meninjau temuan struktur bangunan yang diduga candi tersebut. Azhari berharap, kunjungan kali ini akan menjadi titik penting dalam upaya membebaskan lahan masyarakat di situs penting tersebut.

      Tim arkeolog dari Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient (EFEO/Pusat Penelitian Timur Jauh Perancis), dan Pusat Arkeologi Nasional menemukan struktur bangunan kuno setelah melakukan penggalian selama 14 hari, yang berakhir Rabu sore. Struktur ini ditemukan di kedalaman sekitar dua meter. Susunan bata yang menjadi dinding bangunan itu tebalnya sekitar 40 cm, sedangkan panjang dan struktur utuhnya belum bisa diketahui karena berada di dalam tanah dan tembus ke lantai rumah warga.

  • Seorang pengemis di Jakarta Selatan mampu kumpulkan Rp 25 juta hanya dalam 15 hari. Nantikan informasi selengkapnya di “Reportase Sore” Trans TV pukul 16.45 WIB

    (rul/mok)

    • CHINESE CITY FIELD SITE
      Medan – Indonesia and French archaeological team discovered a variety of important artifacts from excavations at the site of China town , in the village of Paya Pasir , District Marelan Medan , Medan , North Sumatra ( North Sumatra ) . Unfortunately excavation can not be done freely for the public land has not been released .

      Head of the Center for the Study of Social Science and History ( Pussis ) State University of Medan ( Unimed ) Ichwan Azhari said China City site is an important site in North Sumatra . Recent findings that the structure of the brick building that allegedly ancient temples in this location , it shows the quality of the site .

      Unfortunately excavation can not be done freely since the area to be excavated settlements hit with the public . New homes continues to grow around the site . As a result, the team worked hard to uncover the historical record is there .

      ” Since long we expect the Government to acquire land Medan people here , but this expectation has not been fulfilled , ” said Ichwan Azhari told reporters on Wednesday ( 20/03/2013 ) at the excavation site in Paya Pasir .

      Mentioned Azhari , recent findings archaeological team suspected that the structure of the temple , the site proves Chinese city was once the international trade city of about 12 to 16 century AD . But the historian was surprised by the slow ranks of government officials in the city government of Medan potential rescue sites into this world -class site .

      ” A year since the mayor’s reviewing City site region of China , February 2012 , not yet visible field presence of the municipal government to save the region . Increasingly threatened China City Site with the increasing number of houses built on the site , ” said Azhari .

      On Wednesday afternoon the mayor took Rahudman Harahap review the findings of the alleged structure of the temple . Azhari hope this visit will be an important point in an effort to free up community land in the important sites .

      The team of archaeologists from the Ecole Francaise d’ Extreme – Orient ( EFEO / Far East Research Center of France ) , and the National Archaeological Center discover an ancient structure after digging for 14 days , which ended on Wednesday afternoon . This structure is found at a depth of about two meters . Brick wall of the building which is approximately 40 cm thick , while the length and structure intact can not be known because it was on the ground floor and breaks into houses .

      A beggar in South Jakarta is able to collect U.S. $ 25 million in just 15 days . Stay tuned for more information on ” Reporting Afternoon ” Trans TV at 16:45 pm

      ( RUL / mok )
      FIELD – The presence of Chinese City Marelan site is not so familiar to the public field , but not for the people of the world history lovers . The historical sites , listed in the references archaeologist world .

      Even people ketidakakraban field with even this archaeological site is recognized by the Mayor of Medan , Rahudman Harahap . Mayor explained , ” The Story of Chinese website in this Marelan long I heard , but only this time there is no time to review it , even this story has been recorded in the area of international archeology , one of the French archaeological evidence of someone who has done research in that location , ” he said today.

      Rahudman admitted even if the government is ignoring the historical sites . ” Today we review the areas that were neglected during this , the government never gave full attention to the region ‘s history . Somehow we seen archaeologists the world , if the roads we build on the historical heritage sites . Our expectations as the city of Medan how to make this area as one of the archaeological tourist destination , ” he said .

      Rahudman even ordered the Department of Tourism to promote the region Medan in Medan travel maps . ” We will strive to improve infrastructure leading to the region , in order to more easily reach travelers , ” Rahudman promise .

       Meanwhile , Daniel Perret as penilit history of the French new research reveals an early penilitian , and make sure this site is the site of City of China , so research conducted years ago and this year it was clear this kawasn interesting to do further research . Next year will be held larger study than this year .

       According to the results of this study in accordance with the historical evidence , it is likely the site of China ‘s cities in the 11th century until the 14th century . According to the results of research in the field Lawas and balls were in the 9th century . The possibility of this region according penelitiani years ago the site of about 20 to 25 acres . ” We are not yet sure whether the location of a kingdom , but this is a place kawasn residential community in ancient China , ” said Daniel .

      Editor : ANGGRAINI LUBIS
      FIELD – World China Town in District Marelan Medan , Medan be studied comprehensively , following the preliminary studies that have been done two foreign archaeologist Daniel McKinnon Perret and at the end of February 2011 .

      Historian University of Medan ( Unimed ) Erond Damanik in Medan , this afternoon said , 22-25 February 2011 two foreign nationals archaeologists have done preliminary research in China City Site , Medan Marelan .

      Perret is a researcher of the Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient ( EFEO ) France and McKinnon is a British researcher . The study was conducted by involving students Unimed as field workers .

      The purpose of the study was to conduct a survey of the surface trace of the international trade that never existed in China Town as fragments of ceramics , pottery , and currency which explains the existence of the site in the 12th century until the 14th century AD , he said .

      ” The results of the preliminary or pre- study will be used as a reference or guideline to conduct a comprehensive research or excavation of the Chinese city which is planned for April 2011 , ” he said .

      Staff researcher at the Centre for Historical Studies and Social Sciences ( Pussis ) Unimed said , if such a comprehensive study be done , then it will support the research that has been done previously by McKinnon in 1972 to 1978 .

      According to him , as proposed McKinnon in his dissertation on international trade in the East Coast of North Sumatra , that the City of China from 12 to 14 century AD and visited various nationalities such as Chinese , Arabic , Vietnam , Thailand , Burma and Aceh .

      ” Thus , the government should provide an appreciation of Medan same or funded research conducted by local research such as the Institute for Archaeology Field to research information about City of China remains the property of the Indonesian people , ” he said .

      Earlier, Chief Pussis Unimed Dr. Phill Ichwan Azhari said , a team of archaeologists from France and the UK in the first study on the site managed to get the new findings in the form of building structures measuring 2×3 meters kono expected once the remains of sacred buildings .

      Then also discovered two statues whose condition is no longer intact . The study lasted 22 to 25 February 2011 for mapping and identification of the site . Furthermore, in April 2011 excavation will be carried out by a team of archaeologists more intensively .
      Editor : WAKE SASTROY
      The archaeological site is located in the Chinese city of Medan , North Sumatra feared would soon disappear . Because the important research fields of international class has not yet been released by the government.
       
      One of the researchers from the National Archaeology ( Arkenas ) conducted research on extracting box located in the Chinese city site in Medan , North Sumatra .
       
      French researchers , Daniel Perret ( right ) of the Ecole Francaise d’ Extreme – Orient closes the box excavation in China City Site , Medan , following completion of the study .
       
      The findings were successfully raised , among others , shards of pottery and pottery from China and other countries , beaded south Indian origin , ancient Chinese money 13th century , bones , ancient glass , shellfish and other cultural objects .
       
      Excavation is done at this time , a second -year excavation funded EFEO . The excavation results corroborate evidence that the area north of Medan store traces of ancient international city the 12th century until the 16th , which continues to be noted international scientists .
       
      In contrast to the attention of scientists over the historical legacy of Medan , Medan Pemko not yet succeeded in acquiring land sites for research purposes . It is feared that this site will be destroyed before they could be studied thoroughly

    • original info
    • SITUS KOTA CINA MEDAN
  • Medan – Tim arkeologi Indonesia dan Prancis menemukan berbagai artefak penting dari penggalian di situs Kota Cina, di Kelurahan Paya Pasir, Kecamatan Medan Marelan, Medan, Sumatera Utara (Sumut). Sayangnya penggalian tidak bisa dilakukan secara leluasa karena lahan masyarakat belum juga dibebaskan.

    Kepala Pusat Studi Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Sejarah (Pussis) Universitas Negeri Medan (Unimed) Ichwan Azhari menyatakan, situs Kota Cina merupakan situs yang penting di Sumut. Temuan terbaru yakni struktur bangunan dari bata yang diduga candi kuno di lokasi ini, menunjukkan kualitas situs itu tersebut.

    Sayangnya penggalian tidak bisa dilakukan secara leluasa karena areal yang akan digali terbentur dengan permukiman masyarakat. Rumah-rumah baru terus bertambah di sekitar situs. Akibatnya tim kesulitan bekerja untuk mengungkap catatan sejarah yang ada di sana.

    “Sejak lama kita harapkan Pemerintah Kota Medan untuk membebaskan lahan masyarakat di sini, tetapi harapan ini belum juga dipenuhi,” kata Ichwan Azhari kepada wartawan, Rabu (20/3/2013) di lokasi penggalian di Paya Pasir.

    Disebutkan Azhari, temuan terbaru tim arkeologi yakni struktur bangunan yang diduga candi, semakin membuktikan situs Kota Cina dulunya merupakan kota perdagangan internasional sekitar abad 12 hingga 16 Masehi. Tetapi kalangan sejarahwan merasa heran dengan lambannya jajaran pejabat pemerintahan Pemkot Medan dalam menyelamatkan situs yang potensial menjadi situs kelas dunia ini.

    “Setahun sejak wali kota meninjau kawasan situs Kota Cina, Februari 2012 lalu, belum nampak kehadiran Pemkot Medan menyelamatkan kawasan ini. Situs Kota Cina semakin terancam dengan semakin banyaknya rumah warga yang didirikan di atas situs,” tukas Azhari.

    Pada Rabu siang Wali Kota Rahudman Harahap menyempatkan diri meninjau temuan struktur bangunan yang diduga candi tersebut. Azhari berharap, kunjungan kali ini akan menjadi titik penting dalam upaya membebaskan lahan masyarakat di situs penting tersebut.

    Tim arkeolog dari Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient (EFEO/Pusat Penelitian Timur Jauh Perancis), dan Pusat Arkeologi Nasional menemukan struktur bangunan kuno setelah melakukan penggalian selama 14 hari, yang berakhir Rabu sore. Struktur ini ditemukan di kedalaman sekitar dua meter. Susunan bata yang menjadi dinding bangunan itu tebalnya sekitar 40 cm, sedangkan panjang dan struktur utuhnya belum bisa diketahui karena berada di dalam tanah dan tembus ke lantai rumah warga.


    • Seorang pengemis di Jakarta Selatan mampu kumpulkan Rp 25 juta hanya dalam 15 hari. Nantikan informasi selengkapnya di “Reportase Sore” Trans TV pukul 16.45 WIB

      (rul/mok)

    • MEDAN – Keberadaan situs Kota Cina Marelan memang tidak begitu akrab bagi masyarakat Medan, namun tidak bagi masyarakat pecinta sejarah dunia. Situs  sejarah tersebut, tercatat dalam referensi arkeolog dunia.

      Bahkan ketidakakraban masyarakat Medan dengan situs arkeologi inipun diakui oleh Walikota Medan, Rahudman Harahap.  Walikota menjelaskan, “Cerita tentang situs Cina di Marelan ini sudah lama saya dengar, namun baru kali ini ada waktu untuk meninjaunya, bahkan ceritanya kawasan ini sudah tercatat di arkeologi internasional, salah satu bukti ada seseorang arkeologi Perancis yang telah melakukan penilitian di lokasi itu,” ujarnya, hari ini.

      Rahudman bahkan mengakui jika pemerintah memang mengabaikan situs sejarah ini. “Hari ini kita meninjau kawasan yang terabaikan selama ini, pemerintah tidak pernah memberikan perhatian terhadap kawasan yang penuh sejarah ini. Entah bagaimana kita dipandang  arkeolog dunia, kalau jalan-jalan kita bangun diatas situs-situs peninggalan sejarah. Harapan kita sebagai masyarakat kota Medan bagaimana menjadikan kawasan ini sebagai salah satu tempat tujuan wisata arkeologi,” ungkapnya.

      Rahudman bahkan memerintahkan kepada Dinas Pariwisata Kota Medan untuk mensosialisasikan kawasan ini dalam peta wisata Medan. “Kita akan berusaha untuk memperbaiki infrastruktur menuju ke kawasan ini, agar wisatawan lebih mudah menjangkaunya,” janji Rahudman.

       Sementara itu, Daniel Perret sebagai penilit sejarah dari perancis mengungkapkan penelitian ini baru merupakan penilitian awal, dan memastikan situs ini adalah situs Kota Cina,  jadi penelitian yang dilaksanakan tahun yang lalu dan tahun ini sudah jelas kawasn ini menarik sekali untuk dilakukan penelitian selanjutnya. Tahun depan akan dilaksanakan penelitian yang lebih besar dibandingkan tahun ini.

       Menurutnya hasil penelitian ini sesuai dengan bukti-bukti sejarah, kemungkinan situs kota cina ini pada abad ke 11 sampai abad ke 14. Menurut hasil penelitian di padang Lawas dan barus itu pada abad ke 9. Kemungkinan kawasan ini sesuai penelitiani tahun yang lalu situsnya sekitar 20 sampai 25 hektar.   “Kami belum pastikan apakah lokasi  ini suatu kerajaan, akan tetapi kawasn ini adalah suatu tempat hunian masyarakat Cina jaman dulu,” ujar Daniel.  

      Editor: ANGGRAINI LUBIS

  • MEDAN – Situs Kota Cina di Kecamatan Medan Marelan, Kota Medan akan diteliti secara komprehensif, menyusul penelitian pendahuluan yang telah dilakukan dua arkeolog asing Daniel Perret dan McKinnon pada akhir Februari 2011.

    Sejarawan Universitas Negeri Medan (Unimed) Erond Damanik di Medan, siang ini mengatakan, pada 22-25 Februari 2011 dua orang arkeolog berkebangsaan asing telah melakukan penelitian pendahuluan di Situs Kota Cina, Medan Marelan.

    Perret adalah peneliti dari Ecole Francaise D`Extreme Orient (EFEO) Prancis dan McKinnon merupakan peneliti berkebangsaan Inggris. Penelitian dilakukan dengan melibatkan mahasiswa Unimed sebagai tenaga lapangan.

    Tujuan penelitian tersebut adalah untuk melakukan survey permukaan terhadap jejak perdagangan internasioal yang pernah eksis di Kota Cina seperti fragmen keramik, tembikar, dan mata uang yang menjelaskan eksistensi dari situs tersebut pada abad ke-12 hingga abad 14 Masehi, katanya.

    “Hasil penelitian pendahuluan atau pra penelitian tersebut nantinya akan dijadikan sebagai rujukan atau pedoman untuk melakukan penelitian komprehensif atau ekskavasi terhadap Kota Cina yang direncanakan berlangsung April 2011 mendatang,” katanya.

    Staf peneliti di Pusat Studi Sejarah dan Ilmu-ilmu Sosial (Pussis) Unimed ini mengatakan, jika penelitian secara komprehensif tersebut jadi dilakukan, maka hal itu akan mendukung penelitian yang telah dilakukan sebelumnya oleh McKinnon pada 1972 hingga 1978.

    Menurut dia, sebagaimana yang dikemukakan McKinnon dalam disertasinya tentang perdagangan internasional di Pantai Timur Sumatera Utara, bahwa Kota Cina berasal dari abad 12 hingga 14 Masehi dan ramai dikunjungi berbagai bangsa seperti dari China, Arab, Vietnam, Thailand, Burma dan Aceh.

    “Dengan demikian, pemerintah Kota Medan seharusnya memberikan apresiasi yang sama atau mendanai penelitian yang dilakukan oleh penelitian lokal seperti Balai Arkeologi Medan sehingga informasi penelitian tentang Kota Cina tetap menjadi milik bangsa Indonesia,” katanya.

    Sebelumnya, Kepala Pussis Unimed Dr Phill Ichwan Azhari mengatakan, tim arkeolog dari Perancis dan Inggris tersebut dalam penelitian awalnya di situs itu berhasil mendapatkan temuan baru berupa struktur bangunan kono seluas 2×3 meter yang diperkirakan dulunya merupakan sisa-sisa bangunan suci.

    Kemudian juga ditemukan dua arca yang kondisinya tidak lagi utuh. Penelitian tersebut berlangsung 22-25 Februari 2011 untuk pemetaan dan identifikasi situs. Selanjutnya bulan April 2011 mendatang akan dilakukan eskavasi oleh tim arkeolog secara lebih intensif.

  • Editor: SASTROY BANGUN
  • Situs arkeologi Kota China yang berada di Medan, Sumatera Utara dikhawatirkan akan segera hilang. Pasalnya, lahan penelitian penting berkelas internasional tersebut masih belum dibebaskan pemerintah.
  • Salah seorang peneliti dari Arkeologi Nasional (Arkenas) melakukan penelitian di kotak penggalian yang berada di situs Kota China di Medan, Sumatera Utara.
  • Peneliti asal Prancis, Daniel Perret (kanan) dari Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient menutup kotak penggalian di Situs Kota China, Medan, setelah selesai melakukan penelitian.
  • Temuan yang berhasil diangkat antara lain, pecahan keramik dan tembikar dari China dan negara-negara lain, manik-manik asal India selatan, uang kuno China abad 13, tulang belulang, kaca kuno, kerang-kerangan dan benda-benda budaya lainnya.
  • Eskavasi yang dilakukan saat ini, merupakan eskavasi tahun kedua yang didanai EFEO. Hasil eskavasi ini menguatkan bukti bahwa wilayah sebelah utara Kota Medan menyimpan jejak kota internasional kuno abad ke-12 hingga ke-16, yang terus diperhatikan ilmuwan internasional.
  • Berbeda dengan perhatian ilmuwan atas warisan sejarah Kota Medan ini, Pemko Medan belum juga berhasil membebaskan lahan situs untuk kepentingan penelitian. Dikhawatirkan situs ini akan musnah sebelum sempat dipelajari secara tuntas
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Foto  Temuan Situs Kota cIna

 

 

Rober Yeap Notes

grand eunuch Wang ( deputy of Adm ChengHo)

died in San Fo Chi ( Palembang) n his tomb still exist- is possible

for someone there to confirm it n take photo?

 

 

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Driwancybermsueum Galery (continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

5) Kuching,

Borneo history 1905-1917,

The Borneo

History collections

Part One

The Sarawak Historic Collection

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

This book grew from five Oldies Indonesian collections between 1973-2000 and the new finding during travel around Sarawak in 1993,1994 and 2007. The first visit to Kuching during Motocarrelly Pontianak to Kuchin 1973,and for the first time I found the Rajah Brooke stamps and revenue,and I am starting to complete the info of this white Rajah.

 


Before I have only Sarawak Stamps , and after found some postally used covers and revenue in 1994 I have started to collect antiquarian books , anykind document and related area postal history like west kalimantan, brunei and North Borneo.

Very difficult to find Sarawak postal used cover before 1950 , but I have found some interesting covers . During my last visit to Sarawak, I have met Senior Sarawak from Sarawak Phillatelic association Mr Chan Kee Tex, he was very kind man , took my around Kuching and introduce me to Kuching Phillatelist like Dr Francis H.H.Ngu , they have gave me permission to used their information in this book , for that Thank You very much.
After one years preparation with many Indonesian phillatelist who help me to find new Sarawqak Information like Mr Hengky, Ir Untung and Mr Herry Hutabarat, this book finish in Mei 2009 and the resume will put in my internet Blokker .
I will contact Mr Chan and Dr F.H.H.Ngu via e –mail to send a correction , suggestion and more informations,
I want an apologize to Mr Chan and Dr Ngu because I am very late for my last promise not in time, because many areal situation probelems and after this I will on time.
I still need more informations and corrections from everybody who interest about this topics to make this unique book “The Unique Sarawak documet and Postal History will be the best book about The Raqjah Brooke administration in Sarawak.
Dr Iwan S.

 

 

 

 

 

THE SARAWAK UNIQUE COLLECTION FOUND DURING TRAVELLING 2008

Posted on July 15, 2010 by iwansuwandy

, @copyright Dr IWAN S 2012,

 

During my adventure at Borneo in 2008, I took a flight from Jakarta to Pontianak, and with the haelping of my ex officer Dr Sugeng and his new chief Dr Priok, I could arrange my adventure at night by bus from Pontinak to Kuching Sarwak, after that with the helping of My Friend Mr Kee Tex,Chan I have trevelling around Kuching, and at night in the second day by Bus to Miri,and from here  in the morning of the third day I went bu private Toyota Kijang to Brunei and take around  until 12.00 am, I went to Labuan from the Muara Port Sri Bengawan Brunei   by shipboat about one hours, and the nex day with boat about hree hour to Sabah (before North Borneo ) to KK (kota Kinibalu,befor Jessel town ) .two days there and back to Kucing by plane,and one day in Kuching, back to Pontianak by Bus and to Jakarta by aeroplane. (read the complete story in The adventure of Dr IWAN s)

During this adventure I found some rare collections:

1) The Charles Brooke document. at Kuching

 

 

Sarawak coat of arm

 

 

 

Rajah autography

2. RARE JAMES BROOKE COINS

 

MALAYSIA, SARAWAK, JAMES BROOKE TOKEN KEPING, AH 1247 (1841 AD). Copper. KM# Tn1! Sch.# 1007! SC1. Obv. : A badger to left, below J.B. Sept 24, 1841. Rev. : 1 Keping AH 1247. Minted in a private mint in Birmingham. Weight 1.89 gm! Diameter 21 mm. Small greenish encrusted on badger left! otherwise Very Fine. EXTREMELY RARE.*) Note : The date Sept 24, 1841 is his accession as Rajah of Sarawak, and the badger is the crest on the coat of arms of the Brooke family.
Limit price :   Rp.  18,000,000

 

1) HALF CENT IN FINE CONDITION(,ILLUSTRATION TAIL-SIDE)

 

rare half cent J.Brooke

2. JAMES BROOKE 1 CENT ( ILL  HEADSIDE AND TAILSIDE)

 

James Brooke

 

One cent J.Brooke

3. C(CHARLES) BROOKE  HAL CENT (ILL HEAD-SIDE AND TAIL-SIDE)

 

Charles Brooke

 

half cent C.Brooke

4. SARAWAK POSTAL HISTORY

 

rare postal history

 

5. RARE LIMITED C BROOKE POSTAGE REVENUE  ONE DOLLAR STAMP

 

Rare limited edition

Malaysia

 

 

 

1886 3¢ on 4¢ pink Coat of Arms provisional surcharged “3 CENTS” SG Type 7, VARIETY – small “3” (row 3, pos:1, 4, and 7), perf 14, very scarce and undercatalogued, seldom offered, few known, only exists mint, fresh, well centered, OG-HR F-VF …

$8,000.00

 

1892 6¢ on 8¢ green Coat of Arms surcharged SG Type 22, the key major rarity to the country!, perfectly centered, OG,HR XF (Scott Retail $9,000.00)

$13,950.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. RARE PUNCHHOLED SARAWAK REVENUE

 

Dai Nippon Revenue

 

Colony punchhole revenue

 

 

 

 

5.. THE PICTURE PHOTO  OF KUCHING TEMPLE

 

 

Kuching Temple

Kuching is a city in Sarawak, a state in Malaysia that is on the northern coast of the island of Borneo. The geography is a bit confusing. Borneo is a huge island divided among Indonesia (the state of Kalimantan), Malaysia (two states), and the small country of Brunei. Kuching is the capital of one of the two Malaysian states, Sarawak.

Kuching. Kuching is a great city. Malaysian Borneo seems very wealthy, maybe more so than the rest of Malaysia (which is quite wealthy in general). Kuching is a city of around 600,000. It’s clean, green, calm, quiet, wealthy, orderly, uncrowded, and great for strolling. Pretty much the opposite of my experiences in India.

Even the weather here seems noticeably different from South India. Yes, it’s tropical rainforest weather here. But 95 with 100% humidity feels downright temperate after India. There’s a big difference between 95 (Borneo) and 105+ (South India). It’s quite comfortable here compared to India, even though it’s like the heat of summer at home.

Kuching has a superb waterfront boardwalk. It’s really, really nice, as nice a boardwalk as I’ve ever seen. It runs along the tropical river that goes through Kuching, and everyone comes


Mom and Baby, Closeup


Semenggoh National Park

out and strolls along the waterfront as the sun sets. The sunsets over the river are incredible. Every night is a perfect summer evening. It’s a fine place to be.

Kuching seems to be more of a Chinese city than many cities in Malaysia. The downtown center is really one big Chinatown, and Chinese seem to outnumber both Malays and indigenous Borneo peoples. There aren’t many Indians here at all, unlike cities like Kuala Lumpur and Georgetown. In some ways, Kuching seems less diverse than most other Malaysian cities, at least the larger cities on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia. It has a mostly Chinese feel.

Kuching and Sarawak have an unusual history. They were a territory of the Sultan of Brunei, but he granted Kuching (and eventually all of Sarawak) to an Englishman named James Brooke after Brooke helped him quell uprisings in the area. James Brooke and his family ruled Sarawak as “White Rajahs” from 1842 until the Japanese took Sarawak in 1942. After World War II, the Brooke family gave Sarawak to the English; it became part of Malaysia when it became independent of England in 1963.

So basically Sarawak was built, developed,


River Taxi and Mountains


The mountains in the background of this picture are where Kubah National Park is.

and modernized over a hundred years by three generations of this one English family, the Brookes – and by the Chinese folks that the Brooke family brought in. The descendants of these Chinese settlers make up much of Kuching today. What an odd history.

Visiting the orangutans. Kuching is a delightful city, but the main reason I came is that it has several interesting, easily-accessible daytrips around it. These daytrips were excellent.

My favorite daytrip was to a place called Semenggoh National Park, where they have an organgutan rehabilitation center. The orangutans there are half-wild. They live in the forest, but they’re not scared of people. They do feedings twice a day for tourists (mostly Malaysian tourists, but plenty of white tourists too).

I pictured this place being way out in the deep forest, but it’s not. You drive past a never-ending strip of car lots, schools, restaurants, housing developments, malls, and supermarkets. Then you turn off onto a little road, and after a mile and half there is the national park.

At the park, the orangutans come crashing through the rainforest, swinging from tree to tree to get to the feeding platform. It’s a unique


Rainforest Tangles


This photo gives a sense of how in the rainforest, plants and vines just sort of grow, everywhere, all on top of each other. Kubah National Park.

experience. It’s very touristy, but the orangutans are definitely not zoo animals.

And there are a ton of them; I probably saw 20 orangutans. Two pairs of moms with babies strolled right down the middle of the lawn of the national park headquarters, just walking through all the tourists, five feet from me.

It was all pretty fascinating. I liked it a lot. I looked at it as a tourist experience rather than a wilderness experience, more like a zoo than really seeing orangutans in the wild. But it’s an excellent, fun, enthralling tourist experience. It’s a hoot. I went there twice, I liked it so much.

Visiting the rainforest. I also took two daytrips to rainforest national parks, Kubah National Park and Bako National Park. I liked them both a lot.

Kubah National Park was my favorite of the rainforest parks. It was classic “jungle” rainforest, as you can see from the photos. Borneo’s rainforests are the most biologically diverse places in the world.

I took a four-hour hike through the forest, and I didn’t really see anybody else the whole time. There were Malaysians cooling off and relaxing at a waterfall, but mostly


On the Waterfront


This captures well how pleasant and lovely Kuching’s waterfront boardwalk is.

I was alone with the sights and sounds of the forest.

Even though I was out there by myself, I felt totally safe. The trails in Malaysia are clearly marked, and I had checked in with a park ranger before going out. It’s an easy, accessible way to experience the rainforest.

I really enjoy hiking in the rainforest. It’s so deeply green, and the growth is so rampant. Plants grow on top of plants, which are growing on top of other plants. Green growth is everywhere, even covering all of the rocks. And the sounds are fascinating – the constant twitter of cricket-sounding insects, and intermittent bird calls, and rustling through the greenery as squirrels or monkeys move from tree to tree.

Hiking through the forest is hard, though. I hiked for four hours, and it poured – buckets – for the last two hours of the hike. I was soaked to the bone, and chilled despite the tropical heat. It got dark in the forest, and the trail got slippery, and I had to be careful even though I was trying to move quickly to get back. The next day I was stiff and sore. I


Astana at sunset


This was a colonial building across the river, now used as state government offices. And a really pretty sky, again, from the waterfront in Kuching.

think maybe I’m getting too old for rainforest adventuring.

I also visited Bako National Park. It was good too. The trail at Bako wasn’t as rainforest-y as Kubah National Park, but it ended up on a cliff overlooking a gorgeous beach. I hiked with two other folks from the US, and we spent a few hours on the beach, which was as tropical-postcard-pretty as any I’ve ever seen.

A walking, talking history lesson. Actually, my fellow hikers at Bako National Park were more interesting than the hike. One of them was a young Vietnamese-American woman from San Diego, now teaching in an international school in Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), in Vietnam. She was on a week vacation from her school, using Air Asia’s flights (the same ultra-affordable airline that I’ve been using) to take a short break.

When she was three months old, her family left Vietnam, just after the Vietnam War (or the American War, as the Vietnamese call it). Her father was a pilot in the South Vietnamese army, and he had been put in a “re-education” camp after the war, and they were afraid he was going to be persecuted further by


Pretty Old Shophouse


This store is very typical of the Chinese shophouses in Kuching. People have their shop downstairs, and live upstairs.

the Vietnamese government. So they left.

It’s a bit of a long story, but they ended up on a boat without a working motor, drifting about for ten days in the middle of the South China Sea. They ran out of food and water. Her mother had no breast-milk to feed her. She was listless, limp, not moving. They were hundreds of miles from land. They were sure they were going to die.

They were rescued by a boat owned by a nonprofit called World Vision. Legally, World Vision was supposed to give them food, water, and medicine, but not take them aboard or tow them to shore. World Vision realized that if they left them at sea, they would all surely die. They took them to Singapore, and confronted the US embassy there, and the US agreed to take them in as refugees.

She recently saw an old World Vision video of herself coming off the boat when she was three months old. She said she could tell it was her, because she saw a special hat that her grandmother had knit her. It gave me chills, listening to her talk about it.

She said


River Taxi at Dusk


From Kuching’s waterfront boardwalk

that 500,000 Vietnamese died on boats in the South China Sea, trying to escape Vietnam after the war. She and her family were obviously lucky.

When I first started talking with her, she seemed like a typical smart, interesting, lively, engaging young Asian-American woman. But then she told me her story. It was riveting. She really made history come alive for me. Getting to know her made me feel, deep in my bones, a part of US history that is definitely worth remembering.

Anyway, I enjoyed her company. She also said that teaching elementary school in Vietnam was excellent. She really sold me on how good a setup teaching in Asia can be. Hmmm….

Visiting the headhunters. Well, I didn’t actually visit the headhunters. There used to be headhunters in Borneo, among many of the native groups, but James Brooke made head-hunting illegal in the mid-1800s when he became White Rajah.

I did visit a place called Sarawak Cultural Village, outside of Kuching. Sarawak Cultural Village is a beautifully-manicured tropical garden where they have built, using traditional methods and native expertise, seven different long-houses representing the major native ethnic groups in Borneo. It’s a “living museum,”


On the Cliff


Above the beach, Bako National Park

sort of like Williamsburg, but for native Borneo peoples. It was slightly cheesy, but it was also fairly authentic-feeling and interesting.

The long-houses were beautiful, and they were set up like the “real” long-houses deep in the rainforest. Members of the various tribes were in each long-house, and they would explain how things worked, how people lived. They were often demonstrating some skill (using a blow-pipe) or cooking something. There were old heads in one of the long-houses. The guy there explained the role that head-hunting used to play in that tribe’s culture.

It was totally set up for tourists, but it was well-done and felt respectful. It wasn’t spectacular, but I’m definitely glad I went. I learned a good bit about long-house life, and I didn’t really have any interest in visiting an actual long-house, so I wouldn’t have learned about this part of Borneo without visiting here.

Kuching’s waterfront. The best thing about Kuching is its waterfront. I’ve mentioned this above. The photos give a sense of it, but it’s much nicer than I could capture in a photo. It’s a long stretch of attractive cobblestones, maybe an hour’s stroll right along the river. It’s


Kolo Mee


This is a dish specific to Kuching. I eat it every day. The tea is great too – honey teh bunga, iced green tea with honey.

all shaded by beautiful tropical trees, with flowers and carefully-manicured lawns all along. The river too is gorgeous, a lazy-feeling tropical river with deep green jungly banks and little river taxis puttering back and forth across it.

Sunsets over the river are stunning. Evenings on the waterfront, as the sun goes down, are fabulous. Everyone is out strolling and chatting, and there are snacks all along the waterfront, and the sun goes down slowly and just takes your breath away. It’s a bit cooler in the dusk, and there’s a breeze off the river. Every night is perfect. Truly.

Kuching’s food. Malaysian food is my favorite. There’s a huge variety of delicious things to eat, and it’s all so tasty, so affordable, and so everywhere. One day I ate three lunches, because I kept coming across places selling food I’d never eaten, and they were all full of obviously happy eaters. I couldn’t pass them up.

There are dishes here that I haven’t seen in other parts of Malaysia. Kolo Mee is my favorite Kuching dish. Mostly it’s fresh Chinese egg noodles, but they’re so good – sort of like the difference between fresh pasta and dried

 

 

 

 

Kangchu System at  Sarawak

 

The first Chinese immigrants settled along the coastal regions of Sarawak in significant numbers from the 18th century onwards and were engaged in the metal mining industry, mainly for gold and bauxite. As the supply of gold became exhausted from the 1820s onwards, the Chinese miners gradually turned to trade and agriculture. The Chinese of Teochew and Hakka heritage established gambier and pepper plantations in the 1870s and 1880s,[44] and the White Rajah of Sarawak began to organise an administrative system for these plantations similar to the Kangchu system in Johor.

The Kangchu of each plantation was appointed by the Charles Brooke, the then-White Rajah. Each Kangchu was given responsibilities to oversee the operations of the plantations under his jurisdiction and the welfare of the coolies living there. In 1875, the British promulgated a set of laws which defined the roles and responsibilities of the Kangchu; they were modelled very closely to the Kanun Kangchu that was introduced by Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor in 1873.[45]

Charles Brooke encouraged the immigration of the Chinese coolies, beginning in the 1860s, to expand the state’s gambier and pepper industry. Chinese settlers in neighbouring Sabah and Pontianak also established gambier and pepper plantations, although they existed as independent fiefdoms. These plantations rose to become one of the state’s major industries as worldwide prices for gambier went up during 1880s and 1890s. In the 20th century, as worldwide gambier prices took a dive, the Kangchu channelled their efforts into pepper and opium cultivation in the state.[46] Sarawak’s Kangchu system fell into obscurity in the 1920s, as the opium trade with Hong Kong steadily declined during the course of the decade

Kuching – A cultural experience

 

Located in the north-western tip of Borneo, this capital city of Sarawak, is like a sleepy town which acts as the window to the hidden treasures and adventures of the primary Borneo jungle. Though the majority of the population is made up of Chinese, the influence of the ethnic races (ranging from the Bidayuhs, the Ibans, The Penans, The Orang Ulu, and The Melanaus) is felt strongly even in the city center itself.

The city centre consists of mainly 2-3 stories old shophouses, with a sprinkling of tall buildings which are either hotels of commercial buildings. The historical buildings are located mainly at the Waterfront where you can see Old State Colonial Centre, Square Tower, Round Tower, The Astana, Charles Brooke Memorial, Law Court, Fort Margherita, China Town.

Some Cultural attractions in Kuching
1. Sarakraft – This chinese-colonial style mansion houses a workshop where a wide range of traditional crafts are demonstrated by the ethnic people. There is also quite a good range of authentic Sarawak handicraft up for sale.

 

2. Sarawak Museum – The oldest museum in Borneo, it houses and displays local native arts and crafts and collections of local animals, including reptiles, mammals, birds etc. The models of longhouses of the various ethnic groups in Sarawak, musical instruments, various kinds of fish and animal traps, handicrafts, models of boats and others can also be found here.

3. Cat Museum – The people in Kuching are crazy about cats, hence it is also known fondly as “the Cat City”. Huge, colorful cat statues dominate the town, while the fishing cats dominate the centre square, the beckoning cat stands at the crossroads and the smiling cat stands guard at roundabouts. Hence it is not too surprising to find the world’s first Cat Museum right here in Kuching. Cat lovers will find a wide range of exhibits, photos, feline art and cat souvenirs.

4. Sarawak Cultural Village – This is a must-go place which depicts the heritage of the major racial groups of Sarawak and portrays their lifestile amidst 17 acres of vegetation.

 

 

Learn about these groups, their handicraft, their replica housings, with a “story-teller” describing and interpreting traditional cultures and lfie-styles for you. Do learn also the head-hunting habits of some of these ancient groups! Finish the tour of the village with a wonderful multi-cultural dance and songs performance.

5. Anah Rais Bidayuh Longhouse – Located in the hill slopes of Padawan district, this Bidayuh (or Land Dayak community) is accessible by road about 1 hour’s drive from city center. Here you can find the longhouse where all the villagers living under one roof, though this particular longhouse is already pretty modernized with television, proper toilets facilities, running water. This location though is most suited for those who do not have ample time to spare as the really traditional longhouses will require at least 1 night’s stay due to the long travelling distance required.

 

Adventure attractions in Kuching: Most of the surrounding areas of Kuching are primary rainforest, with a with land that is rich in both flora and fauna. Here is home to the rare proboscis monkey, long-tailed macaque monkeys, Orang utans, huge sea turtles, the hornbills, the giant Rafflesia flowers and many more species.

  1. 1.      Semenggoh Orang Utan Sanctuary – Currently, there are about 26 Orang Utans in this 740 acre sanctuary, moving freely around and usually gathering back to be fed by the park’s rangers. Do note that the daily feeding time is from 0900hrs–1000hrs in the mornings and 1500hrs–1530hrs in the afternoons. It is a brilliant time to see these huge animals up close and personal.

 

 

 

 

 

 the Serikei Official Stamped on CV Broke Stamp used as Revenue

1..RAJAH JAMES BROOKE

THE REVENUE DURING RAJAH J.BROOKE VERY DIFFICULT TO FIND ESPECIALLY IN 19TH CENTURY,IF SOME ONE HAVE PLEASE SEND THE INFO VIA COMMENT. IHAVE ONLY FOUND SOME HIS RARE COINS HALF CENT AND ONE CENT BUT THE CONDITION NOT VERY FIND ,ALTHOUGH IN THIS VERY GOOD CONDITION STILL DIFFICULT TO FOUND IN SARAWAK,IHAVE FOUND IN PONTIANAK CIRCA 1991, DURING MY LAST VISIT 2007 NO MORE EXIST,PLEASE LOOK AT THE RARE JAMES ROOKE COINS BELOW.

 

2. RAJAH CHARLES  BROOKE REVENUES

DURING THE RAJAH CHARLES BROOKE, SARAWAK ISSUED SPECIAL REVENUE STAMPS, ALTHOUGH THE FIRST CV BROOKE POTAGE AND REVENUE STAMPS COULD USED TOO AS REVENUE, BUT TO FOUND THIS LIMITED EDITON USED AS REVENUE IN COMPLETE DOCUMENT VERY DIFFICULT, i HAVE SOME , AND THE SPECIAL c.bROOKE REVENUE I FOUND DURING MY VISIT SARAWAK DURING PONTIANAK-KUNCHING AUTOMOBILE RACE I FOUND COMPLETE USED REVENUE, AND ONLY ONE IN DOCUMENT USED AFTER DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION DUE TO DIFFICULT TO FOUND THE REVENUE THAT TIME LOOK AT POST WW II COLLECTIONS.

THE COMPLETE COLLEC TION OF USED C.BROOKE REVENUE:

(1) THE HIGHEST NOMINAL 10$,5$ AND 4$.

 

Rajah Charles Brooke revenue $4,$5 and $10.. One type revenue not illustrated because I don’t found until this day R overprint on Postage revenue stamps. Charles Brooke revenue used until Dai Nippon Occupation L.T. Ong report, Dr Francis H.H.Ngu report bigger block 12 rveneue               $10. Please choose the best revenue, and if someone have R overprint please show in this blog send to my e.mail.@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010.

(2)Used Sarawak cv brooke 3$ and 1$ revenue

 

Rajah Charles Brooke revenue $3 and $1

(3) sarawak c.brooke low nominal revenue

 

Rajah Charles Brooke revenue 3,5 and 50 cent

3.SARAWAK CHARLES VYNER BROOKE STAMPS USED AS REVENUE

(1) SARAWAK CV BROOKE STAMPS LOW NOMINAL USED AS REVENUE

 

Rajah CV Brooke 20 cent UAR

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 25 cent UAR

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 30 and 50 cent UAR

SARAWAK CV BROOKE HIGH NOMINAL STAMPS USED AS REVENUE

 

Rajah CV Brooke $4 UAR

 

1

5.9.1931 Rajah CV Brooke $1 UAR.

 

 

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $4 revenue

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $4 and $3 used as revenue (UAR) with Serikei Inland Dept. official chop in violet.

SARAWAK CV BROOKE STAMPS USED AS REVENUE ON COMPLETE DOCUMENT.

 

 

20.11.34 Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent used As revenue(UAR) on Identity document.

 

1

 

1.8.1937 Rajah CV Brooke 3 cent used as revenue on arabic written Document.

 

                                                       

1.10.1937 Rajah CV Brooke 5 cent on the arabic written Recieved Document.

 

Dai Nippon Occupation

.
Today I received a number of interesting old photos from Nick Chin. He seems to have established a very good source somewhere in Satok. Thanks Nick. Keep ‘em coming.

Anyway, I found that many of them relate to different forms of transportation. So different from what we see today. Anyway transportation is the theme of today’s posting. See if any of the photos jog any memories. Or trigger in your mind something that certain elders in your family might have mentioned.

 

 

 


There were once three trains plying the Kuching to10th Mile route. The engines were named Bintang, Bulan and Jean. The train service was started in 1916 by the 2nd Rajah, Sir Charles Brooke, shortly before he handed over the the 3rd Rajah, Sir Charles Vyner Brooke. The train station or terminus in Kuching was in front of the mosque (where there’s now a car park), facing the Brooke Dockyard. Jalan Keretapi is so named because the railway  track actually went along it. There was no road back then, just the rail track.

Some time before the Japanese Occupation, the train service was discontinued by the British, and for a while the trains were kept in the terminus area (just over the fence from Lillian theatre). But during the Occupation, the Japanese restarted the train service for a while, and it was used to bring POWs to work (mainly around the 7th Mile area). Then they stopped this – probably thinking the POWs had too easy a life. Eventually the Japanese shipped the trains back to Japan for scrap iron.

 

 

 


I read somewhere that rickshaws first reached Kuching in 1895. Prior to that, there were only pony traps and bullock carts. There were never more than 50 to 60 rickshaws in Kuching, mostly pulled by Chinese men, and many of the pullers tended to be of the Henghua dialect.

 

My father told me that he noticed that sometimes on a steeper hill, the passengers had to get down and walk, as it was too much strain on the puller.All the rickshaws tended to be independent endeavours, but their machines tended to be serviced by a few “repair shops”, who seemed to have some control over them (perhaps they provided loans?).

 

 

 


The history of Kuching airport goes back to the years after the Second World War when the British started planning an airport for the town. The airport at the 7th Mile was eventually opened on 26th September1950 by the British Governor Sir Anthony Abell. Judging from the many automobiles and crowd, it was quite a big occasion.

 

The ship “Rajah Brooke” usually plied the Kuching-Singapore route. It had 1st and 2nd Class cabins. Before it sailed, there was usually a party held on board, for people (mainly the Europeans in those days) to socialise and get to know each other.The trip from Kuching to Singapore normally took 2 days and 1 night.

 

Besides the “Rajah Brooke”, there were other ships, with names like Marudu, Kajang, Darvel and Kimanis. This ship owners were either Sarawak Steamship, or later Straits Steamship. Besides Singapore, some of the ships, eg. Darvel and Marudu, sailed to British North Borneo (now Sabah)..

 


I don’t have much to comment about this last photo, except that this building appears to me to be the Police Station (I might be wrong but it sure looks similar). Anyway I included the photo above because it shows two other forms of transportation – automobile and bicycles.

 

Well, over to you guys for more comments.

Dai Nippon Occupations Borneo and

Sarawak

Introduction

Apparently, Great Britain suddenly became aware that another European Power could easily take Sarawak for themselves.

This is the reason why the British finally offered Sarawak protection. Under the 1888 agreement, negotiated by Sir Charles Anthony Brooke, 2nd Rajah of Sarawak, all the foreign affairs of Sarawak were to the responsibility of British Government. Internal affairs remained the responsibility of the Brooke Rajahs.

In accordance with this 1888 Agreement, Great Britain despatched troops and material to bolster the defences of Sarawak

during the 1930s.

During the late 1930s

the Royal Air Force based 205th RAF Squadron at Kuching. This was a seaplane squadron consisting of Walrus Flying Boats.

.

Realizing that war was imminent, the Brooke Government, under Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, conducted preliminary work to establish airstrips at selected locations throughout the country.

These airstrips would be located at Kuching, Oya, Mukah, Bintulu, and Miri.

By 1938

work was completed on all the airstrips except Bintulu, which was discontinued

in October 1938

due to financial reasons.

On 26 September 1938,

the Kuching Airstrip was opened. It was situated at the 7th Mile (Bukit Stabar) and measured 700 meters long by 300 meters wide.

Only in late 1940

did Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham order the 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment, a heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery, and a detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers) to be positioned at Kuching.

They numbered about 1,050 men. In addition, the Brooke White Rajah government also organised the Sarawak Rangers. This force consisted of 1,515 men who were primarily Iban and Dyak tribesmen. Altogether these forces were commanded by British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane and was known as “SARFOR” (Sarawak Force).

However, despite the modern air facilities available, the RAF stationed no aircraft in Sarawak

during 1941

. In addition, the Royal Navy withdrew from Sarawak, and the British Protectorates of Labuan and North Borneo in 1940.

However, this Royal air Forces Squadron at Kuching was withdrawn in 1941 and returned to Singapore

After having heard of the attack on Pearl Harbor,

on 8 December 1941,

the Brooke government instructed that the oilfields at Miri and Seria and refinery at Lutong be quickly demolished

Capt J.F. Read,

moved to the Northern Territory, and embarked for Timor

on 7 December 1941

‘with much enthusiasm’

after three and a half months of fatigue duties and training at Darwin

 

Officers of the 2/21st Battalion take a break in Darwin before embarking

and

 

Noonomah.

 

In view of the precariousness of the defensive positions Read was obliged to effect a supply plan based on a series of dumps,

the establishment of which occupied the detachment until the invasion.

 

.

 

 

 

Duty  at Ambon

As part of the military agreement made by the governments of Australia and the NEI in 1941, AIF troops were sent to help garrison the island of Ambon, which lies just south of the larger island of Ceram. Ambon was an important air and sea link between Australia, New Guinea, and the northern NEI.

The airfield at Laha, and the harbours of Ambon and Binnen Bays, were considered to be of vital significance to the Allies.

Accordingly, an Australian battalion (the 2/21st), with supporting units and a detachment of Lockheed Hudson bombers from No. 13 Squadron, RAAF, was landed at Ambon in mid-December 1941.

This combined unit, known as “Gull Force”, reinforced the existing local garrison of 2,600 men, and was placed under the overall command of Dutch Lieutenant Colonel J.R.L. Kapitz

 

Australian Military Forces “Passed By Censor”postal used cover

Read the Driwan’s

E-BOOK In CD-ROM

“Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia”

PROLOG

 

 

 

With no air or sea forces stationed in or around Sarawak, the British government encouraged the Brooke Regime to adopt a “scorched earth policy” in the event of a Japanese attack.

The Singapore Conference of October 1940

further presented the dismal defence situation of Sarawak by stating that without command of the sea or air, it would be pointless to defend Sarawak and the other British colonies in the area.

An alternative plan was proposed by Air Vice-Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham which suggested that 200 RAF and Royal Dutch Aircraft be used to defend the territories of Sarawak, Labuan, Brunei, and British North Borneo. Brooke-Popham stated that this should be sufficient to defend the territories against any Japanese attack. His request for such an outrageous amount of aircraft was declined by the British and Dutch governments on the grounds that they were simply not available.

Later, it was proposed to develop a Denial Scheme. Returning to the “scorched-earth” policy mentioned earlier, Denial Schemes were in place to destroy the oil installations at Miri and Lutong. In addition, the Bukit Sabir Airfield (11 km south of Kuching, the capital of Sarawak), was to be held as long as possible, then would be destroyed.

 

The prelude to the war

The island of Borneo is a land of primeval jungle. The coasts are fringed with mangrove and swamp, and over nine-tenths of the interior is covered with thick evergreen forests.

In 1941

the population was small – that of the whole island was estimated at less than three million – and there were less than a dozen settlements large enough to be called towns.

There were few roads and only one short railway; communication was by the many waterways or by narrow jungle paths. Much of the interior was unexplored, or very inadequately known. It was rich in oil and other raw materials.

The island was partly Dutch and partly British. British Borneo lay along its northern seaboard and comprised the two states of British North Borneo and Sarawak, the small protected State of Brunei, and the Crown Colony of Labuan Island.

Borneo occupies a position of great strategic importance in the south-west Pacific. It lies across the main sea routes from the north to Malaya and Sumatra on the one hand, and Celebes and Java on the other. Strongly held, it could have been one of the main bastions in the defence of the Malay barrier, but neither the Dutch nor the British had the necessary resources to defend it.

The available forces had to be concentrated further south for the defence of Singapore and Java, and all that could be spared for Borneo and the outlying Dutch islands were small detachments at important points which it was hoped might prove a deterrent to attack.

To gain control of the oilfields, to guard the flank of their advance on Malaya and to facilitate their eventual attack on Sumatra and western Java, the Japanese decided, as a subsidiary operation to their Malayan campaign, to seize British Borneo. This operation was launched by Southern Army eight days after the initial attack on Malaya.

The oilfields in British Borneo lay in two groups: one at Miri close to the northern boundary of Sarawak, and the other thirty-two miles north, at Seria in the State of Brunei. The crude oil was pumped from both fields to a refinery at Lutong on the coast, from which loading lines ran out to sea.

Landings were possible all along the thirty miles of beach between Miri and Lutong and there was, with the forces available, no possibility of defending the oilfields against determined attacks. Plans had therefore been made for the destruction of the oil installations. Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, Commander-in-Chief Far East, decided it would be prudent to honor the 1888 defence agreement with Sarawak.

 

Consequently, in late 1940,

he ordered the 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment, a heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery, and a detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers) to proceed to Kuching (British North Borneo).

In December 1940

a company of 2/15th Punjab was sent to Miri for the protection of the demolition parties, and

in May 1941

the rest of 2/15th Punjab was sent there to provide a garrison. This lone battalion consisted of approximately 1,050 soldiers under the command of Major C.M. Lane. For the defence of Sarawak region, it was deployed as follows:

At Miri was deployed a force of 2 officers, and 98 other ranks:
• 1 Infantry Company from 2/15 Punjab Regiment
• 6″ Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery Battery
• 1 Platoon of Royal Engineers
These troops were entrusted with the destruction of Miri Oil Fields. It was to be known as the Miri Detachment.

At Kuching was deployed a force of 1 officer, and 52 other ranks:
• 6 Platoons of infantry from 2/15 Punjab Regiment
These troops were to conduct a delaying action at the Bukit Stabar Airfield outside of Kuching. They were to be known as the Kuching Detachment. The other troops from the 2/15 Punjab were to be deployed piecemeal at the other airfield and oil facilities in Sarawak.

In addition, the Brooke Government mobilized the Sarawak Rangers. This force consisted of 1,515 troops who were primarily Iban and Dyak tribesmen trained in the art of jungle warfare led by the European Civil Servants of the Brooke Regime. British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane who commanded the battalion was placed in charge of all forces in Sarawak, which included the native Volunteer Corps, Coastal Marine Service, the armed police and a body of native troops known as the Sarawak Rangers. Collectively, this force of 2,565 troops was known as “SARFOR” (Sarawak Force).

In August 1941

a partial denial scheme, which reduced the output of oil by seventy per cent, was put into effect. It was also decided that no attempt should be made to defend British North Borneo, Brunei or Labuan, and

 

the Governor of North Borneo, Mr. Robert Smith,

was informed that the Volunteers and police were to be used solely for the maintenance of internal security. It was however decided to defend Kuching because of its airfield, and because its occupation by the enemy would give access to the important Dutch airfield at Singkawang II, sixty miles to the southwest and only some 350 miles from Singapore.

Order of Battle for British forces
Sarawak, December 1941

Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane (commander)

2nd Battalion of 15th Punjab Regiment

heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery

detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers)

Sarawak Rangers

Coastal Marine Service

plus other native troops

The country between Kuching and the sea is roadless, but is intersected by a number of winding waterways which flow through mangrove swamps to the sea. There are two main approaches to the town: the first by the Sarawak River, which is navigable by vessels up to sixteen foot draught; and the second by the Santubong River, which will take vessels up to twelve foot draught. The roads from Kuching run east to Pending, north-west to Matang, and south to Serian a distance of forty miles from Kuching. The airfield lay seven miles south of the town on the Serian road. At the airfield a road branched off to the west; after crossing the Sarawak River at Batu Kitang, where there was a vehicular ferry, it terminated at Krokong fifteen miles short of the Dutch frontier.

There were two plans of defence that were proposed- Plan A and Plan B.
Plan A called for a mobile defence. The objective was to hold the Bukit Stabar Airfield as long as possible. Further delaying actions were also to be conducted so as to allow for the proper execution of the denial schemes. If enemy resistance was such that it could not be delayed, then the airfield would be destroyed and the entire force would retreat into the mountains and jungles in small parties and fight as a guerrilla force for as long as possible. Unfortunately, at

 

the Anglo-Dutch Military Conference

during September 1941 held in Kuching,

it was pointed out that Plan A could not be carried out if the Japanese landed 3,000 to 5,000 men with air and sea support. J.L. Noakes, the defeatist Sarawak Secretary for Defence, had continued to argue the inadequacy of SARFOR and that it had no hope against the Japanese if they landed in force.

His idea was to take a ‘wait and see’ attitude and continue to appeal to Singapore for more troops and equipment.

In the event that this was not forthcoming, Sarawak should surrender so as to prevent any bloodshed. Rajah Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, was completely against this defeatist talk and vehemently argued that Sarawak should put up a fight, a fight to maintain the honor of the Brooke Raj. At the end it was decided that the town could not be defended against the weight of attack which was to be expected, and the plan was reluctantly changed to one of static defence of the airfield.

During late November 1941,

Lieutenant-General A.E. Percival, GOC Malaya Command, took a 2-day tour of Sarawak to assess the adequacy of its defence preparations. He summarized the situation as follows: “Nobody could pretend that this was a satisfactory situation, but at least it would make the enemy deploy a larger force to capture Sarawak than would have been necessary if it had not been defended at all and that, I think, is the true way to look at it…the best I could do was to promise to send them a few anti-aircraft guns and too tell them of the arrival of Prince of Wales and Repulse, which were due at Singapore in a few days…not that I expected anit-aircraft guns to be of much practical value. But I felt that the moral effect of their presence there would more than counterbalance some slight dispersion of force”.

As a result of Percival’s assessment of Sarawak’s defences, an alternative plan of action was proposed, Plan B. This was based on static defence. All available troops and supplies were to be concentrated within a 5.5 kilometer perimeter of the Bukit Stabar Airfield to ensure that its destruction was not interfered with. The rationale for Plan B was presented by Brooke-Popham as follows: “The only place which it was decided to hold was Kuching, the reason for this being not only that there was a modern airfield at this location, but that its occupation by the enemy might give access to the Dutch airfields in Borneo, furthermore, it would also give the enemy access to Singapore. Being only some 350 miles from said place”.

Further orders were issued by Vyner Brooke that all the Civil Servants not assigned to the Sarawak Rangers were to remain at their posts. No thought must be given to the abandonment of the native population by any European officer of the Brooke Raj.

The Brooke Government which had already heard of

the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

 

(on 7 December 1941)

quickly ordered the complete and total destruction of the oil fields and airfields at Miri and Seria. Orders for the demolition of the refinery at Lutong and the denial of the oilwells reached the officer commanding at Miri

on the morning of the 8th December,

and by the evening of the same day the task was completed.

On the following day the landing ground there was made unfit for use, and on the 13th the Punjabis and the oil officials left by sea for Kuching. The destruction of the oilfields had been completed none too soon.

 

 

 

 

(Japanese troops advancing through Malaya)

 

Throughout much of World War II,  British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation.

The Japanese Empire commenced the Pacific War with

 

The Japanese  invasion of Kota Bahru in Kelantan

on 8 December 1941 at 00:25,

about 90 minutes before the Attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii at 07:48 on 7 December Hawaii time, or 01:48 on 8 December Malayan time.

 

 

They then invaded the island of Borneo in mid December 1941,

 

 

landing on the west coast near Miri in Sarawak; invasion was completed by 23 January 1942

when they landed at Balikpapan in Dutch Borneo on the east coast. During the occupation an estimated 100,000 people were killed.

 

Defence in Sarawak and North Borneo

The main objectives were the oilfields at Miri in Sarawak region and Seria in Brunei.

 

The oil was refined at Tutong near Miri. Despite rich oil supplies, the Sarawak region had no air or sea forces to defend it.

 

.

 

Japanese landing and the battle

The main Japanese force, led by

 

Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi,

 

consisted of units from Canton, southern China:

  • 35th Infantry Brigade Headquarters
  • 124th Infantry Regiment from Japanese 18th Division
  • 2nd Yokosuka Naval Landing Force
  • 4th Naval Construction Unit
  • 1 platoon of the 12th Engineer Regiment
  • 1 unit from the 18th Division Signal Unit
  • 1 unit from the 18th Division Medical Unit
  • 4th Field Hospital, 18th Division
  • 1 unit from the 11th Water Supply and Purification Unit

 

 

(The Japanese landing off the west coast of British North Borneo, 1942)

 

On 13 December 1941,

the Japanese invasion convoy

 

left Cam Ranh Bay in French Indochina,

 

 

Invasion of French Indochina

with an escort of

 

the cruiser Yura

 

(Rear-Admiral Shintaro Hashimoto)

with the destroyers of the 12th Destroyer Division,

 

Murakumo,

 

Shinonome,

 

Shirakumo

And

 

Usugumo,

submarine-chaser Ch 7 and

 

 

the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru.

Ten transport ships carried the Japanese 35th Infantry Brigade HQ under the command of

 

Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi.

The Support Force consisted of

 

Rear-Admiral Takeo Kurita

 

with the cruisers Kumano

 

and Suzuya

and

 

the destroyers Fubuki

 

and Sagiri.

 

The AASC element commanded by Capt J.R. Burns had been cobbled together with transport, supply, bakery and butchery elements totalling 40 members in Sydney in July, moved to Darwin

and dispatched to

 

Ambon

on 14 December 1941.

 

Ambon December 1941

The main supplies and ammunition stocks were held

 

at Laha Airfield Ambon,

defended by two infantry companies, while immediate stocks, bakery and butchery were initially positioned at Galala.

Read more

Massacre at Ambon

As part of the military agreement made by the governments of Australia and the NEI in 1941, AIF troops were sent to help garrison the island of Ambon, which lies just south of the larger island of Ceram. Ambon was an important air and sea link between Australia, New Guinea, and the northern NEI. The airfield at Laha, and the harbours of Ambon and Binnen Bays, were considered to be of vital significance to the Allies.

Accordingly, an Australian battalion (the 2/21st), with supporting units and a detachment of Lockheed Hudson bombers from No. 13 Squadron, RAAF, was landed at Ambon in mid-December 1941.

This combined unit, known as “Gull Force”, reinforced the existing local garrison of 2,600 men, and was placed under the overall command of Dutch Lieutenant Colonel J.R.L. Kapitz.

 

The Japanese forces intended to capture Miri and Seria, while the rest would capture Kuching and nearby airfields.

The convoy proceeded without being detected and,

at dawn on 15 December 1941,

two landing units secured Miri and Seria with only very little resistance from British forces. A few hours later, Lutong was captured as well.

19 December 1941

 

Japanese troops take cover behind steam engines at the Johor railway station in the final stages of their advance down the Malayan peninsula which culminated in the surrender of all British forces, and the occupation of the British naval base on Singapore island.

Meanwhile, on 31 December 1941,

the force under Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe moved northward to occupy Brunei, Labuan Island, and Jesselton (now called Kota Kinabalu).

After securing the oilfields, on 22 December,

the main Japanese forces moved westwards to Kuching.

The Japanese airforce bombed

 

Singkawang airfield

to prevent a Dutch attack. A

fter a battle between the Japanese fleet and a Dutch submarine, the fleet approached

the mouth of

 

the Santubong river on 23 December 1941

 

The convoy arrived off Cape Sipang and the troops in twenty transport ships, commanded by Colonel Akinosuke Oka,’’

 

Japanese invasion fleet off Kuching, British Borneo, 23 December, 1941.

landed at 04:00, 24 December.

Although 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment resisted the attack, they soon became out-numbered and retreated up the river.

 

 

By the afternoon, Kuching was in the hands of Japanese forces.

 

At about 16:40 on 25 December,

the Japanese troops successfully captured

Kuching airfield.

 

Kuching airfield after thw WW II in 1950

 

The Punjab regiment retreated through the jungle to the Singkawang area.

After Singkawang was secured as well on 29 December,

the rest of the British and Dutch troops retreated further into the jungle southward trying to reach Sampit and Pangkalanbun, where a Dutch airfield at Kotawaringin was located. South and central Kalimantan were taken by the Japanese Navy following attacks from east and west. After ten weeks in the jungle-covered mountains, the Allied troops surrendered on 1 April 1942. Lastly, Sarawak fell into the hands of The Empire of Sun.

 

 

(Hinomaru Yosegaki – Japanese WWII Good Luck Flag)

 

 

On 1 January 1942,

two infantry platoons commanded by a company commander landed on Labuan Island, capturing the British Resident, Hugh Humphrey who later recalled: “I was repeatedly hit by a Japanese officer with his sword (in its scabbard) and exhibited for 24 hours to the public in an improvised cage, on the grounds that, before the Japanese arrived, I had sabotaged the war effort of the Imperial Japanese Forces by destroying stocks of aviation fuel on the island”. [1]

 

On 8 January,

Kawaguchi proceeded to

 

Jesselton

 

Now Kota Kinibalu

and having occupied that town and

 

Beaufort,

 

where he disarmed the small police unit. Using ten small fishing boats, two infantry companies (minus two platoons), commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe, captured

 

Sandakan,

the seat of government of British North Borneo, and rescued the 600 interned Japanese citizens.

On the morning of the 19th January,

 

the Governor Robert Smith surrendered the State

 

handed to him by the Governor of North Borneo

and, refusing to carry on the administration under Japanese control, was interned with his staff.

This unit then captured

 

Tawau and

 

Lahad Datu

on the 24th and 31st respectively.

This time they freed a further 1,500 Japanese citizens. The Japanese forces suffered no combat casualties during this operations.

The convoy which left

 

Miri

on the 22nd of December

was escorted by

 

the cruiser Yura,

 

 

the destroyers Murakumo,

 

Shirakumo and

 

 

Usugumo,

the minesweepers W 3 and W 6 and

 

the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru.

Covering Force was consisted of

 

cruisers Kinu,

 

Kumano and

 

Suzuya,

with

 

the destroyers Fubuki

and

 

Sagiri.

West of Covering Force was the 2nd Division of the 7th Cruiser Squadron (Mikuma and Mogami) with

 

The Hatsuyuki class destroyers are optimized for the anti-ship and anti-submarine roles

 

destroyer Hatsuyuki.

It was sighted and reported to Air Headquarters, Far East, by Dutch reconnaissance aircraft

on the morning of the 23rd,

when it was about 150 miles from Kuching.

At 11.40 that morning

twenty-four Japanese aircraft bombed

 

Singkawang II airfield, so damaging the runways that a Dutch striking force which had been ordered to attack the convoy was unable to take off with a bomb load.

Despite the critical situation the Dutch authorities urged the transfer of their aircraft to Sumatra.

Air Headquarters, Far East, agreed

and during the afternoon of the 24th

the aircraft were flown to Palembang.

The convoy did not however escape unscathed.

On the evening of the 23rd

it was first attacked by Dutch submarine K-XIV (Lt.Cdr. C.A.J. van Well Groeneveld) sank two enemy ships and damaged two others,

and the following night of 23/24 December 1942

another Dutch submarine K-XVI (Lt.Cdr. L.J. Jarman) torpedoed the IJN destroyer Sagiri (1,750 tons) near Kuching, Sarawak.

Their own torpedoes caught on fire and the ship simply blew up, killing immediately 121 officers and men.

The IJN destroyer Shirakumo and minesweeper W 3 rescued 120 survivors. The K-XVI was herself sunk by Japanese submarine I-66 (Cdr. Yoshitome) on her way back to Soerabaja.

Five Bristol Blenheims of 34th (B) RAF Squadron from Singapore, at almost extreme range, bombed the ships at anchor the same evening, but did little damage.

The convoy was seen at 6 p.m. on the 23rd

 

approaching the mouth of the Santubong River. Two hours later Colonel Lane received orders from Singapore to destroy the airfield.

It was too late to change back to mobile defence and, as there seemed to him no point in attempting to defend a useless airfield, he asked General Percival for permission to withdraw as soon as possible into Dutch north-west Borneo.

While awaiting a reply Lane concentrated his battalion at the airfield, with forward detachments in the Pending area east of the town and on the roads to the north of it, 18-pounder gun and 3-inch mortar detachments covering the river approaches, and a Punjabi gunboat platoon, working with

the Sarawak Rangers and the Coastal Marine Service, patrolling north of Kuching.

 

 

 

 

Sarawak Rangers

 

 

Fort Margherita, named after his wife Ranee Margaret, the wife of Rajah Charles.

The Sarawak Rangers were a para-military force founded in 1872 by the second Rajah of Sarawak, Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke. They evolved from the fortmen which were raised to defend Kuching in 1846. The Sarawak Rangers were commanded by a former British Army Officer, Sir William Henry Rodway, and were highly skilled in jungle warfare and general policing duties, being equipped with various western rifles, cannons and native weaponry. This small force also manned a series of forts around the country, performed ceremonial duties and acted as the Rajahs’ personal guard.

Aside from protecting Sarawak’s borders, they were used to fight any rebels and were engaged in a number of campaigns during their history. The Sarawak Rangers were disbanded for a few years in the 1930s, only to be reformed and mobilised for the Second World War in which they attempted to defend Sarawak from Japanese invasion in 1942 at the start of the Pacific War..

 

The convoy proceeded westward, arriving at a point,

 

east of Cape Sipang

at 0300 on the 24th. At 0120,

the IJN transport Nichiran Maru with Colonel Akinosuke Oka arrived at the prearranged anchorage off the mouth of the Santubong River.

At 0400,

the unit aboard the IJN transport Nichiran Maru, commanded by Colonel A. Oka, completed its transfer to landing barges and proceeding west of Cape Sipang.

At about 9 a.m.

twenty enemy landing craft were observed approaching the shore.

The small Punjabi gunboat platoon, hopelessly outnumbered, withdrew up the river without loss.

At 11 a.m.

as they neared the town the landing craft were engaged by the gun and mortar detachments, who sank four before themselves being surrounded and killed. During the afternoon three more craft were sunk by gunfire, but the remainder were able to land their troops on both sides of the river,

and by 4.30 p.m.

the town was in Japanese hands.

Meanwhile Lane had been instructed by Percival to hold the Japanese for as long as possible and then act in the best interests of west Borneo as a whole.

Since the capture of the town threatened to cut off the forward troops, Lane ordered them to withdraw to the airfield.

The Japanese followed up and before dark  made contact with the airfield defences.

Throughout the night

sporadic firing went on as they felt their way round the perimeter.

\

General kawaguchi briefing japanese officers before attack

Major-General Kawaguchi

 

received a report from his intelligence officer that there was approximately 400-500 British troops in the vicinity of

 

 

the Kuching airfield.

 

December,25th.1941

As Christmas Day dawned,

firing temporarily ceased and advantage was taken of the lull to send the hospital detachment with the women and children on ahead into Dutch Borneo.

During the morning

the Japanese encircling movement continued, and a company was sent to hold the ferry crossing at

 

Batu Kitang

 

 

so as to keep the road clear for escape.

A general withdrawal into Dutch Borneo was ordered to start at dusk, but heavy firing was heard to the north of Batu Kitang shortly after noon and, fearing that his line of retreat would be cut, Lane decided on immediate withdrawal.

The enemy, reinforced by the 2nd Yokosuka SNLF, soon aware of his intention, launched a full-scale attack on the two Punjabi companies forming the rearguard.

Of these two companies only one platoon succeeded in rejoining the main body. The remainder, totaling four British officers and some 230 Indian troops, were cut off and either killed or captured.

At about 1640 on the 25th,

the Japanese troops completely secured the Kuching airfield. The Japanese losses during this operation (including those at sea) were about 100 killed and 100 wounded. The rest of the battalion reached Batu Kitang without loss to find the village deserted and the ferry unattended.

They had great difficulty in crossing the river, but by dark all except the covering force were over. Most of the transport had to be left behind.

. From the 26th

‘Sarfor’ ceased to exist as a combined Indian and State Force, and the Punjabis, much reduced in strength, carried on alone

 

December,27th.1941

Following the capture of Kuching airfield, the Detachment commander ordered Colonel Oka to secure the strategic area around Kuching with the main force of the 124th Infantry Regiment, while he with one infantry battalion (excluding two companies)

left Kuching on the 27th and returned back to Miri.

The main body made its way to

Krokong.

There the road ended, and the remaining vehicles and heavy equipment had to be abandoned. There, too, the Sarawak State Forces, in view of their agreement to serve only in Sarawak, were released to return to their homes

 

.

On the morning of the 27th

the column crossed the border into Dutch Borneo and two days later arrived at Singkawang II airfield where there was a garrison of 750 Dutch troops.

 

It was realized at Headquarters, Malaya Command, that the Punjabis would be urgently in need of food and ammunition

Sarawak Postal history

Dai Nippon Occupations Borneo Postal history Collections

North Borneo’

North Borneo:

 

 

 

 

 

The depiction of the Jesselton Railway Station and the Vulcan-engine train in several North Borneo stamps signify the great importance of the transportation service to the country at that time. In fact, for many years the country has been craving for roads and North Borneo might have been described as the land without a road and as Owen Rutter puts it “…and a land in that condition is as little likely to grow as a plant without water…”. Apart from a few miles of metalled road in Jesselton, Kudat and Sandakan, there wasnt a single Government highway in the country.

During the war in 1940s, the Jesselton railway station was bombed and demolished by the Japanese army under the command of Lt. General Masao Baba. This has resulted in an interruption to the railway service in North Borneo and was virtually paralysed between 1944 – 1945. Because of its vital impartance, the railway system was targeted by the Japanese and later liberated by the Australian Imperial Force (AIF). Now what we see in the stamps above is no longer exist which is sad because this is one of only two depiction of building in the whole North Borneo stamps (the other being the Jesselton clock tower).Today, the steam train has been ressurected for tourism purposes and is due to open for visitors again very soon as the Sabah State Government is upgrading the railway.

[a] [b]
[a]South Road with the bomb damaged Jesselton Railway Station on the right. (Photographer Sgt. F. A. C. Burke)
[b]Beaufort area 01-07-1945. The railway engine captured by the member of 2/32 Infantry Battalion. Manned by members of 2/16 Field Company, RAE. It is now ready to move out of the yardsfor the Beaufort – Weston run

 

During the Japanese occupation of South East Asia (incl British Borneo) in 1942-1945, British Borneo was put under one administration. Previous stamps issues under British administration of North Borneo, Sarawak and Brunei were used with the Japanese overprints. That’s why North Borneo, Brunei or Sarawak stamps may be used in any parts of this territory:


Brunei and North Borneo stamps used in Kuching, Sarawak 1944


Japanese-issued North Borneo stamps used in Sibu, Sarawak


The Japanese occupation also produced some of the rarest and expensive Brunei stamp. For example this one with 2 Japanese overprints on it. The first horizontal overprint became faded over time, prompted the second overprint:

 


source: Marcel,

Sarawak

 
       

 

Lot 2548

Japanese Occupation of North Borneo, 1943 (Feb. 1) Official cover franked with two Japan 2 sen Showa pairs, canceled by complete ‘Sibu Borneo’ postmark in violet.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

 

Realized HK$ 13,000

 

 

 

 

Sibu based Sarawak Coastal Ships

 

 

Dai Nippon occupation borneo definitive stamps FDC send to sibu Sarawak CDS Sibu 18.4.29 (April,29th.1943(

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
       

 

Lot 2549

Japanese Occupation of North Borneo, 1943 (May 17) cover franked with Japan 5 sen Showa pair tied by complete ‘Kuching Borneo’ postmark, in violet. Sarawak Military Censor’s circular cachet in orange.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

 

Realized HK$ 13,000

 

 

Dai Nippon Occupation Sarawak revenue history

 

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent(2x) bold violet Dai Nippon Revenue overprint”recieved inwar” with Squqred court chop in red on fragment Deposit Document.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $1(2x) with Bold violet Dai Nippon Revenue overprint “Recieved Inward” with Square court chop in red on fragment Deposit document.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $2 with violet Dai Nippon revenue overprint “Recieve in ward ” and Square court Chop in Red ,fragment Deposit document.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $2 + $1 overprint red Dai nippon revenue “Recieved inward” with Dai Nippon squared court choped on fragment Deposit document.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 5 cent with unidentified Black round overprint (Private or official Dai Nippon ? please comment)

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent with unidenytified hanchoped (private or Dai Nippon Official revenue Handchope?please comment)

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $1 with double Dai Nippon overprint thin red “recived inaward” and violet sarawak Dai nippron yubin Kyoku (not clear official or private handchoped ,please comment)

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $1 overprint thin violet Dai Nippon Revenue “Recieved inward’

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $2 overprint thin violet Dai nippon revenue “Recieved inward”

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $3 overprint thin violet Dainippon revenue overprint”Recieved Inward”

 

 

1945- Rajah CV Brooke $2 (2x) with red Dai Nippon “Recieved Inward” overprint on the Land’s Change of Name certificate issued at Sibu.

 

 

 

 

Sarawak revenue History

 

2.11.1941. Rajah CV brooke 3 cent UAR n the recieved fro Sime Darby & Co Ltd sign by Alan Dant (courtesy PSKS,Hong Ming Yong,photocopy) III. DURING BRITISH COLONY SARAWAK

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke overprint crown $5 (UAR)

 

 

 

14.1.1949.Rajah CV brooke 8 cent overprint Crown used as renenue ( UAR) on the recieved of buying gun at Hong Joo Company 3,Gambier road,Kuching .Sarawak.

 

 

1.10.1949 Rajah CV Brooke overprint crown 6 cent Used as revenue on The recieved of buying Guns at Kuching Gun Shop.

 

 

22.11.1945 the bigger block ever seen , Block six Rajah CV brooke overprint crown $5 , the disposal stamp with puched hole used as revenue(UAR),please comment.

 

 

26.8.1949. Rajah CV Brooke $3 overprint crown (2x) added CV Brooke $1 with punch hole disposal stamps Used As Revenue(UAR) , rare combination from two era before the wW II and after Dai Nippon Occupation (British Colony), emergency used because during Sarawak British Colony no reveneu issue and disposal punche hole old stamps UAR , and after that regualr Stamp without punched hole also used, see below.

 

 

10.4.1950. Block six Rajah CV Brooke $4 overprint Crown , the disposal punch hole stamps Use As Revenue(UAR), only one exist,please comment.

 

 

King G-V 50 cent and $2 UAR(used as Revenue)

 

 

King G-V $1 Used As Revenue(UAR)

 

 

 

Queen E-II $1 and $2 used as revenue(UAR) THE END @copy right Dr iwan S 2010.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com blog

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Sarawak Postal History after WWII

charge@COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN S 2010

This story dedicated to my Sarawak stamps and revenue collectors which I had met and made a restaurant meeting in September 2007,especially my medical doctor health administrators friend who have the same age,profession,and family name DR FRANCIS NGU .also for my Indonesian collectors Mr Herry H, and Mr Aris.

 

NO.S-POSTWWII 001British colony sarawak postally used cover with CV Brooke stamps over print crown sent from kuching to surabaya Indonesia, send by the ex Sime Darby ,famous expatiat factory in Sarawak,some of my friend found the sime darby reciept with sarawak stamp used as revenue before WW II, and I looked in TV this factory still exist now.Very interseting postal history,one of my best and rare collections. look at the back of this cover with sime darby name but have change with only Sarawak and Malaya  was off by pen and added the anme of sander Sim Thian Peck Borneo,who know him please give info trough comment (Dr Iwan S.)

 

CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS
Anthony Brooke , the son of Betram Brooke, with tittle Raja Muda Sarawak, have knowed that The Brithis Empire will asked to have more power in Sarawak after the war.
Due to that situation he have prepared to handle the problem , he prepare the new law to serve the Rajah and Colonial Office.
When he was announced by the king as the chief of Sarawak state delegations in the conference with the British Colonial Office in 1945.
The Colonial office officer want the foreign Jurisdiction Act of 1890 have been done, transfere the sarawak state to British Crown colony and change the Brooke power to be same as the Malaya State King and join the Mac Michael agreement “ Malaya Union”.
In January 1944, British Empire to occupied North Borneo and asked Sarawak to made a new agreement to give the British empire the power to make new laws and system like in Malaya state.
In July 1945 the change of power from Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke to “yang Dipertua Negeri” like Malaya state.
On 11th September 1945, the Australian forces entered Kuching and on the same day recieved the formal surrender from the japanese soldiers.Military rule did not come to end end until April 15th 1946, when civil government was oncemore restored to the country.
The administration was then handed back to the Rajah , who had arrived a few days before with his wife.
The scene in Kuching was one of enthusiastic rejoicing and many thought it strange that a man, who had already decided to abandon his country ,could still command so much devotion.
The British Empire want the Borneo army under British Army, and after the Japanese Army surender there were the meeting between Brithis Empire Official with sarawak state official.
IN 28th February 1945, Anthony Brooke write a letter to the secretary of British Colonial that he and his friend was announce by the Rajah as the vice of Sarawak’s people in the meeting with them.
The British Colonial Office didn’t accepted the Anthony proposal, and they write a letter to Rajah the Anthony delegation cann’t had the responbility .
Rajah Vyner Brooke at least take the responbility of Sarawak State in nhis own hand, and fire Anthony Brooke.
In 1945 Rajah Vyner Brooke told the British Colonial secretary that he will give Sarawak to the King of Britain.
In 6th February 1946, GTM Mac Bryan as the secretary of British Colonial have came to Sarawak and have a meeting with the Sarawak’s People Council about The Sarawak treasure in England one million Poundsterning.
As the Father’s Will, Vyner Brooke must consultation with Tuan Muda about the Sarawak Kingdom after heard from Radio BCC about the Brithish Colonial proposal about Sarawak.
In 27th March 1946, two delegation from England Capt. Gammans and Lt.Colonel Rees-Williams came to sarawak to research the sarawak people actions to the law of Rajah give the power to British Empire as Colony State.
MacBryant report that the Malayu and Chinese people of Sarawak agree to the Rajah proposal to give Sarawak to the King of Britain, many Malayu adn Chinese leader didn’t agree.
The secret was opened that Datuk Patinggi of Madjlis Mesyuarat Tertinggi have recieved 12.000 poundsterling from Mac Bryan as the “Hadiah”present , and Datuk Menteri, Datuk Hakim and datuk Amat also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , and Datuk Pahlawan also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , Mac Bryan also give 2000 poundsterning to Tuan Haji Nawawi who be “Saksi” the sign of Letter “”Wang yang saya terima dari Mac Bryan telah saya serahkan kepada pihak Pasukan Pentadbir Hal Ehwal Awam British Borneo kerana saya pondang wang itu sebagai Suap”
Datuk Patinggi also give 12.000 Poundsterling to “Pihak Pentadbiran British “ with “Surat Keterangan”.
The People of Sarawak think that the step of “Penyerahan” Sarawak was excellent and Tuan Muda have agreed .
The Poeple think that the situation didn’t have change, they still have the Raja , but this only the title without the power.

The Vyner Brooke Stamps still used but with BMA and crown overprint

 

 

THE BRITISH COLONY SARAWAK KING  G V AND E II STAMPS ALSO USED AS REVENUE WIHTOUT PUCH

 

In 1948 the first sarawak colonial stamps were printed due to commemoration of Royal Silver Wedding, and the last colonial stamps issued in 1961.

 

1962

 

General Introduction

The history of all Dayak Ibans and other Dayak communities (Dayaklama and/or Dayakbaru) of Sarawak. The Dayaks (Dayak Iban, Dayak Bidayuh and Dayak Orang Ulu), in Sarawak may not have 20 points like State of Sabah but we extremely have at least 21 points agreement prior to the formation of the “Federation of Malaysia”.

“Kapit Resolution 1962”

was the key treaty and/or agreement mooted by the native Ibans with regard to the proposal of the “Federation of Malaysia” via the Malaysia Plan “Aum” 1962.

 

47 years of independence, Malaysia and/or the Federation of Malaya (promoted by UMNO) had failed to safeguard the natives’ rights and/or privileges and had also failed to accelerate efforts to improve the economics future of the natives in Sarawak.

Our history began here in 1962

The Ibans form the largest single group of the population and by far the largest native group.

Ibans are primarily country people and few take to town life. Although they are to be found throughout the country, nearly 75% of their total number live in the Second and Third Divisions.

Special Privileges for Natives Sarawak

Groups from all natives populations expressed a general desires;

a. The Head of State should be a native of Sarawak.

b. That special privileges should be given to the natives. They were extremely anxious that their position in the new Federation should be analogous to that of the Malays in the present Constitution of the Federation of Malaya.

c. There was a general agreement that economic development should be accelerated and increased attention paid to education, in particular reference to the needs of the natives;

d. That the land, forestry and agriculture should be subjected to be controlled by the State Government. Great emphasis was also laid on the need to safeguard customary rights and practices.

e. Customary land and other native rights should be protected.

General natives’ opinions toward the formation of “The Federation of Malaysia”

On a number of other points there are also some differences in opinions:

a. Some elements favor the arrangement that the Head of State of Sarawak should also be eligible to be the Head of the Federation of Malaysia, while others, a smaller element, favor a popularly elected of the Federation.

b. There were differences in attitude towards the acceptance of Islam as the national religions for Malaysia as a whole, and towards its particular application to Sarawak.

c. There were similar differences in attitude towards Malay as the national language for Malaysia as a whole and towards its application to Sarawak; and also as to official languages for Sarawak

d. There was conflict regarding the Constitutional allocation of the legislative powers between the Federal and the State Governments in the new Federation, to which is related the question of a formula for representation in the new Federal Parliament.

e. The immigration into Sarawak from other territories of the proposed Federation should be under the control of the State authorities. This springs from the fear that, on the establishment of “Malaysia”, the people of Malaya and Singapore in particular would migrate in large numbers to Sarawak to take advantage of the land and opportunities available, to the detriment of the people of Sarawak themselves. Coupled with this general anxiety, there is particular concern about the possible entry of undesirable elements from “outside”

f. There should also be no rapid change in the administrative arrangements affecting the daily life of the people or in such matters as taxation.

g. Rural development should be accelerated as it has been in the Federation of Malaya so that the general standard of living could be raised as soon as possible.

“Aum Kapit” Malaysia Plan 1962

 

 

“Aum” in Iban herein referred to as “conference”.

The most important single center of the Ibans is at Kapit in the Third Division. A conference (or “aum”) of 51 elected Chiefs (Pengarahs and Penghulus) had been held there on the 15th February, 1962, to discuss the proposals for a “Federation of Malaysia” set out in the Sarawak Government’s Paper.

KAPIT RESOLUTIONS 1962

The Iban conference @Aum reached their general agreement that the “scheme” should be supported, subject to certain conditions, and their resolutions  when the Cobbold Commission visited Kapit on the 19th March 1962.

The “Kapit Resolutions 1962” were as follows:

1. Head of Sarawak State: The Head of the State of Sarawak to be a native of Sarawak.

Some groups expressed a wish that he should be elected by the people. Some would like him to have the title of Rajah and to be an Iban.

In either case, it was held that he should be eligible, with the Heads of other States in the new Federation, for the post of Head of the Federations. One or two groups asked that, during the initial period, a British Governor should be retained.

2. Head of State of Malaysia: The Head of each State in the Federation of Malaysia to be eligible in due course to be the Head of the Federation of Malaysia.

Some Ibans asked that he should be given the title of President as the title Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Malay, and is not acceptable.

3. Tradition Custom: “Adat Lama” to remain under the control of the Government of the State of Sarawak as it has until to-day.

4. Sarawak Land: Land to be under the control of the State including the existing rights of the natives of Sarawak in such matters as land.

5. National language: There was some difference of opinion. Some groups suggested that there should be no national language; others wanted it to be Iban. Still others were willing to have Malay or Iban.

6. Official Language: English to remain the official language of the State of Sarawak and to continue to be one of the official languages of Malaysia.

There was agreement among groups that English should be retained either indefinitely or for at least fifteen (15) years as the official language, not only in Sarawak but in the new Federation as well. Some groups wished Iban as well as English to be an official language.

7. Religion: Freedom in religious worship

8. Federal Representation: There is to be adequate representation for Sarawak in the Federal Government.

A number of groups asked that this should be worked out on a combined population and areas basis and that, within the number of seats allocated to Sarawak in the House of Representatives, the Ibans should have equal representation with the Malays and the Chinese.

9. Native Employment: British officers to remain until replaced by properly qualified local people. Natives to have a fair share of Government employment.

10. Native Privileges and Status: Sarawak natives to enjoy the same status and privileges as Malays in Malaya.

11. Education: Education to be a Federal subject and to be equalized throughout Malaysia as soon as possible. Sarawak natives to have a fair share of overseas scholarships.

12. Medium of instruction in schools: English should be retained as the medium of instruction, but Iban should be taught as a subject.

13. Immigration: Immigration to remain under the control of the State of Sarawak.

14. State Powers: Powers reserved in the Constitution to a State may not be changed without the agreement of the State.

15. Development: Development in Sarawak to be accelerated.

16. Religion: Much emphasis was placed on the need for freedom of religion as there is at present, i.e., freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion.

There was a general feeling that Sarawak should be a secular State and the suggestion was made that if Muslims were given assistance from Federal funds, other religions – Christianity was specially mentioned – should enjoy similar treatment.

17. Name of the new Federation: There was dislike of the name “MALAYSIA” and hope that some other name could be devised. Many alternatives were suggested.

18. Armed Forces: The Ibans are anxious to have a fair chance of service in the Federation’s armed forces.

19. Sarawak State: A number of groups wanted to be sure that they could have a separate Sarawak State flag – some mentioned the old Rajah’s flag – a State anthem and a National Day.

20. Self-Government: The Ibans had been looking forward to the self-government which had been promised to them, and the principal reason why they were ready, on conditions, to accept the Malaysia proposals, despite their uncertainties, was because they were confident that the British Government would not recommend the scheme if it was not going to be beneficial to them.

21.  Equal rights: Ibans wanted to be treated by the Malays as brothers, but not as the younger brothers. They were opposed to the idea that Sarawak should be treated as only one of 15 States in a Federation of Malaysia; they maintained that this would give her too small a voice in the new Federation’s affairs.

The 51 Chiefs at the conference together were said to represent some 112,000 Ibans out of a total population of nearly 238,000 and many delegations of Ibans who came before the Cobbold Commission teams at different centers in the Third Division confirmed that they supported the “Kapit Resolutions 1962”.

In a small number of cases a demand was made that they should either be accepted without alteration or that any changes should be made only after there had been opportunity for further discussion with the Iban people.

While the great majority of the Ibans in the Third Division who were in favor of the Malaysia plan took their stand on the “Kapit Resolutions 1962”, there were some groups who gave their full support to the “scheme” on the basis of the recommendations in the report of the Malaysia Solidarity Consultative Committee (MSCC).

Notes: The Sarawak MSCC Delegations in Singapore were represented by (3rd February 1962):

  • Yeo Cheng Hoe – Leader
  • Ong Kee Hui – Member
  • Temenggong Jugah Ak Barieng – Member
  • Pengarah Montegrai Ak Tugang – Member
  • Dato Abang Haji Openg – Member
  • Ling Beng Siew – Member
  • James Wong – Member
  • Remigius Durin Ak Nganau – Member

Other Desirable Provisions

Some felt that this was a desirable provision in a new venture about which they felt some doubts. Others suggested that it should apply only in certain circumstances such as:

a. A change of regime in Kuala Lumpur.

b. A change in the Federal Constitution which had not been accepted by Sarawak.

One group from the Baram River hotly opposed the creation of a Federation of Malaysia but recognized that the decision might go against them.

They insisted that, if this was so, certain conditions should be met. These were much the same as those set out in the “Kapit Resolutions 1962”, but went further in some respects and the group was not prepared to discuss any modification of them.

Right to withdraw from the new Federation

There was fear too that a large proportion of Sarawak’s revenue would be handed over to the Federal Government without a corresponding return in the shape of services to the people of Sarawak.

The question of the right to withdraw from the new Federation was raised with Sarawak MCSS at Kapit and elsewhere.

In certain circumstances there should be such a right at least for a period of five (5) years, and that this should be specifically stated in the Federal Constitution.

 

 

 

 

 

1963

 

Taken from: Sarawak Headhunter

By Bunga Pakma

 

DayakBaru:

The story of Sarawak getting colonize by Malaya  is told in the simplest of way. We can now appreciate Sarawak history from the eye of the author of this article. I am sure there are others who hold on to difference views. But then, history is not an exact science anymore as far as Malaysia is concerned. many historical facts in Malaysia has been change to suit the political agenda of the current government and Sarawak history is not spared from such scandalous act.

 

We must vote for change, it is not an option. Change WE must.

On 16 September 1963, all the elements were in place for the unfolding of a political story which, whatever its outcome would be, was certain to go through strange and wrenching twists of plot. Some of these elements were clear to see, others hidden.

What formed Malaysia?

It must have crossed many observers’ minds that the component states that made up this new “Malaysia” were an odd quartet. Malaya was a patchwork of small states, most of them feudal régimes headed by Malay kinglets. Singapore was a commercial city-state, predominantly Chinese with a strong British cast, but wholly business. Sarawak—Britain’s last pukka colony—had been ruled by a white family for 100 years, and Sabah had emerged from the strange position of being run by a Limited Company.

Each partner-to-be in the Malaysian enterprise joined with vastly differing experiences and expectations. The only thing they had in common was that each territory was home to a bewildering variety of peoples, languages and cultures, and none of these people had ever known anything except authoritarian rule. Upon what did they believe they were to agree? Read more

Written by: Dr. John Brian Anthony

My friend told me not to touch “racial issues” but I replied it depends. We have heard of many cases both reported in the media and more that is not being reported about mixed parentage contribute to mixed up in children racial category. Personally, I have friends who are married to different races Dayak marry Chinese, Indian marry Dayak, Malay marry Dayak, Dayak marry European ( or whites) etc. What make this complicated is our ability to predict the race of the children. As a multi-racial country we have to come and face this reality and find solution that is not “double standard” so as not to rob the rights of the children as individual.

General rules

Generally the children race would follow that of the father. So if the father is Dayak Iban and marry to Chinese / Indian / whites then the children should be Dayak Iban. Accordingly in Taib’s case, the late Puan Laila is from Poland ( or there about) then  his children are categorize as Melanau and therefor a bumiputera. But then we have many cases whereby the father is Dayak Iban and the mother is Chinese but is not recognize by the government as Dayak Iban or bumiputera. Now you readers help me understand what is the difference of this scenario when compared to Taib Mahmud’s case?

In the case of a Muslim – what is the rule?

A Malay friend says if you are a Muslim then there is no problem. Is there really another standard for Muslim in Malaysia pertaining to the category of “race”?.

Imagine this as many so called Malay are actually Pakistani / Indians from India and new addition is the Bangladeshi. If the father is Bangladeshi and has not earn his citizenship in Malaysia and marry a Malay Muslim women, then what is the race of the child. By following the general rule then the child / children should be Bangladeshi or “lain-lain”. But in most instances the child is registered as Malay. I would like to be corrected by any “Official” who happen to read this article on this matter. Read more

Written by: Dr. John Brian Anthony

All the official forms ( borang kerjaan) has 4 racial categories: Malay, Chinese, Indian dan Lain Lain. As a Dayak I presumed that i belong to “Lain Lain” category. Why is it so difficult to add “Native of Sabah and Sarawak” as a category as provided for by the  Federal Constitution. It seems that NO Member of Parliament or Sarawak Dayak based parties has brought this matter up in their debate. As Dayak we wanted tp know this “logic” because the racial category is really an insult to the native of Sabah and Sarawak. On top of that, I think it does affect our opportunity to secure government job, opportunities as bumiputera, etc. Why is this so I would want to know!

Lain-lain

To me this particular word “lain-lain” or if I can translate it correctly as ‘others” really do not show that we are the natives in Malaysia. We are more bumiputera to the Malay as you cannot find Dayak in any other places in the world, but on the island of Borneo. This “official form” treated the native of Borneo / Malaysia like a no body. As native the Malaysia federal Government seen it fits to label us others as if we Dayak are of no consequences in this country. Read more

Written by: Dr John Brian Anthony

In an effort to understand more about Sarawak Rangers I went into wikipedia and found this:

The Sarawak Rangers were a para-military force founded in 1862 by the second Rajah of Sarawak, Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke. They evolved from the fortmen which were raised to defend Kuching in 1846. The Sarawak Rangers were first commanded by William Henry Rodway, briefly in 1862 and again from 1872 to his retirement in 1881, and were highly skilled in jungle warfare and general policing duties, being equipped with various western rifles, cannons and native weaponry.

They were based in a number of forts constructed at strategic locations in towns and at river mouths. Aside from protecting Sarawak’s borders, they were used to fight any rebels and were engaged in a number of campaigns during their history. In times of emergency or war, they could depend on the support of the local population and tribespeople.

The Sarawak Rangers were disbanded for a few years in the 1930s, only to be reformed and mobilised for the Second World War in which they attempted to defend Sarawak from Japanese invasion in 1942 at the start of the Pacific War. After the abdication of Charles Vyner Brooke in 1946, the Sarawak Rangers became a colonial unit under direct British control and saw action in both the Malayan Emergency and the Borneo Confrontation. In 1963, after the formation of Malaysia, the Sarawak Rangers became part of the Royal Ranger Regiment.

The Sarawak Rangers Unit that has been proposed  to be formed will be a multi-racial unit.

The proposal for the revival of the Sarawak Ranger is reported by The Star here below. Read more

Written by: Dr. John Brian Anthony

I would like to draw readers attention to the below article extracted from the Borneo Herald Blog. Many of the younger generation may not have heard of the Inter-Governmental Committee  that was formed prior to the formation of Malaysia. This committee is formed to ensure that Sabah and Sarawak do not exchange their colonial master (the British) to be replaced by another (Malaya).

In response to Sabah and Sarawak concerns of being colonized by Malaya the late Tunku Abdul Rahman formed an Inter-governmental Committee to ensure that this do not happen.

However, this Inter-Governmental Committee has never devise a compliance mechanism to ensure that the condition of the formation of Malaysia are implemented. Today we witness and experience “the colonization” of Sabah and Sarawak by Malaya. No wonder many young Sabahan and Sarawakian are asking why are we still in Malaysia. Many demanded to end our partnership with Malaysia as Sarawakian now are at the losing end of the formation of Malaysia.

This is more reason why our Dayak voices must be heard in Parliament. We know that BN member of Parliament will never speak of the “colonization” of Sabah and Sarawak. If that is so, we must support Dayak opposition voices to be heard in Parliament to demand for the review of the Malaysia agreement to enusre the Borneonization of Sabah and Sarawak and end Malaya colonization of Sabah and Sarawak. Read more

Written by: Dr. John Brian Anthony

Malaysian History try to tell us in the best possible way the important dates to remember and honor in our country. There are some flaws in the way that the history is presented to the student despite good record keeping of the event. It is accidental or a deliberate effort to rewrite history in order to unite the new nation? Instead of accepting the Government effort to reunite the nation by selecting a date for independence many saw the effort as sidelining the TRUTH. By not explaining why a date has been chosen (31st Aug)  and not 16th September it put aside an important date and impose Malaya independence day as the truth – which it is NOT!.

It is similar to Harimau Malaya now for the name of the Malaysian Football team. It makes Sabah and Sarawak a non entity in the name of the team. So why should Sabah and Sarawak support the Malaysian team when the name is exclusive to Malaya? Then the next question is WHAT is 1 Malaysia when the Federal Government did not put a few words of advise to the football national body?

Independence Day

MERDEKA is just round the corner: 31st August. Almost everyday we hear the PM and his cabinet members reminding us to fly the Malaysian Flag “Jalur Gemilang” to show our patriotism for our country. We all know that Merdeka Day is when Malaya gained their independence from the British. Can we accept that despite the historical flaw that 31st August is MALAYSIA day of independence? Read more

Taken from: Malaysiakini

Mohd Jidin asked for the number of army recruits in the last two years and the breakdown of the numbers by ethnicity.

He also asked for the reasons behind the small number of a certain race in the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF).

Breakdown of intake into Armed Forces

According to Zahid, in the last two years 9,054 officers and those of other ranks were taken into the MAF compared to 14,749 officers and personnel of other ranks who were hired from 2006 to 2008.

Others?

From 2008 to 2009, 8,151 or 90 percent of those recruited were Malays, 26 or 0.29 percent were Chinese and 82 or 0.91 percent were Indians, while 795 or 8.8 percent were ‘others’ including Sabah and Sarawak bumiputeras.

“The ministry finds that the participation of non-Malays especially among the Chinese and Indians is still below par,” Zahid said.

DayakBaru Thoughts

I counted many former MAF Officers among my close friends. These are people with integrity and patriotism for Malaysia. As we have seen, the first Dayak to become general is after 47 years of forming Malaysia. By all account, there do not seemed to be another Dayak from Sabah or Sarawak that isof high rank today that can take Brig Gen Stephen Mundau placed when it time for him to retire. The MAF must have a program to groom Dayak  successor that will be able to take the General position when the current Dayak General retire.

Many of my ex MAF Officers friends choose early  retirement as they see no hope in getting into higher position in the MAF. The MAF is very Malay bias and very political in nature. In the statement by Zahid it is very clear that those under the category of  “others and bumiputera from Sabah and Sarawak” is clearly differentiated. Why can’t we just have a Malaysian Army without resorting to races and ethnics. It interferes with unity thinking as you would have seen I am now talking about Dayak General as if he is not a Malaysian. I have such feeling because of the perception that I have of the MAF that is racially bias.

Patriotism

It is wrong for Zahid to say that Chinese and Indian are less patriotic then Malays. The Chinese, Malay and Others are no less patriotic. But if history and the evidence of MAF you have in hand indicated that meritocracy is not a key element in your career advancement and instead depended on race and religion then it is better to avoid such job as it is going to be frustrating and non-value adding.

The same story goes to working in the civil service. It is not only dominated by Malay and Muslim, it become clear that is the policy and behavior of the government to be racialist in career advancement in te civil service.

For Sabah and Sarawak, where are our share of director General, Secretary to Federal ministry position etc. The British designed the civil service as such but it does not mean the government cannot do anything to improve the arrangement by reflecting the content of Malaysia’s population in the civil service. The Malay are too happy with their position that they forgot we are now Malaysia and no more in the Federated Malay States of Malaya.

Zahid must be more careful about his words as we can see arrogance is seeping in deeply into his thoughts. So that is reflecting on UMNO racial supremacy ideology and young Malaysian do not like that. Talking about 1 Malaysia, is patriotism not an important element of that “slogan”.?

Lack of patriotic spirit

Besides the lack of “patriotic spirit”, Zahid also pointed out other reasons that could have resulted in the poor participation of other races in the MAF.

“Maybe it is the fear of tough military discipline, low pay compared to private jobs or no encouragement from families,” he said.

It could also be the result of “lack of backing from their ethnic communities” or “the negative aspersions cast on the MAF”.

Minister a coward, says Kulasegaran.

As Zahid had already left the House by then, Kulasegaran branded him a “coward”, given that the minister had been asked to remain in the House.

Speaker Pandikar Amin Mulia did not order Zahid to withdraw his remarks but instead reprimanded Kulasegaran for his use of the unparliamentary word “coward”. – Malaysiakini

Written by gkm2020

CONGRATULATION AND SALUTE TO:

 

Stephen Mundaw picture on the left.

 

Stephen Mundaw picture in the center.

 

Stephen Mundaw picture on the right.

The 52 years old Stephen Mundaw is the first Dayak Iban highest ranking native officer to become a general in the Malaysian Armed Forces history today.

It was also a sweet moment for the Army Chief, Gen Datuk Zulkifeli Mohd Zin, who pinned the insignia of Brigader-General on Mundaw at the parade ground of the 6th Royal Ranger Regimant camp at Ulu Oya Road here today, 1st November 2010.

Stephen Mundaw is from Sungai Melaban, Pakit of Sri Aman Divsion, is the first of Gen Datuk Zukifeli’s students from the army combat training school to attain the rank.

Mundaw graduated as a Second Lieutenant from the Sebatang Karah Officer Cadet Training School in Port Dickson and later the Officer Cadet School at Portsea in Australia in June 1979. Mundaw was then appointed a Platoon Commander with the 6th Battalion of the Royal Ranger Regiment.

Today, he takes over from Brig-Gen Zullkapri Rahamat as the new commander of the 9th Infantry Brigade at RASCOM Camp, 10th Miles Oya Road here.

Also present during the handing and takingover ceremonial were 1st Divison Commanding Officer, Mej-Gen Datuk Awie Suboh, PW I (Rtd) Temenggong Kanang anak Langkau (SP & PGB) and Mundaw”s former commanding officer, Col (Rtd) Dunstan Nyaring Angking.

 

Conclusion

The Second Division Ibans were not represented at the “Aum Kapit” but most of the many groups supported the idea of Malaysia, though they asked for safeguards.

In many places, more especially in the more remote areas and in areas where the Ibans form a proportionately those who opposed it.

Finally, the view was expressed by the Ibans in many centers that it was of great importance that a decision on Malaysia should be reached as soon as possible.

So, where are Ibans and other native Dayaks today? What is your general status?

If you failed to vote your rights, you failed to protect and/or defend your “Special Privilegessmaller section of the population, a feeling of general uncertainty was apparent.

The Ibans and others who had given the matter careful thought, that the “Kapit Resolutions 1962” had to be considered against a background of implicit trust in the British Government.

Political activity had been stimulated to an alarming degree by the “Malaysia” proposals and many Ibans were afraid that there might be violence not only between different races but between Ibans who supported the “Malaysia Plan” and


The last day of British colonial Internal Administration in Sarawak 39th August 1963 and is conjuction to comm, the United nation team visited Limbang on the same day to Asseses the people view on joining malaysia.

 

during my visit Kota kinibalu Sabah(before British Colony North Borneo), I found interesting postal history there.this rare cover send from Show Brother film Co Sandakan to Limbang theater , with CDS Sandakan 1963 and Limbang Recieved CDS 1963. in the back.

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Driwancybermuseum Galery (continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

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Driwancybermuseum Galery ( continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan CThis is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery
ybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

Pada 20 Januari 1963,

Menteri Luar Negeri Indonesia Soebandrio mengumumkan bahwa Indonesia mengambil sikap bermusuhan terhadap Malaysia. Pada 12 April, sukarelawan Indonesia (sepertinya pasukan militer tidak resmi) mulai memasuki Sarawak dan Sabah untuk menyebar propaganda dan melaksanakan penyerangan dan sabotase.

Tanggal 3 Mei 1963

 

 

di sebuah rapat raksasa yang digelar di Jakarta, Presiden Sukarno mengumumkan perintah Dwi Komando Rakyat (Dwikora) yang isinya: Pertinggi ketahanan revolusi Indonesia, Bantu perjuangan revolusioner rakyat Malaya, Singapura, Sarawak dan Sabah, untuk menghancurkan Malaysia

Di bulan Agustus, enam belas agen bersenjata Indonesia ditangkap di Johor. Aktivitas Angkatan Bersenjata Indonesia di perbatasan juga meningkat. Tentera Laut DiRaja Malaysia mengerahkan pasukannya untuk mempertahankan Malaysia. Tentera Malaysia hanya sedikit saja yang diturunkan dan harus bergantung pada pos perbatasan dan pengawasan unit komando. Misi utama mereka adalah untuk mencegah masuknya pasukan Indonesia ke Malaysia.

Sebagian besar pihak yang terlibat konflik senjata dengan Indonesia adalah Inggris dan Australia, terutama pasukan khusus mereka yaitu Special Air Service(SAS). Tercatat sekitar 2000 pasukan Indonesia tewas dan 200 pasukan Inggris/Australia (SAS) juga tewas setelah bertempur di belantara kalimantan (Majalah Angkasa Edisi 2006).

Pada 17 Agustus pasukan terjun payung mendarat di pantai barat daya Johor dan mencoba membentuk pasukan gerilya. Pada 2 September 1964 pasukan terjun payung didaratkan di Labis, Johor. Pada 29 Oktober, 52 tentara mendarat di Pontian di perbatasan Johor-Malaka dan membunuh pasukan Resimen Askar Melayu DiRaja dan Selandia Baru dan menumpas juga Pasukan Gerak Umum Kepolisian Kerajaan Malaysia di Batu 20, Muar, Johor.

Ketika PBB menerima Malaysia sebagai anggota tidak tetap. Sukarno menarik Indonesia dari PBB pada tanggal 20 Januari 1965. Pada pertengahan 1965, Indonesia mulai menggunakan pasukan resminya. Pada 28 Juni, mereka menyeberangi perbatasan masuk ke timur Pulau Sebatik dekat Tawau, Sabah dan berhadapan dengan Resimen Askar Melayu Di Raja dan Kepolisian North Borneo Armed Constabulary.

Pada 1 Juli 1965, militer Indonesia yang berkekuatan kurang lebih 5000 orang melabrak pangkalan Angkatan Laut Malaysia di Semporna. Serangan dan pengepungan terus dilakukan hingga 8 September namun gagal. Peristiwa ini dikenal dengan “Pengepungan 68 Hari” oleh warga Malaysia. Menjelang akhir 1965, Jendral Soeharto memegang kekuasaan di Indonesia setelah berlangsungnya G30S. Oleh karena konflik domestik ini, keinginan Indonesia untuk meneruskan perang dengan Malaysia menjadi berkurang dan peperangan pun mereda.

Pada 28 Mei 1966 di sebuah konferensi di Bangkok, Kerajaan Malaysia dan pemerintah Indonesia mengumumkan penyelesaian konflik. Kekerasan berakhir bulan Juni, dan perjanjian perdamaian ditandatangani pada 11 Agustus dan diresmikan dua hari kemudian

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Pada 1961, Kalimantan dibagi menjadi empat administrasi. Kalimantan, sebuah provinsi di Indonesia, terletak di selatan Kalimantan. Di utara adalah Kerajaan Brunei dan dua koloni Inggris; Sarawak dan Britania Borneo Utara, kemudian dinamakan Sabah. Sebagai bagian dari penarikannya dari koloninya di Asia Tenggara, Inggris mencoba menggabungkan koloninya di Kalimantan dengan Semenanjung Malaya untuk membentuk Malaysia.

Rencana ini ditentang oleh Pemerintahan Indonesia; Presiden Soekarno berpendapat bahwa Malaysia hanya sebuah boneka Inggris, dan konsolidasi Malaysia hanya akan menambah kontrol Inggris di kawasan ini, sehingga mengancam kemerdekaan Indonesia. Filipina juga membuat klaim atas Sabah, dengan alasan daerah itu memiliki hubungan sejarah dengan Filipina melalui Kesultanan Sulu.

 

Di Brunei, Tentara Nasional Kalimantan Utara (TNKU) memberontak pada 8 Desember 1962.

 

Mereka mencoba menangkap Sultan Brunei, ladang minyak dan sandera orang Eropa. Sultan lolos dan meminta pertolongan Inggris. Dia menerima pasukan Inggris dan Gurkha dari Singapura.

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Rebellion in Brunei

The 1962 Revolt, Imperialism, Confrontation and Oil

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Brunei has long been associated with massive oil resources and the stability that its wealth can guarantee.  But little is known of the revolt of 1962 which might have changed the fortunes of the sultanate and the fate of South East Asia.
 
This is the first comprehensive history of the Brunei Rebellion, the trigger for the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation of the 60s and of critical importance in understanding the history of the region.
 
The revolt of 1962 was a small armed uprising in support of a Borneo Federation consisting of Brunei, Sarawak and North Borneo.  It opposed the Malaysian Federation, seen as a buttress of British and Western imperial interest.  In a period of great tension between the West and the Communist world, China viewed the rebellion as a national liberation war and it was quickly suppressed by the British Emergency Force.  But although the rebellion itself was short-lived, the consequences for the region’s international relations within Asia and with the West  – especially given Brunei’s emergence as a significant oil-producer – were far-reaching.

 

8 December 1962
An Indonesian-sponsored revolt by the North Kalimantan National Army (TNKU) begins with the aim of deposing the Sultan of Brunei. In response, British forces initiated a contingency plan,

Operation Ale (later changed to Borneo Territories).

 

Elements of a Gurkha battalion were deployed from

 

 

RAF Seletar to Brunei Town by three Blackburn Beverleys of No.34 Squadron

 

 

and to Labuan by a Bristol Britannia of No.99 Squadron. Further reinforcements were subsequently flown in by No.48 Squadron (Handley Page Hastings), No.52 Squadron (Vickers Valetta) and No.205 Squadron (Avro Shackleton), supported by No.38 Squadron RAAF (Lockheed Hercules) and No.41 Squadron, Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) (Bristol Freighter).

Subsequently, No.20 Squadron (Hawker Hunter) and No.45 Squadron (English Electric Canberra) were detached to Labuan to provide close air support and No.209 Squadron (Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer) and No.66 Squadron (Bristol Belvedere) to Brunei for local transport.

Prompt action to seize areas taken by the TNKU led to the collapse of the rebellion by 17 December, although low-level operations continued for several months to mop up the remaining rebels

 

8 Dec – An Indonesian-sponsored revolt by the North Kalimantan National Army (TNKU) began with the aim of deposing the Sultan of Brunei. In response, British forces initiated a contingency plan, Operation Ale (later changed to Borneo Territories).

Elements of a Gurkha battalion was deployed from RAF Seletar to Brunei Town by three Blackburn Beverleys of No 34 Squadron and to Labuan by a Bristol Britannia of No 99 Squadron; further reinforcements were subsequently flown in by No 48 Squadron (Handley Page Hastings), No 52 Squadron (Vickers Valetta) and No 205 Squadron (Avro Shackleton), supported by No 38 Squadron RAAF (Lockheed Hercules) and No 41 Squadron RNZAF (Bristol Freighter).

 

Subsequently, No 20 Squadron (Hawker Hunter) and No 45 Squadron (English Electric Canberra) were detached to Labuan to provide close air support, and No 209 Squadron (Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer) and No 66 Squadron (Bristol Belvedere) to Brunei for local transport.

Prompt action to seize areas taken by the TNKU led to the collapse of the rebellion by 17 December, although low-level operations continued for several months to mop up the remaining rebels.

Caption: Westland Belvedere of 66 Squadron RAF in Borneo – MOD

 

Pada 16 Desember, Komando Timur Jauh Inggris (British Far Eastern Command) mengklaim bahwa seluruh pusat pemberontakan utama telah diatasi, dan pada 17 April 1963, pemimpin pemberontakan ditangkap dan pemberontakan berakhir.

Filipina dan Indonesia resminya setuju untuk menerima pembentukan Malaysia apabila mayoritas di daerah yang ribut memilihnya dalam sebuah referendum yang diorganisasi oleh PBB. Tetapi, pada 16 September, sebelum hasil dari pemilihan dilaporkan. Malaysia melihat pembentukan federasi ini sebagai masalah dalam negeri, tanpa tempat untuk turut campur orang luar, tetapi pemimpin Indonesia melihat hal ini sebagai perjanjian yang dilanggar dan sebagai bukti imperialisme Inggris.
“ Sejak demonstrasi anti-Indonesia di Kuala Lumpur, ketika para demonstran menyerbu gedung KBRI, merobek-robek foto Soekarno, membawa lambang negara Garuda Pancasila ke hadapan Tunku Abdul Rahman—Perdana Menteri Malaysia saat itu—dan memaksanya untuk menginjak Garuda, amarah Soekarno terhadap Malaysia pun meledak. ”

Soekarno yang murka karena hal itu mengutuk tindakan Tunku yang menginjak-injak lambang negara Indonesia[1] dan ingin melakukan balas dendam dengan melancarkan gerakan yang terkenal dengan nama Ganyang Malaysia.

Perang

Pada 20 Januari 1963, Menteri Luar Negeri Indonesia Soebandrio mengumumkan bahwa Indonesia mengambil sikap bermusuhan terhadap Malaysia. Pada 12 April, sukarelawan Indonesia (sepertinya pasukan militer tidak resmi) mulai memasuki Sarawak dan Sabah untuk menyebar propaganda dan melaksanakan penyerangan dan sabotase. Tanggal 3 Mei 1963 di sebuah rapat raksasa yang digelar di Jakarta, Presiden Sukarno mengumumkan perintah Dwi Komando Rakyat (Dwikora) yang isinya:

* Pertinggi ketahanan revolusi Indonesia
* Bantu perjuangan revolusioner rakyat Malaya, Singapura, Sarawak dan Sabah, untuk menghancurkan Malaysia


note:Presiden yg paling tegas & keren
Pada 27 Juli, Sukarno mengumumkan bahwa dia akan meng-”ganyang Malaysia”. Pada 16 Agustus, pasukan dari Rejimen Askar Melayu DiRaja berhadapan dengan lima puluh gerilyawan Indonesia.

Meskipun Filipina tidak turut serta dalam perang, mereka memutuskan hubungan diplomatik dengan Malaysia.

Federasi Malaysia resmi dibentuk pada 16 September 1963. Brunei menolak bergabung dan Singapura keluar di kemudian hari.

Ketegangan berkembang di kedua belah pihak Selat Malaka. Dua hari kemudian para kerusuhan membakar kedutaan Britania di Jakarta. Beberapa ratus perusuh merebut kedutaan Singapura di Jakarta dan juga rumah diplomat Singapura. Di Malaysia, agen Indonesia ditangkap dan massa menyerang kedutaan Indonesia di Kuala Lumpur.

Di sepanjang perbatasan di Kalimantan, terjadi peperangan perbatasan; pasukan Indonesia dan pasukan tak resminya mencoba menduduki Sarawak dan Sabah, dengan tanpa hasil.

Pada 1964 pasukan Indonesia mulai menyerang wilayah di Semenanjung Malaya. Di bulan Mei dibentuk Komando Siaga yang bertugas untuk mengkoordinir kegiatan perang terhadap Malaysia (Operasi Dwikora). Komando ini kemudian berubah menjadi Komando Mandala Siaga (Kolaga). Kolaga dipimpin oleh

Laksdya Udara Omar Dani

sebagai Pangkolaga. Kolaga sendiri terdiri dari tiga Komando, yaitu Komando Tempur Satu (Kopurtu) berkedudukan di Sumatera yang terdiri dari 12 Batalyon TNI-AD, termasuk tiga Batalyon Para dan satu batalyon KKO. Komando ini sasaran operasinya Semenanjung Malaya dan dipimpin oleh Brigjen Kemal Idris sebaga Pangkopur-I. Komando Tempur Dua (Kopurda) berkedudukan di Bengkayang, Kalimantan Barat dan terdiri dari 13 Batalyon yang berasal dari unsur KKO, AURI, dan RPKAD. Komando ini dipimpin Brigjen Soepardjo sebagai Pangkopur-II. Komando ketiga adalah Komando Armada Siaga yang terdiri dari unsur TNI-AL dan juga KKO. Komando ini dilengkapi dengan Brigade Pendarat dan beroperasi di perbatasan Riau dan Kalimantan Timur.

Di bulan Agustus, enam belas agen bersenjata Indonesia ditangkap di Johor. Aktivitas Angkatan Bersenjata Indonesia di perbatasan juga meningkat. Tentera Laut DiRaja Malaysia mengerahkan pasukannya untuk mempertahankan Malaysia. Tentera Malaysia hanya sedikit saja yang diturunkan dan harus bergantung pada pos perbatasan dan pengawasan unit komando. Misi utama mereka adalah untuk mencegah masuknya pasukan Indonesia ke Malaysia. Sebagian besar pihak yang terlibat konflik senjata dengan Indonesia adalah Inggris dan Australia, terutama pasukan khusus mereka yaitu Special Air Service(SAS). Tercatat sekitar 2000 pasukan khusus Indonesia (Kopassus) tewas dan 200 pasukan khusus Inggris/Australia (SAS) juga tewas setelah bertempur di belantara kalimantan (Majalah Angkasa Edisi 2006).

Pada 17 Agustus pasukan terjun payung mendarat di pantai barat daya Johor dan mencoba membentuk pasukan gerilya. Pada 2 September 1964 pasukan terjun payung didaratkan di Labis, Johor. Pada 29 Oktober, 52 tentara mendarat di Pontian di perbatasan Johor-Malaka dan ditangkap oleh pasukan Resimen Askar Melayu DiRaja dan Selandia Baru dan bakinya ditangkap oleh Pasukan Gerak Umum Kepolisian Kerajaan Malaysia di Batu 20, Muar, Johor.

Ketika PBB menerima Malaysia sebagai anggota tidak tetap. Sukarno menarik Indonesia dari PBB pada tanggal 20 Januari 1965 dan mencoba membentuk Konferensi Kekuatan Baru (Conference of New Emerging Forces, Conefo) sebagai alternatif.

Sebagai tandingan Olimpiade, Soekarno bahkan menyelenggarakan GANEFO (Games of the New Emerging Forces) yang diselenggarakan di Senayan, Jakarta pada 10-22 November 1963. Pesta olahraga ini diikuti oleh 2.250 atlet dari 48 negara di Asia, Afrika, Eropa dan Amerika Selatan, serta diliput sekitar 500 wartawan asing.

Pada Januari 1965, Australia setuju untuk mengirimkan pasukan ke Kalimantan setelah menerima banyak permintaan dari Malaysia. Pasukan Australia menurunkan 3 Resimen Kerajaan Australia dan Resimen Australian Special Air Service. Ada sekitar empat belas ribu pasukan Inggris dan Persemakmuran di Australia pada saat itu. Secara resmi, pasukan Inggris dan Australia tidak dapat mengikuti penyerang melalu perbatasan Indonesia. Tetapi, unit seperti Special Air Service, baik Inggris maupun Australia, masuk secara rahasia (lihat Operasi Claret). Australia mengakui penerobosan ini pada 1996.

Pada pertengahan 1965, Indonesia mulai menggunakan pasukan resminya. Pada 28 Juni, mereka menyeberangi perbatasan masuk ke timur Pulau Sebatik dekat Tawau, Sabah dan berhadapan dengan Resimen Askar Melayu Di Raja dan Kepolisian North Borneo Armed Constabulary.

Pada 1 Juli 1965, militer Indonesia yang berkekuatan kurang lebih 5000 orang melabrak pangkalan Angkatan Laut Malaysia di Sampurna. Serangan dan pengepungan terus dilakukan hingga 8 September namun gagal. Pasukan Indonesia mundur dan tidak penah menginjakkan kaki lagi di bumi Malaysia. Peristiwa ini dikenal dengan “Pengepungan 68 Hari” oleh warga Malaysia.

[sunting] Akhir konfrontasi

Menjelang akhir 1965, Jendral Soeharto memegang kekuasaan di Indonesia setelah berlangsungnya G30S/PKI. Oleh karena konflik domestik ini, keinginan Indonesia untuk meneruskan perang dengan Malaysia menjadi berkurang dan peperangan pun mereda.

Pada 28 Mei 1966 di sebuah konferensi di Bangkok, Kerajaan Malaysia dan pemerintah Indonesia mengumumkan penyelesaian konflik. Kekerasan berakhir bulan Juni, dan perjanjian perdamaian ditandatangani pada 11 Agustus dan diresmikan dua hari kemudian.

[sunting] Akibat

Konfrontasi ini merupakan salah satu penyebab kedekatan Presiden Soekarno dengan PKI, menjelaskan motivasi para tentara yang menggabungkan diri dalam gerakan G30S/Gestok (Gerakan Satu Oktober), dan juga pada akhirnya menyebabkan PKI melakukan penculikan petinggi Angkatan Darat

 

In September 1963 , Sarawak joint the Malaysia, and have confrontation with Indonesia and North Borneo United State.
Brunei held its first election in 1962, which was won by Party Rakyat Brunei (Brunei People’s party) . Unfortunetly , the Party was manipulated by leaders who formed the illegal North Kalimantan National army (PARAKU= Pasukan Rakyat Kalimantan Utara), and staged a rebellion to overthrown the Govern-ment , The revolt was speedily crush-ed at the cost of many lives.

 

in 1996, I found in Jakarta this very rare and only one ever exist in the world, The North Borneo Puppet state lead by DR Azhari official Negara Kalimantan Utara (north Borneo State) embassy in Indonesia original postally used cover send to the Command of Cakrabirawa President Sukarno Guard Brig Jen Sambas (may be when he was pass away the family through out his private document and found by the lapak,and I bought there,very lucky, later this Cakrabirawa during the Commnuist PKI coupt d’etat killed many Indonesia General one was  Jendral Ahmad Jani the commander in Chief of Indonesia Army that time- I think this postalk history better put in the National Postal history Museum in Indonesia or in Sarawak or Malaysia Borneo Postal History museum-dr iwan s)

Sabah Chines   have much closer link with China than the Chinese of Sarawak, who look more toward Singapore.
Politrical development in the Borneo territories is only a few years old, and when it began ,spurred by Indonesia, more recently by malaya’s independence and Singapore’s self goverment, more recently still by the idea of Great Malaysia, it was organized along multiu-racial lines, but this dinot last, and parties today largely represent racial group.
Sarawak is the most politically advanced of the three territories. The largest party, formed in 1959, is the Sarawak United People’s party, took control, and S.U.P.P and modelednon Singapore’s people’s Action party. It began as a mildly socialist,multi-racial party and continued that way untilmits Chinese-educated Chinese members,led by leaders of the illegal Communist party, took control, and SUPP rapidly became a Communist-front organization. Its executive officers, including chairman Ong kee Hui, a wealthy banker and grandson of the femous kapitan China General under the last White rajah, are anti –Communist but were unable to prevent Communist domination of the rank and file, adn SUPP seriously splintered.
This split was widened in 1962 when two Chinese executives of the party had their residence restricted in Sarawak and left for China, and the wife of one , and another executive , were deported to China.
The Communist behind SUPP have tried hard , by organizing among the Chinese population and other groups, to stir up opposition to Greater Malaysia.
They even used Chinese school children –a popular method in Singapore- to take part in demonstrations against malaysia when Tunku Abdulrahman visited Sarawak in November,1962. But since then first moves have been made by Liberal groups to purge the party of its Communist control and to bring it into political line wit all other parties in Sarawak who support the formation of Malaysia- and these groups seem to be succeeding.
Azhari , who is not yet forty, has worked for years among the Brunei malays and has played on their backwardness and political inferiority to the Malays of Malaya. Although he calls himself a brunei Malay and was born in Brunei, and looks more Arab than Malay. He was in Indonesian Sumatra under the Japanese in World War II and has advocated a union between Brunei and Indonesia.
He returned to Brunei in 1952 and helped from Party Ra’yat in 1956 . In 1957 he went to london to demand independence of Brunei.
He is a dynamic speaker with dreams of a “Greater brunei” and bitterly opposes Malaysia, which would prevent his real ambition is to become Political dictator of all North Borneo , including Sarawak and claim that , even if he is not a member of the Communst party, he has strong personal links with Indonesian and Singapore Communist . Other say he is a fanatical nationatlist. Whatever is true, he is a man to watch is this fermenting little Sultanate , where political reform is urgently needed.
Presiden Soekarno announced “MALAYSIA CONFRONTATION” in 27th July 1963, PARAKU-PGRS became heroes in Indonesia, they gurella in the Border Sarawak and West kalimantan. When Suharto as the new Indonesian leader , he made a freandly with Malaysia, and PARAKU_PGRS were attacked and in 1967 there were “Kerusuhan” anti- Chinese know as the Red Cup affairs. PGRS means Pasukan Gerilya Rakyat Sarawak were the Black Goat “Kambing Hitam” Confrontation

 

THE LAST LATER FROM KUCHING SARAWAK TO INDONESIA CDS KUCING JUNE 1963,ONLY THREEW EEK BEFORE PRES.SUKARNO ANNOUNCED MALAYASIA CONFRONTATION.

IN JULY 1963,  President Sukarno annouced Ganyang Malaysia and the diplomastic and international communication between Indonesia and Malaysia  including sarawak were off, until Indonesian Vice President Adam Malik and President Suharto later made the normal diplomatic communication in ASDEAN countries group until now, althouh in one years still many diplomatic and political problem between the two countries,b ut I thik the phillatelic friendy were alway in good communications except some people still made the political in philatelic and another art hobbies. but I always made a good friendly communications with some my Sarawak phillatelic collectors, I donnot join and think about political, I care for human reliatioship, we are the phillatelic friend from all over the world.the end.@copyright dr iwan s 2010.

THE LIST OF STAMPS and REVENUE COLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS.
1. Postal History
(001) SIM THIAN PECK THIAN SIME & DARBY SARAWAK MALAYA BORNEO COVERS THE BRITISH COLONY SARAWAK POSTAL HISTORY WITH CV ZBROOKE STAMPS OVERPRINT CROWN SEDN FROM SIM THIAN PECK SIME & DERBY SARAWAK BORNEO(MALAYA WAS OFF BY PEN,THE NAME ADDED BY HANWRITTEN) sent from kuching in 1949 to Surabaya Indonesia.

(002)SAEDAH LIMBAN G COVER

Seadah Covers,Postally Used cover from Colony North Borneo to Limbang Sarawak during Colonial state CDS Limbang 19 th Sept 1953, sandakan State of North Borneo 17th September, combination King George and elisabeth coronation stamps , rare combinations.

(003)Richard Covers, Cds Kuching 17 yl 1963 to Djakarta, the last letter from Sarawak, because at this day the Confrontation “Ganyang Malaysia” announced by President Soekarno and in Sept 1963 Sarawak under Malaysia. Rare and historic letter.
(004)Sambas Covers, Azhari’s North Borneo United state Embassy Jakarta postally used, extreme rare covers

 

 

Chapter one

 

I have only little informations about The First Rajah Sir James brooke as the founder of Sarawak Country will be discusssed  in the Historic Background.

Only one stamps issued at March 1 st 1869,litho by Maclure ,Macdonald & Co.Perforeted 11, no watermark, colour brown yellow. I have never seen the Used Stamps on Covers, but I think some have that unique postal History will be kind to send us the informations. I have mint stamps from a Dutchman during Phillatelic exhation jakarta 1986 and the picture will be the book ‘s chapter one illustration, the sarawak phillatelic association journal have block four mint. Many this first stamp mint no gum , if with original gum are worth considerably more high value.

 

I have some coins and article about the first Rajah, the informations and illustrations will be in the Historic Background This book were the Global project , as the suggested byMr Bill in his letter to Mr Ong and list in the Sarawak Phillatelic Journal ,2000: “ Neville Watterson,s monograph on the subject ,published 4 years ago (1996), is the only one on trhe Subject. I loaned him all my material at the time and helped out with proof –reading it. Obviously there is now a great deal more to added and I agree that members living locally in Sarawak are in the best posituon to do it . Should you set such a project I shall be very happy to contribute such Information as I have.” Indonesian Oldies Sarawak Collectors have many Sarawak Postal History espacially from West Borneo, that is way I start your project very long time ago in 1974.

 

 

1.1.HISTORIC BACKGROUND

1.1.1 A Brief History of Sarawak

A.Before James Brooke Arrived

a.Chinese Overseas

The Bau Chinese Insurgence 1857

This is a forgotten sad story of a Chinese leader Liu Shan Bang, the Twelve Kongsi operating in the Mau San gold mine, and the once prosperous self governed mining town of Bau Lama or Mau San.

The Mau San Tian Tsze Lung Kung is more than a century old. It was founded around the time when gold & antimony were discovered in Mau San, about 1820 – 1830. The host deity is Lau Chu Tian Tsze, a deity of Hakka origin since most of the miners were Hakka, originally mostly from Sambas, Kalimantan. This temple provided the pioneer miners spiritual supports and also served as a centre for cultural activities & other administrative matters of the Twelve Kongsi.

Before the arrival of Sir James Brooke, Sarawak was under the rule of Brunei. Around that time, Sarawak, particularly the settlement around the gold mining areas were facing an uprising against the Brunei ruling from native Dayaks and the Malays. James Brooke assisted the Sultan of Brunei to settle the local civil war & thus was granted the White Rajah to rule Sarawak.

As the Brooke Administration began to establish his rule over Sarawak, he began to impose taxes etc, prohibited opium & wine trading, and restricted trading & export of gold & antimony, particularly to the self governing Mau San and the Twelve Kongsi.
It was said that James Brooke earlier on had established agreement with the Twelve Kongsi of non intervention on respective areas, partly of his busy involvement with the local civil war between Brunei & local Dayaks, and earlier political circumstances.

The Twelve Kongsi and the Chinese miners in Mau San had already well established since then. They were well contented in their self rulings since the earlier Brunei poor administration, & the civil war.

The reforming Brooke administration had angered the Mau San miners & the Twelve Kongsi, and thus a rebellion was started against the White Rajah.
The rebellion was initiated in 1857 at Tian Tsze Lung Kung in Mau San by Liu Shan Bang, the leader of the Twelve Kongsi.

600 armed miners, without proper weapons & military training, paddled down the Sarawak River & attacked the Astana. James Brooke escaped the assault. Five Europeans were killed, and one was mistaken to be James Brooke. With no political will & planning the Chinese miners stayed or ruled Kuching for 3 days before returning to their base.

By then, James Brooke had already been given time for retaliation. The counter attacks by Brooke’s army, with combined forces of Skrang Iban warriors & Malays loyal to him, defeated the Chinese miners badly.

In Jugan Siniawan, more than a hundred miners were killed; including the leader Liu Shan Bang himself. Dead bodies were left & decomposed everywhere in the area. The smell was said to be so bad that the nearby place is now called ‘Buso’ (in Malay, it means rotten or stink). The Shan Teck Temple in Siniawan was later constructed in memory of the tragic event of Liu Shan Bang & his associates.

The remaining miners retreated further to Mau San, some escaped to Kalimantan, most perished on the way. Many miners & families hid in nearby cave (the Ghost Cave named after the tragedy) and subsequently hunted down & killed by the Rajah forces; most were suffocated to death, including many women & children. The Mau San mining settlement, together with the Twelve Kongsi was thus wiped out after the incident.

The decomposed smell of dead bodies in Ghost Cave & surrounding areas in Mau San had lasted for weeks; it is not known whether the town, ‘Bau’ (means smelly, in Malay), got its name from the incident.

 

b.European adventure To Sarawak

B.After James Brooke Arrived

The Adventure, The Story

- Named after the Sarawak River as it was here where Sarawak began.

 

The Man and his Personal Warship

Once upon a time in a far away land, lived an English adventurer, James Brooke. Growing up between England and India, he later served in the Bengal Army and was severely wounded in action. Invalided back to England, he returned as merchant mariner sailing the China Seas but the whole enterprise was a failure. With the passing of his father, a

 British East India Company judge, young Brooke used his sizeable inheritance to purchase a former Royal Yacht Squadron vessel. The 142-ton heavily armed and well-crewed schooner, The Royalist was effectively a private warship. Then, he embarked on a voyage to the Far East sailing under the White Ensign / St. George Flag of The Royal Yacht Club that commanded respect in the naval and colonial circles. He stopped over in Singapore where he was well received. He wanted to see for himself the island, part of The Straits Settlements, founded in 1819 by the man he idolized, Sir Stamford Raffles.

 

The Brunei-S’wak Episode

In 1839, Brooke sailed up the Sarawak River with a letter from the Governor of the Straits Settlement, expressing gratitude to the Sultan for rescuing some shipwrecked sailors earlier. Mistaken for a British emissary at a time of unrest and upon a conditional request by the Sultan’s Regent, who had been sent from Brunei to end the uprising, Brooke helped subdue the tribal rebellions against the cruel District Governor – Pengiran Mahkota / Prince of Brunei, using diplomacy and the might of his cannons. The Regent promised to make him Rajah (or Raja) of Sarawak in return for his help.  Waiting impatiently two years later, with his cannons aiming at the Sultan’s palace in Brunei and with an alliance of Dayaks behind him, Brooke made the Sultan honour the Regent’s pledge.  He was reluctantly made  Rajah of Sarawak by the Sultan of Brunei.  At the time, the small disputed territories included present day Kuching and its surroundings. Sarawak had been part of the Sultanate of Brunei since 1476, the centre of Islamic culture and civilisation in the region.  Little did anyone know that an epic saga would begin!

 

Brunei Sultanate peaked between 14th – 16th century, controlled Borneo and Sulu Archipelago

 

The Borneo Connections

Borneo, the world’s 3rd largest island, is a Portuguese mispronunciation of Brunei. It is the only island on Earth that is divided among 3 countries today. Before it was part of Brunei, Sarawak was under the Hindu Javanese Kingdom of Majapahit which was seized during the 13th Century from the Buddhist Sumatran Srivijaya Empire that reigned from as early as the 5th Century. Relics were found at Santubong where earlier civilisations thrived, proven that Chinese and Indian traders came around the 6th Century. Long inhabited, Borneo’s oldest remains of Homo sapiens were found in Niah Cave, carbon dated from 40,000 years ago. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to set foot here to trade in 1518, followed by the Spanish who invaded Brunei’s capital, briefly occupying for 72 days. Later, the Dutch would colonise Kalimantan while the British took North Borneo – today’s Sabah. Sarawak under the Brookes was never under any colonial power but a sovereign Kingdom of the White Rajahs, a British family’s affair, uniquely one of a kind deemed superior to any regime in the British Empire.

 

 

 

The Dynasty, The Kingdom

Rajah Sir James Brooke was. Practicing the old doctrine ‘Divide and rule’, he made alliance with some tribes to fight another. There are 27 different ethnic groups here in Sarawak but these are stories for another day. At the expense of Brunei, the 2nd Rajah, Sir Charles Brooke continued to expand the territories to its present size, which is almost as large as England. He even attempted to gobble up by then, the dwarfed Brunei but failed. Lastly, the 3rd Rajah, Sir Charles Vyner Brooke had to face the  Japanese Occupation after the Brooke’s Centennial ceremony in 1941. For three generations over 100 years, the Brooke Dynasty had ruled this Kingdom of Sarawak. A period of romanticism. All  three Rajahs were knighted by the Queens and Kings of  Britain for their roles in the British Empire expansionism.

 

WAGs of The Rajahs

The Changing of Guards; 4 different Flags under ¼ of a century 75 days. Due to the devastation of the war and the heavy cost of reconstructions, he ceded Sarawak to the Crown for a hefty pension as he had no son. Henceforth, a British Crown Colony but this cessation resulted in a long struggle and the assas left the Federation in 1965).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Rainforest’s Offshoots

 

Orang Utan vs Man, 10x vs 1x where size remains equal                (x = strength)

To reminisce on the bygone era of

 

 

 

 

The White Rajahs,

 

 

 

 

The Malay Sampan tub.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Iban War Boat

 

 

 

 

 

The Orang Ulu ‘Flying’ Boat

Or try our in their warriors’ chests that it would fuel the boat to virtually ‘fly’ by

 

became

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.2 literature’s Study

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Raja (also Pengiran) Muda Hashim was the uncle of the Sultan of Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddin II (1828-1852).

 

 

Fig 1: Picture of Raja Muda Hashim

The exact family ties between the Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II and Pengiran Muda Hashim is depicted in the following chart.

 

Fig 2: Brunei royal genealogy

On the subject of royal succession, let me quote from Frank Marryat’s book Borneo & the Indian Archipelago: “At the death of the late sultan, Muda Hassan (sic) was the heir-apparent to the throne, but he resigned in favour of his nephew, retaining the office of prime minister, which office he had held during the former reign, not only to the satisfaction of the sultan, but also of the people, with whom he was deservedly a great favourite.”

Around 1835, the Sultan sent Muda Hashim to Sarawak to restore order there. Sarawak had been a loosely governed territory under the control of the Brunei in the early 19th century. At that time, an anti-Brunei force of Malays and Bidayuhs led by Datu Patinggi Ali was revolting against Pengiran Indera Mahkota, the Brunei-appointed Malay governor of Sarawak.. By various accounts, Mahkota was a harsh man, forcing the locals to work like slaves to extract antimony from the mines in Sarawak. Hence the uprising.

 

However even after Raja Muda Hashim’s arrival in Sarawak, very little happened for a few years, with both sides not making much progress. Also it appears that Muda Hashim and Mahkota didn’t see eye to eye, and a certain tension developed between them.

 

When the English adventurer James Brooke reached Singapore on his Far East voyage, he heard that the ruler of Sarawak, Raja Muda Hashim had shown that he was friendly to Europeans. Earlier on the Raja Muda had been hospitable to some British sailors shipwrecked on the coastal waters of Sarawak and even sent them back to Singapore. James Brooke was curious to see what the fabled Borneo was really like. Besides Mr Bonham, the British Governor of Singapore wanted James to give a letter of thanks and some presents to Raja Muda Hashim for his kind treatment of the sailors.

 

And so it was on 15 August 1839 that James Brooke in his schooner “The Royalist” sailed up the Sarawak River, and anchored off Kuching.

 

Raja Muda Hashim gave him a friendly welcome. As one writer described Muda Hashim and the first meeting: “His appearance was not imposing but his manners were a pattern of courtesy and he maintained a certain shabby dignity. He returned the Royalist’s  salute of 21 guns with a salute of 17 and received his visitor with some pomp in the palm-leaf shed which went by the name of audience hall”   All in all their meetings were amicable enough  and Muda Hashim did request his help in quelling the rebels but James Brooke declined, not wanting to get involved. He departed after a short stay.

 

James Brooke then spent a year cruising in the Archipelago and had decided to return to England. But before he did so, he thought he would first pay another visit to Kuching. In  August 1840, he landed in Sarawak again and found that the fighting was still continuing. This time when Raja Muda Hashim asked again, he agreed to assist.

 

With his powerful cannons and superior military tactics, Brooke was able to quell the rebellion. In reward for his success, Muda Hashim signed a treaty on 24 September 1841 surrendering territory from the westernmost tip of Sarawak, Tanjung Dato, to the Samarahan river  to Brooke and bestowing on him the title of Governor of Sarawak.

 

This appointment was made official on 18 September 1842 by Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II.  In return Brooke promised to pay the Sultan an annual tribute of $2,500, to preserve the customs and religion of the people in Sarawak and not to separate Sarawak from Brunei without the Sultan’s consent. It was a big political mistake on the Sultan’s part to appoint Brooke but the Englishman had the backing of the British Navy.

 

 

Fig 3: Artist impression of James Brooke at the court of

the Sultan of Brunei



In 1844

Pengiran Muda Hashim returned from Sarawak to Brunei, accompanied by James Brooke and a British naval captain, Sir Edward Blecher. While in Sarawak, Muda Hashim had lost his high status at home due to a palace coup in Brunei. His opponent Pengiran Usop has become Bendahara in his absence. 

In that visit, Brooke and the British Naval Forces were able to re-install Pengiran Muda Hashim as the new Bendahara. Muda Hashim also secured official recognition to become the next Sultan of Brunei. This upset the chances of Pengiran Temenggong Pengiran Anak Hashim, the son of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II, who then plotted to kill Muda Hashim.

 

James Brooke needed someone in Brunei that he could rely on and Pengiran Muda Hashim seemed to be the one. The British also managed to get Brunei to destroy the defensive forts on Pulau Cermin and along the Brunei River as well as an agreement to give Labuan to the British.

When Pengiran Muda Hashim and his family were eventually murdered in 1846, the British navy under Rear Admiral Thomas Cochrane came and occupied Brunei Town, setting part of it ablaze and even forcing Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II to flee to Damuan.

 

 

Fig 4: Brunei Town under attack in 1846



To end the occupation, Brunei had to recognize James Brooke as the Rajah of Sarawak and ruled without interference, free to appoint his own successor and he was no longer the Sultan’s representative in Sarawak. The Island of Labuan was also surrendered.

 

James Brooke was subsequently knighted and appointed as the first British Governor of Labuan in 1847.

 

In the city of Kuching, there is a road called Jalan Muda Hashim, in memory of Raja Muda Hashim. I think it is appropriate as this gentleman played a significant, albeit inadvertent, role in shepherding in the Brooke dynasty which lasted a hundred years, and brought significant progress to Sarawak.

 

In 1863

Great Britain granted recognition of Sarawak as an independent and sovereign country.

However, this was not what Sir James Brooke,

 1st Rajah of Sarawak, desired. He tried several times to gain Protectorate Status of Sarawak from Great Britain. For he knew that in time of war, Sarawak would not be able to defend itself without the help of one of the Great Powers of the time. Sadly, this proved to be true

during the Chinese Uprising of 1857.

 Sarawak was nearly defenceless until the rather late arrival of a British Fleet from Singapore. It was during this time that Sir James Brooke began to think seriously about offering Sarawak to the United States as a colony.

Several years prior to 1863,

Sir James sent a letter to then U.S. President James Polk. In this letter he offered Sarawak to the United States. The only pre-condition was that he be allowed to remain in power. Sadly, this letter was never read by President Polk.

The United States, then pre-occupied with the looming Civil War between North and South, never seriously considered Sir James’ offer.

 It was not until 1863

 that President Abraham Lincoln replied to the letter sent almost 4 years earlier by Sir James. President Lincoln politely declined Sir James’s offer. Sir James then offered Sarawak to the Dutch, Belgians, Italians, French, and finally the Portuguese.

The only serious offer came from Belgium. However, the King of the Belgians set too many strict preconditions which did not suit Sir James Brooke. With the exception of Belgium, the other nations being pre-occupied with their own issues in the region did not wish to expand their already over-stretched resources by taking in Sarawak. As a result, Sir James Brooke was “forced” into the arms of Great Britain, a nation whose respect he had yet to earn.

In 1888,

 Great Britain, after refusing to offer protection to Sarawak for so many years suddenly offered it. However, it was not granted in the protection of the interests of Sarawak, but in the interest of the British Empire. Apparently, Great Britain suddenly became aware that another European Power could easily take Sarawak for themselves.

This is the reason why the British finally offered Sarawak protection.

 

Here are a few photos of the Brooke exhibits at the Sarawak Museum in Kuching, when I visited some time ago. Probably time I made another visit …

 

Fig 1: On Sir James Brooke, First Rajah

 

 

Fig 2: Sir James Brooke’s sword

 

 

Fig 3: Masthead from “The Royalist” (I think)

 

 

Fig 4 Bust of the Second Rajah, Sir Charles Brooke

We proceeded to the Church of St Leonard, Sheepstor, which is a short drive away.

Here are some photos …

 

Fig 1: View of St Leonard’s Church from nearby hill

 

 

Fig 2: Tower of Church of St Leonard

 

 

Fig 3: Inside of the Church of St Leonard

 

 

Fig 4a: The visitor book just by the entrance to the Church

(We noted many entries by people from Sarawak)

 

 

 

Fig 4b: This plaque above the entrance, reflects the work of Sir James Brooke

in the restoration of St Leonard’s Church. Amazing what 500 Pounds Sterling

can do in  the year 1861 !

 

 

Fig 5a: Large wooden panel on the wall with some background on the Brookes

 

 

Fig 5b: The first panel was on James Brooke

 

 

Fig 5c: The second panel was on Charles Brooke (originally Charles Anthoni Johnson)

 

 

Fig 5d: The third panel was on Charles Vyner Brooke

 

 

Fig 5e: The fourth panel was on Bertram Brooke (second son of Charles Brooke)

 

 

Fig 6: Going towards the cemetery at the back of the Church

 

 

Fig 7a: The main Brooke graves

(Leftmost & reddish is that of Sir James Brooke; rightmost & granite is for Sir Charles Brooke;

middle & behind is for Sir Charles Vyner Brooke; middle front is for Bertram Brooke)

 

 

Fig 7b: Grave of Sir James Brooke

 

 

Fig 7c: Grave of Sir Charles Brooke

 

 

Fig 7d: Grave of Sir Charles Vyner Brooke

 

 

Fig 7e: Grave of Bertram Brooke

 

 

Fig 8: Other Brooke graves near to the Rajahs

 

Well, those are the main photos from this memorable visit to Sheepstor.

 

a. Sarawak Anti-Cession Revolution (H.M.H.Sulaiman,1972)

1) Sarawak as Brunei Area

 

a) Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Ibnu Sultan Muhammad Jamalul-alam as the Brunei Emperor and Rajah Muda Hashim as the Sarawak Govemour.

b) Sarawak Native People’s Rebellion because the higher tax and Rajah Muda Hasim cann’t solved the Rebellion. In August.15th 1839, James Brooke came to Sarawak for the first time and Rajah Muda Hashim told him about the native revoluition but he still went to Celebes with his Ship (by with the money from his fathers).

c) In August,29 th 1840,James Brooke came back to Kuching and met Rajah Muda Hashim, the revolvutions Riot at the peak. Rajah Muda hashim asked james Brooke to help him and promise if he could made the Rebellion off , James Brooke will be Sarawak Gouvenor. Brunei Emperor have Rajah Muda Hashim(Pengiran Mahkota). September.24th 1841 , James Brooke as the gouvenor of Sarawak with area between Tanjung Datu to Batang Semerahan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2) Tuan Besar James Brooke Govenor Sarawak.

 

 

 

 

 

a)September.24th.1841

 James Brooke was appointed as Sarawak Govenour by Rajah Muda Hashim and he went to Brunei to get the official status from Brunei Emperor.

b)July.31st.1842,The excutive of Brunei(Pengiran Mahkota) made a meeting and Brunei Emperor made the Official “Pengesahan” James Brooke as the Sarawak Gouvenor title “Tuan Besar” with agreement “Treaties and Engagements affecting the Malay States and Brunei.”James Brooke must send Ufti 2.500 Dollars every Years to Sultan and his “Waris”,and Sarawak country cann’t give to another persons.

3)Rajah James Brooke In October .25th 1855,

 

during the meeting between Sarawak Malay leader and Consul General Borneo Mr Spencer St John, James Brooke have the title “Rajah” and the around area have their own Govenor like Sadong,Skrang, Lingga,Serikei, Mukah and Meredu. In 1855, James Brooke went to Brunei, ask the permission to help Pengiran Metusin’s war against Pengiran Arshad at Mukah. James Brooke send his Nephew Charlee Brooke to Serikei to help Pengiran Matusin at Mukah. Tuan Muda Serikei Sharif Mashor with native people from Dutch Borneo Pontinak and border area have made a rebellion against sarawak during James Brooke went to England, 1n 1859 the first war at Kanowit, Tuan Muda Charles Brooke punish the the Rebellion army at Kanowit and Kabah and he came back to Kuching to wait the good moment to attack Tuan Muda Sharif Mashor. When Tuan Muda Charles Brooke arrived at Kuching, he have the informations that Datuk Petringgi Gafur with Iban Troops want to attack Rajah Brooke, and Datuk Petinggi Gafur through out to Singapore. Sharif Mashor have three planning: First Datuk Petinggi Gafur from Singapore to Pontianak and command the native people there to made the rebellion against Ducth Indie goverment in West Borneo and after that went to Sarawak to help Shrif Manshor. Second, Tajang,Brunei Leader went to Sadong like Putra mahkota Brunei (Crown Prince) and Datuk Bandar Kassin the brother of Datuk patinggi Gafur will asked the Native Malayu and Iban at Lundu,Landak,sanggau and Pontianak moved to attack the European citizen. Third When in the Panic’s Situation at Kuching, Sharif Manshor will back to Sarawak to kill the European and Tuan Muda Charles Brooke.

In 1860,

 Datuk Patinggi Gafur was arrest by Duct Indie Goverment, and Sharif mansor went into Sarawak River but blooking and back to Serikei, but he attack Tuan Muda Charles Brooke at Semunjan , Sharif Mansor lost the war and run to Serikei , but Abang Ali the friend of Charles Brooke attack him , Sharif Manshor run to Igan but Charles Brooke burn his house. Sharif mansor went to Brunei , at the same time of the new Consul General G.w.Edwards ceremony at labuan . In 1860 Consul general Edward with Victoria Ship went to Mukah and the same time Charles Brooke went to Mukah to punish sharif manshor, James Brooke aske the Britsh Emperor to move Edward to another place. The New Borneo Consul General Britisth asked Brunei to give Mukah to James Brooke Sarawak. In August 1861, Mukah and all beach area until Kidurong official give to Rajah james Brooke by Sultan Abdul Mumin and Sharif Mashor run to Singapore. c. Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastren and Southren Asia Page 534 (Belfour,1880)

 

1)Sarawak, in Borneo ,

 

 is situated in a bay to eastward of Point Api , at the foot of a range of mountains from 1500 to 3000 feet high, extending towards the interior of the Island . The sarawak goverment acquired the coast territory from Cape Datu to the river Barram . The banks of the river of Sarawak are every where covered with fruit trees; the mengosteen, Lansat, Rambutan , jambon , and blim-bing are all abundant , but the durian is most so and most esteemed. A Beautifully resplendent sand , the particles of which resamble amethysts and topazed , is found at Lingah , a branch of the great Batang Lupar river , not far from its mouth. Sago is manifactured at Mukah and antimony is found at Bassein in Borneo.

 

2)In Borneo the Dutch had plated several tradingstations, though most of these had later been abandoned due to Chinese competition. In 18th century the Dutch factory at banjarmaisn was reopened during 1785 and another was opened at Pontianak, a district nomilly subject to Bantam, in 1786. Following the Anglo-Dutch war of 1780 to 1784 the Government of Batavia abandoned to East-coast Sttlement, Pontianak and its susidiaries , in 1791. Banjarmasin was vacted in 1797.

After the British occupation of the Moluccas in 1808 the Sulatan of Banjarmasin request British protection and a Sttlement was established there. In 1813 a British Agent was installed at Pontianak, and following British blockade , the other major Sultanates on Borneo (eg Brunei,Sambas) accepted British suzerainty. Following the London Treaty of 1814 ,

British interest were minimised and the Dutch returned to Banjarmaisn (1817), then Pontianak and sambas. Because British and Dutch couldnot agree about their relative spheres of influense in Borneo, the regulation of this island was excluded from the Anglo-Dutch trety of 1824. Around this period one of the main centres of piracy was the region North-west of Borneo where obvious groups of sea Dayaks had their strongholds. But such peoples had no political cohesion. The rising properity of Singapore gave further stimulus of piracy.

 3)Brooke,Sir James,raja of Sarawak,was born 1n 1803 at Benares .

 

 At the age of sixteen he recieved a commision in the Bengal Infantry and served in the first war against Burma, where he was severely wounded at the storming of a stockade. He lost his appointment by overstaying his home leave. On the death his father , he succeede to a handsome patimony and on the 27th of October 1838 his yacht “The Royalist” quitted England for Sarawak . He found its ruler , Muda Hasan , engaged in the suppresion of a rebellion, but with a few volleys from the European gun the insurgents surrendered, and Mr Brooke was duly installed in the rank of Raja of Sarawak,previously promised to him. The newly acquired territory was swampy, and ill cultivated by the native dyaks, who varied their occupations as tillers of the land by head-hunting excursions among neighbouring villages. He declared headhunting a crime punisable by death to the offender, and he suppressed it and priracy. On revisiting Britain, the british Goverment recognised his position, ordered a man-of-war to take him to the seat of his new settlement , gave him the tittle of Governor of Labuan, with a salary of 1800 poundsterling, with an extra 500 Poundsterling for a consular Agent, and afforded himthe services of a deputy Governor also on a good salary. He compile a code of laws, declared trade to be free, all roads to be open, all property inviolable, instituted a current coinage, and rigorously suppressed head-hunting, and maranding expeditions gradually became extinct in the province.

3)Brunei,the capital of Borneo, and the seat of Goverment .

 

 Its houses are built on piles in the river, and its population 20.000. Communication by boats. C. A Fearful Radical page 52 (Alastair Morrison) In 1841 Jame Brooke was made Rajah of Sarawak by the Sultan of Brunei and gradually extended his authority at the expense of that state. Naval help in curtailing piracy culminated in 1849 when large Iban fleet was severely handled by a Sarawak force supported by the Navy. The Action and especially a claim by the Navy for twenty thousand prize money aroused extensive publicity in England , musch of it hostile . Naval help was withdrawn and thereafter the Brookes had to fend for themselves, On the whole they managed dependent entirely on local support. with considerable success, British protection was only extended in 1888. Charles Brooke joined his uncle in 1852 after service in the navy which he joined at the astonishing age of twelve. The complete story in chapter two.

 

d)Book’s Clipping & Documet

1)TUAN MUDA HASHIM,

 

 

 

Page 62 Tuan Muda Hashim Govenor of Brunei area Sarawak saw it as an opportunity to make friend with British Government , in the hope of gaining their assistance, and treated the plight of the shipwreck sailors in a sympathetic manner, He housed and fed them before sending them back to Singapore at his own expense. The sailors were fulol of stories of praise for Hashim’s friendliness and humanity and the esrablisment in Singapore was impressed. Mr Bonham, perhaps unaware of the limited power of the Rajah Muda, was trying to establish a firm footing for british influence in the court of Hashim and requested James Brooke to convy his thanks and that of the singapore Chamber of commerce to the Rajah Muda.

2)James Brooke first Visit Sarawak,

 

Page 62-64 On the 1st August 1840,

 the James Brooke’s ship “Royalist” dropped anchornoff the westren side of Tanjong Datu, the Cape which marked the Westren boundry of Sarawak. Due to stormy weather it was August 5 th, before she rounded the Cape to Anchor off the Island of Talang-Talang , James spent a few days there surveying the coastline and ammending the Admirality charts which had placed the Island some miles off course. The “Royalist” then anchored beneath the mountain of Santubong which dominates the westren mouth of the sarawak river on the 12th August , and a boat was dispatched to the Rajah,s residence twenty miles up river to inform him of the arrival of James Brooke.

The next day the Rajah Muda Hashim send an official invitation to James Brooke t proceed to Kuching where the “Royalist” dropped anchor on the 15th August, and James Brooke had his first glimpse of the town that he would eventually rule over. It was merely a collection of wooden huts founded some year earlier, and the greater number of its eight hundred inhabitants were Brunei Malays.

 The”Rayalist” fired a twenty-one gun Royal salute for the Rajah Muda Hashim, who together with Makota, welcomed james formally to Sarawak. James Brooke was then given permission to trevel in several parts of the country, where he enjoyed the scenery and fauna and the simple pleasure of exploring the terrain.

On the question of revolt , both the Rajah Muda Hashim and Mahkota assured James Brooke for Singapore hoping to pay a return visit as soon as the war was over. Brooke than followed through with the next stage of his plans and sailed for the Celebes in November.

 He found the trip an interesting one but neverless retured to Singapore in May 1840,

 in poor health, depressed and with his fund running low. He then decided he would like to return to sarawak for one last visit before proceeding on to Manila, China and back to England.

3)James Brooke second visit Sarawak ,Page 62-64. On Arriving in Kuching on the 29th August 1840,

 

 he was astonished to find that the revolt was still very much in evidence. Because the rebel forces were now within thrirty miles of the town, James Brooke saw no hope of being able to travel into the interior and,with no much else to do in Kuching,decided to depart, but when Hashim heard this he begged him to stay; laying his problems before James brooke he express :”His resolution to die here rather than abandon his undertaking-to die deserted and disgraced” He pleaded with him to visit is army at Lidah Tanah up river which was under the command of Mahkota. Feeling his presence there would over encouragement of the soldiers.

This James Brooke did, only to find that Makota and his men were more interested in the supply of provisions on board rhe “Royalist” than listening to his advice. James Brooke return to Hashim again to tell him of his plans for depature but again the Rajah Muda Hashim pleaded with him not to leave. James Brooke returned to the front, this time to lend assitence, and arranged to have the “Royalist” guns brought into action. But soon had to face the fact that his efforts were wasted. Makota would not attack the enemy and neither would he allow James Brooke to negotiate.

1842

 

 

 

 In his own words he described the situationas such “In a few days I witnessed such scenes of cowardice, trechery, intique and luke-warmness amongst his followes such a determination not to take advice or to pursue any active measures, that i left them and returned to my vessel”

Under such circumstances it’s hardly surprising that the war had been going on for so long. Weary now of the siruation James Brooke went to see the Rajah Muda Hashim on November the 4th, and told him again of his decision to leave. But now teh Rajah Muda was desperate and in his desperation told James that he would invest him with “the Country of Siniawan and Sarawak with its goverment and trade” Suggesting that “He would also give him the title of Rajah” .Although hesistant about accept-ing such offer, not quit sure if Hashim was sincere. James didn’t say no and there is no doubt that he found the offer a very tempting one. Returning to the scene od the war, having stipilated that he be given supreme command, James Brooke and his follower succeeded in quelling the revolt with many of the Rebels fleeing to the jungle.

They than sought peace and were willing to negotiate, but only with James Brooke. They offered to surrender if James Brooke could promise that their lives would be spared. Reminding them that rajah Muda would be the one to decide their fate he promised to do all he could to influence the Rajah. But Hashim, encouraged by Mahkota,didnot want to spare the lives of the rebels and only agrred to do so whem James Brooke threatened to leave again. None of the rebels were put to death. With the revolt at an end,James Brooke felt that the time was right to remind Hashim of the offer he had made.

1847

 

3) Rajah Brooke and Miss Burdett-Coutts.,Page 206.

 

4)The last photo of Rajah James Broke in 1860

 before Leaving Sarawak in 1863

 Rajah Sir James Brooke leaving in the capable of his Nephew Charles Brooke, the Rajah left Sarwak for the last time end of 1863.

Mis Burdett-Coults was not too happy with the rajah’s choice of Charles Brooke as administrator of Sarawak as she didn’t like him any more than she had like his brother. She had a change of heart when she recieve d a letter from Charles making it clear that he recongnized her as heiress to the Sarawak Rajah and assuring her of his loyaty. (photo no)

 

5)The Story of Captain James Brooke ,

”Son”(Photo ) Interesting story about Rajah James Brooke during Captain. This story told by Mr Owen Rutter based on information from Mr John Dill Ross, whose father was an intimate friend of the Rajah’s. Mr Dill Ross clearly stated that James Brooke was “wounded in the genitals by a musket ball”, an explaination that Mr Rutter felt he had good reason to believe in as it explained the discrepancies in Brooke’s character, including why he never merried.

The claim by many writers who researched brooke’s life is that if such a story is true it was rather odd that his nother should proudly display the offending bullet for all to admire saying it was removed from her son’s lung. But there really isn’t anything odd about that all. There aren’t many mothers who would advertise the fact that their sons had been deprived of their manhood.

Yet,there are a number who would go to great lenghts to protect them from the snide remarks which could result if such a claim were belivedd . Maybe that’s what Mrs Brooke (James Brooke’s mother) was trying to do.

We’ll never really know though. On other hand, the appearence of Reuben George Walker on the Scene and the Rajah’s absolute conviction, backed up by his sister’s Magaret Savage, that Reuben was his son make his mother ‘s claim even more plausible. But James also had a reputation for taking an interest in the lives of young men, perhaps with the intention of grooming them for services in Sarawak. His friends believed that Reuben was another one of his proteges and in other to justify his grat interest in him, decided to pass him off as son; having been tricked by Reuben into doing so. But thta also seems strange because of all his proteges, why did this one ment the rank of “son”? What’s even stranger is that he providede adequately for this young man and his family in his will. Many of the Rajah’s friends at the time were amazed that he believed so fercently that Reuben was really his son. Some event went so far as to sggust that he was losing his mind. From evidence that exists though, it would appear that

1862

Rajah muda james brooke

 

 

 

 

 

the biography of Sir James Brooke (1803–1868),

 army officer and first raja of Sarawak,

the epitome of the British romantic “orientalist” and one of the icons of early Victorian imperialism. Mundy accompanied Sir Thomas John Cochrane to Borneo in 1846, where, in co-operation with Brooke, he was engaged for the next six months in a brilliant series of operations against the Borneo pirate tribes described in detail here, punishing “the Brunei pirates by destroying their forts and other buildings” (ODNB).

 

 Mundy took formal possession of Labuan on 24 December 1846.

The spirited illustrations, from Mundy’s own drawings, include his visit to the Sultan of Brunei, the capture of Brunei, and other of the expedition’s actions, together with the signing of the Treaty of the Cession of Labuan, the track charts include track charts of Brooke’s yacht Royalist in the Gulf of Boni; and of HMS Iris off the coast of “Borneo Proper,” including an inset of the capture of Brunei.

 

James Brooke (afterwards Rajah Brooke) making his first treaty with the sultan of Borneo, 1842, The illustrated London

 

James Brooke, the White Rajah of Sarawak

 

When the English soldier James Brooke arrived in the Far Eastern kingdom of Sarawak in 1839, little did he realise that he would become the absolute ruler of this country in North Borneo, the “White Rajah” of the turbulent and fierce Dayak people.

Brooke was ambitious and, finding the people of Sarawak in revolt against the Sultan of Brunei, he seized his chance. He intervened and led the Sultan’s army against the rebels and defeated them.

The grateful Sultan was only too glad to install Brooke as Rajah in 1841. With the help of the Royal Navy, Brooke held on to his kingdom. Sarawak remained the domain of the Brooke family until 1946, when James’ great nephew Charles, ceded to Britain. But the Brookes were not to be forgotten. The flag of Sarawak still bears their coat of arms, and a magnificent butterfly with metallic black wings which frequents the jungles of South East Asia, Rajah Brooke’s birdwing, bears their name.

Sarawak is now one of the states which make up the Federation of Malaysia. The Federation of Malaysia was formed in September 1963, comprising Sarawak and the other north Bornean land of Sabah, the peninsula Malaya and, until 1965, Singapore – together making a land of many different nationalities, languages and customs. In a population of 13 million, only just over half are indigenous peoples: a third are Chinese and a tenth Indian. Bahasa Malay is the official language, but in addition at least five Chinese dialects and seven Indian languages are spoken, as well as English.

Like its people, Malaysia’s wildlife is fantastically diverse. More than two-thirds of the territory is covered by tropical rain forest, where immense trees tower above the dense canopy. 15,000 species of plant grow here, including brilliant flowering trees like Flame of the Forest and the Tulip tree. The jungle is home to an abundance of animals – tigers, elephants, rhinos, wild buffalo, orang-outangs, and the tiny mousedeer, clever hero of many Malaysian folk legends.

Not least of Malaysia’s creatures is the snake – there are no less than 130 species on the peninsula alone. Although many are harmless, the largest poisonous snake in the world lives here – the King Cobra, which grows up to six metres long. Yet this venomous monster is not the most dangerous snake you can come across in Malaysia. The pit viper is smaller, but has a worse temper, and lashes out when disturbed.

On the beautiful Malaysian island of Penang, there is a Chinese temple dedicated to the snake deity, Chor Soo Kong, where huge numbers of pit vipers live uncaged, coiled around the statues and altars of the gods. Devotees who come to pray for health and strength bring eggs for the snakes, and kneel within a few centimetres of the deadly wedge-shaped heads.

Poisons abound in the jungle, and not only from snakes. Scorpions carry a lethal sting in their tail, a large red centipede has venomous claws, and many plants produce sores and swellings when touched. The people who for centuries have lived in and around the forests know these properties, and use the poisonous sap of the ipoh tree in their blow-pipe darts – the only weapon they have for hunting. In the past, these poisons were turned against their enemies: as long ago as the 13th century, the Portuguese who invaded the south west Malayan port of Malacca were met with the deadly poison arrows of the natives.

For the modern traveller, probably the worst nuisance in the jungle is a little insect whose bites can become a torture – the mosquito. The danger of malaria is not great, for mosquitoes have to bite an infected person before they become carriers of the disease, and this is unlikely in the remote, uninhabited jungle.

In 1857,

 a young Malay royal launched an expedition to probe for tin along the densely forested banks of the River Klang. Immensely rich deposits were found at the confluence of the Klang and Gombak rivers in central Malaysia, but with success came disaster. Within a month, 69 of the workforce of 87 Chinese miners were dead from malaria. Another 150 were despatched, this time with herbs and medicines.

Many died before the tin ran out, but the battle for survival was won – Kuala Lumpur, which means “muddy river mouth”, now stands on the site. Today, the screechings of jungle birds have been replaced by the hooting of traffic in this modern city of glass and steel, surrounded now by oil palm plantations and rubber estates.

The rubber tree was only introduced into Malaysia in the 1870s, but the hot, wet climate proved perfect for its cultivation. Rubber is now the mainstay of the economy – 44% of the world’s supply is produced here. Tin, timber and petroleum are other important industries, and the Federation is the world’s largest producer of palm oil.

Malaysia is well known for its delicious coconuts and pineapples, but one product is a particular delicacy. The ancient Niah caves in Sarawak house million upon million of swifts, which breed in the dark recesses. These little birds stick their nests together with saliva, which sets hard and yellow. The local people climb up long ladders and collect the nests, which are boiled to make birds’ nest soup – a culinary delight for many a Chinese family!

 

 

 

 

Sir James Brooke (1803 – 1868), British army officer and explorer who later became the Rajah of Sarawak, in talks with Muda Hassim, the uncle of the sultan of Brunei in 1842. From the Illustrated London News Photo: Hulton Archive

 

 

Image 1 of 2

Photo: Alamy

 

Brooke’s English family had been the absolute rulers of Sarawak for three generations. Popularly known as the White Rajahs, they had their own money, stamps, flag and constabulary, and the power of life and death over their various subjects – Malays, Chinese and Dyak tribesmen, a few of whom still indulged in the grisly custom of headhunting.

The founder of the Brooke Raj was Anthony’s great-great-uncle, James, who in 1839 sailed to the East with dreams of extending British influence throughout the Malay Archipelago. At Singapore, the Governor asked him to take a present to the ruler of Sarawak, then under the suzerainty of the Sultan of Brunei, to thank him for saving some shipwrecked British sailors.

When he got there, Brooke found Sarawak’s Dyak tribesmen in revolt against an unfair system of taxation, and by 1841 the desperate ruler was prepared to give him the government and revenues of Sarawak if he could suppress the uprising, which he did.

On his return to London, Brooke was presented to Queen Victoria as Rajah of Sarawak, and knighted. In Sarawak, meanwhile, he won a devoted following with his integrity and frank exuberance. Each day he would stroll about the Malay kampungs, Chinese shophouses and Dyak longhouses, chatting to his subjects, and he was always open to visits at his bungalow. He introduced a just code of laws and enlisted the help of his friend Admiral Henry Keppel to clear up the piracy along Sarawak’s coastline.

Among those serving in Keppel’s ship, Dido, was James Brooke’s nephew, Charles Johnson, who soon entered his bachelor uncle’s service and eventually succeeded him as Rajah in 1868, whereupon he took the name of Brooke. A austere character – he deemed jam “effeminate” and replaced his lost eye with a glass one from a stuffed albatross – Rajah Charles nevertheless proved a notably effective and benevolent ruler. He extended Sarawak into the interior (it was eventually the size of England), abolished slavery, rebuilt the capital Kuching and constructed roads, waterworks and even a short railway.

Descendent of james brooke document

 

 

 

James had known about his son for some time and so did Margaret Savage. An indication of this was an incident which transpired when James Brooke was in England.

Shortly before his meriagge

 the Rajah wrote asking him to pay a visit to a young man by the name of Reuben Walker. He claimed that the boy had been in his service in England and that he was concerned for his welfare.

When the news about Reuben being the son of the Rajah was made public, Brooke Brooke the realised that it was the some young man he had gone to see in England. He was hysterical when the Rajah suggested considering Reuben for a position in Sarawak and was clearly embarrassed and humiliated by the revelation.

He had conviced himself that the Rajah would now change his mind and make his “son” the heir. Although the Rajah dis his best to reassure his nephew.

6)Letters writen By Rajah Sir James Brooke(Chai Foh Chin) 3 King Street.St James Sq 30 Nov 1865.

 Dear Sir,

Mr John Abel Smith has sent me your letter to him and I write to say I shall be happy to see you here upon Friday or Saturday- or if more Convinient any other day before Wendsday next.

After our meeting we can settle about the appointment but I see no difficulty in your taking it if you wish. Your very truly Handsign J Brooke

 

 

 

 

 

 

1842 Sultan brunei Omar Bin ali gave Sarawak to

James Brooke and he  became Rajah

 

 

 

 

 

 

1854

Rajah James Brooke

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.2 Pictures Talks

a.Information From Map

1) Early Borneo Map Informations (ill no 3) All the names are a mixture of Spain. Identified where some of today’s town :

a) Ride Burulo Ride Burulo is where intulu is now situated.

b) Pochauaraon Punchauaraon is Mukah as we know it today.

c)Mont St Pedro Mont St Pedro , many names changes over the yaers ranging Peter’s and then Mt St Pedro, and St Pedro seems to have been the most common , then became Kinibalau means the “Chinese Widow, it’s established in North Borneo.

2) Borneo Map ,Engraved in Leyden,Fistke Van Der A.R

a) Satan

b)R.Caleo

c)Demal berg

d)R.de Birulo

e)Tanjong Bargon(Tanjong Datu?)

3) THE DEVELOMPNET OF SARAWAK

a) Kuching area 1841

b)Simangang area 1853

c) Serikei ,Sibu and Bintulu area 1861

d) Miri area ,1883

e) Limbang area .1890

f) Trusan and Lawas area 1885

I.2 Early Sarawak’s Picture Everybody say “The Picture’s Talk”, you will understand its informations , if you know the “Picture’s language”.

1.2.1 Early sarawak landscapes

a.Kuching,watercolour,anonym-ous.1860

b.River of Sarawak & Kuching ,1848

c.Hall of Audience ,Sarawak, KEPPEL, 1846

1.2.2 Early Sarawak Native ’s Leader

a. Rajah Muda Hashim

 

 

1.2.3 Sir James Brooke profile

a. Young James Brooke

 

 

 

 

 

H. H. Rajah Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB

 

  Born: 29 April 1803, Sacrone, Benares, India.

Died: 11 June, 1868, Burrator, Devon, England.

Father:  Thomas Brooke

Mother:  Anna Maria Stuart

Grandfather: Robert Brooke

Grandmother:  Ruth Casson Pattle

Unmarried.  Became First White Rajah of Sarawak 18 August 1842

 

 

Visiting the Brookes’ Memorial at St. Leonard’s Church

“What’s Sheepstor? ” It is usual to get this kind of question. and it might be followed by this ” Is that a place where you keep sheep?”

Sheepstor is a place in Devon actually and is famous for a beautiful reservoir called Burrator Reservoir. It is also located right in the middle of Dartmoor. Those who are interested in South East Asian History would know that the White Rajahs of Sarawak were interred in a church called St. Leonard’s in Sheepstor.

Tor in Cornish means hill. And Sheepstor is named thus because there is a tor overlooking the village which looks like a sheep’s head.

To get there you need to take a coach or fly to Plymouth from where you can get a bus or hire a coach to Tavistock. A two week holiday in Cornwall and Devon would really be refreshing and help you have a different view of the world!

 

 

the map above shows where I studied (Plymouth) in my younger days. The river Tamar divides Cornwall and Devon . Rev Tomlionson and his wife live in Saltash (St.Dominick is a little suburb) and Mona Pengelly lives in Launceston. It is easy to take the coach from Victoria station in London and you reach Plymouth after 6 hours.


A little sign in the long winding hedgrow sided roads would show you where Sheepstor is….

 

We walked about 400 metres from the junction of the small roads to reach St. leonard’s . Mona and Pauline and Keith are walking up the road with Janet and David and Pat at the back in this photo.

 

Here we were met by the Church Warden (not a clergy man) Tim MacDonald (no relations to Rev David MacDonald). He is a senior lay man and is absolutely knowledgeable about the relations of the Church with Sarawak. Note that the door is carved out of solid rock (here – granite) and can last hundreds of years.

 


This is one of the ancient cross made from granite dating from 1400 AD.

 


St. Leonard’s Church was built in 1424 A.D.

Michael Williams worked with JKR in Kuching for several years and speaks very good Bahasa Malaysia. He was happy to meet up with David Johnson who taught in Methodist School in Sibu.

this is the marble grave of The First Rajah (James Brooke) but the inscriptions are very difficult to see now

 

1.2.4 James Brooke’s Resident

a. View from James,s Bungallow looking up river.1848.

b. James’s Bungallow,1840.

 

1.2.5 The James’s Battles scene

a. The attack on Paddi . Boat HMS Dido, 1846.

b.Iban attack with poisoned arrow through the “pipe”,1848.

C, Cutting the boom at Malladu ,1840

d. Night attack on the Panglima,s Prabu, 1840

e.HMS Dido at Sarawak,1846

 

 

1.3. Early Sarawak’s Coin The Four Early Brass Coins James Brooke :

1.3.1 Sekeping J.B. coins (very rare)

 

 

 

 

1.3.2 Sarawak Official Coins, Brass.

A quarter(very rare)

 

b.. Half Cent , silver couted, found in West Borneo, Difficult to find in Sarawak.This coin circuoated in West Borneo and they used as amulet .

 

c. One Cent , found in West Borneo, hard to find in Sarawak. c.1/4 quarter cent , didn’t found until this day, photo from Catalogue.

 

 

 

 

1.3.2. J.B. One Keping Singapore Merchant’s Brass Coins One keping in arabic char, with initial J.B. means james Brooke with Sarawak armed’s animal, didn’t find the original one, many falcification or fake coin , photo from calatogue. I have all type of Singapore marchant’s token during Raffles except Sarawak, may be someone send me the photo of original JB Sarawak coin.

 

1.4. Early Sarawak Postal History

Sarawak Postal History (Rare Stamps)

 

Block ten Sarwak first stamps James Brooke ,courtecy PSKS journal, Thankyou verymuch for the permission to put in my blog by Dr Francis H.H.NGu and Mr Chan kee Tex during our meeting at Kuching 2007, I have only single mint stamps, very rare on postally used covers -please comment and show you collections. All of Sarawak stamps illustration below very difficult to found in used with clear postmarkCDS and on postally used cover, please the member of Sarawak Specialist,s association share their collectin to put in this blog and also look at the next illustration Sarawak related area Postal histry (rare Stamps) and Sarawak Revenue History) @Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

 

Pen overprint (on)e cent with first Sarawak postal cancelled S ( please Sarawak specialist association South East asia Vice President asked their members to comment this first report unique stamps, handwritten or pen surchagered)

 

 

Overprint bigger One cent for compare with rare small one.

 

 

Small S of 2 Cents overprint ,compare with the photocopy at the left, same or different please comment.

 

1.4.1. India Stamps Used In Sarawak.

 

 

 

 

1.4.2 STRAITS STAMPS USED IN SARAWAK

A.Sarawak 1895 Postal Stationery with fine Bintulu cds

 

 

 

Sarawak
Bintulu
1895 (1 Mar.) Straits Settlements 3c. stationery card to London, showing fine “bintulu” c.d.s. (Type D2) at lower left, violet Sarawak c.d.s. and the stamp impression cancelled in transit at Singapore (18.3); the card with corner creases. An extremely rare usage and the only known example of Straits Settlements stationery used at Bintulu

 

B. Sarawak Post Office Round Stamped with handwriten 25/10/64, the earliest date.

c. India Stamps with local square B 172 stamped, 1.4.2 Sarawak first stamps The first Sarawak Stamps with Rajah Sir James Brooke profile, only find in Mint condition from the Duch collectors during Indonesia International Stamp Exhebition at Jakarta 1996, I never saw the used stamps with cleared date and name of the town off cover or postally covers, if someone have it please send me the information and your name will be the name of that stamps.

 

 

 

 

1.5. Sarawak’s phillatelist The famous Sarwak ‘s phillatelist report especially for the next chapters informations, Dr R.Ngu and Mr Chan Key Tex had gave informations to put their report on this book , but International Collectors I don,t have contact please send me yuor informations including Malaysia and Singapore phllitelis like Mr Steve and Mr The Peng Hian .

1.5.1 International Sarawak Stamp’s Collectors a.C.M.C Symes In 1971 he found some rare postal history covers and put in the Auctions, this covers was sold in 1991 and 1994 international Auctions : a)”Myerscough” to London Covers,1897. b)”Conrad Meyer”,1880 to Singapore and ”Diercking”1892 to Kowloon covers.

1.5.2 Native Senior Sarawak collectors

a.Chan Kee Tex I have met Him in 2007, he gave me many informations and very kind phillatelic friend who show me Kuching View from the top of tower and introduced me some senior Sarawak Phillatelist. I wrote this book in English for Him and after read this informations I hope he will contact me for more informations, Please beg a pardon because not on time like I promise to you, be-cause the situations didn’t well.

b.Ho Ka Moh He report Phillatelic creations cover , Australian Stamps Used in Kuching,1945

c.Ong Liap Teck He have reported his communication with mr Bill London about the Sarawak Phillatelic and postal history. d.Francis H.H.NgU I have meet him, my Medical collaguae with same profesions in 2007, he gave mee permission to used his informations. One of his information was “An Unrecorded Ha Buey Hon Picture Postcard” e.Chui Foh Chin He report Kuching view picture postcard 1930-1940.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE EARLY SARAWAK REVENUE HISTORY

Sarawak Revenue History

dedicated to my Sarawak phillatelist collectors.

I. PRE WORLD WAR II

1..RAJAH JAMES BROOKE

THE REVENUE DURING RAJAH J.BROOKE VERY DIFFICULT TO FIND ESPECIALLY IN 19TH CENTURY,IF SOME ONE HAVE PLEASE SEND THE INFO VIA COMMENT. IHAVE ONLY FOUND SOME HIS RARE COINS HALF CENT AND ONE CENT BUT THE CONDITION NOT VERY FIND ,ALTHOUGH IN THIS VERY GOOD CONDITION STILL DIFFICULT TO FOUND IN SARAWAK,IHAVE FOUND IN PONTIANAK CIRCA 1991, DURING MY LAST VISIT 2007 NO MORE EXIST,PLEASE LOOK AT THE RARE JAMES ROOKE COINS BELOW.

 

2. RAJAH CHARLES  BROOKE REVENUES

DURING THE RAJAH CHARLES BROOKE, SARAWAK ISSUED SPECIAL REVENUE STAMPS, ALTHOUGH THE FIRST CV BROOKE POTAGE AND REVENUE STAMPS COULD USED TOO AS REVENUE, BUT TO FOUND THIS LIMITED EDITON USED AS REVENUE IN COMPLETE DOCUMENT VERY DIFFICULT, i HAVE SOME , AND THE SPECIAL c.bROOKE REVENUE I FOUND DURING MY VISIT SARAWAK DURING PONTIANAK-KUNCHING AUTOMOBILE RACE I FOUND COMPLETE USED REVENUE, AND ONLY ONE IN DOCUMENT USED AFTER DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION DUE TO DIFFICULT TO FOUND THE REVENUE THAT TIME LOOK AT POST WW II COLLECTIONS.

THE COMPLETE COLLEC TION OF USED C.BROOKE REVENUE:

(1) THE HIGHEST NOMINAL 10$,5$ AND 4$.

 

Rajah Charles Brooke revenue $4,$5 and $10.. One type revenue not illustrated because I don’t found until this day R overprint on Postage revenue stamps. Charles Brooke revenue used until Dai Nippon Occupation L.T. Ong report, Dr Francis H.H.Ngu report bigger block 12 rveneue               $10. Please choose the best revenue, and if someone have R overprint please show in this blog send to my e.mail.@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010.

(2)Used Sarawak cv brooke 3$ and 1$ revenue

 

 

Rajah Charles Brooke revenue $3 and $1

(3) sarawak c.brooke low nominal revenue

 

Rajah Charles Brooke revenue 3,5 and 50 cent

 

Chapter two

The Second Rajah

 

Charles Anthony Brooke

Renne his wife

 

This CHAPTER HAVE MORE INFORMATION THAN THE CAPTER ONE,

 because the socond rajah issued seven types stamps and the communications with abroad country developed. Many Plantations in Sarawak have communications with Indonesian Plantation company, and some postal history have found and some at the Chriestries auction 1 March.24th.1994 “Fine Stamps and Covers of The Straits Settlement and South East Asia at Singapore. In this auctiuon, 19 postals used covers with The Second Rajah Stamps were sold in this Auction, This informative books now became antique collections. The senior specialist collectors had contributed in this auctions like Colin Fraser, Jeffrey Schneider,David Parsons and nIcholas Startup.

 Some of the rare postal History collections provenance by C.M.Symes. His the founder of Sime Derby & Co Ltd . still don’t have information. Mr Hong Ming Yong have write about Alan Dant the latest Sarawak Brach Manager of Sarawak Branch Manager of Messrs Sime,Darby & Co and I have found one postally cover from Sarawak Siedarby to Surabaya Indonesia, will discuss in the chapter the third Rajah because the cover form that time. All of this collections send to Mr Th Jackson and Mrs A.Myerscough, and the postal history became their names “Jacson” and “Myerscough” Cover. All the covers sent to England, I need more informations the Sarawak cover to another country,please give your kind information to me, thank you. We shall discuss about the nineteenth covers on every types second Rajah stamps and the limited edition issued informations from Stave Tan,s Unternational Stamps & Coin SDN BHD “Standard Stamps catalogue Of Malaysia ,Singapore and Brunei 2004.” The Sarawak specialist collector.s alway need, because many second rajah stamps limited editions, especially the Postage and reveneu stamps in 1888,typo by De La rue .

 

 

 

Authentic signature of Charles Brooke (2nd White Rajah) from 1876

 

1.1.         Historic Bacground The Second Rajah Sir Charles Anthony Brooke (1868-1917)

 

 1.1.1 Morison,Alastair; A Fearful Radica

” The Rajah is extrely nice and kind but a fearful radical. This was how his sons’s tutor described Charles Brooke,the second Rajah of Sarawak, in 1887.

There have been few more remakable Europeans asso-ciated with South-East Asia. His life forms the subject of a new book. The first full-length biography of the man. It fills a gap in the surprisingly large body of literature on Sarawak.

 Charles Brooke was the nephew of the first Rajah james Brooke. Charles Brooke joined his uncle in 1852 after service in the Navy which he joined at the astonishing age of twelve.

He was no stranger to the area having served in Borneo waters on several occasionbs. His was hardly the upbringing to produce a man of elegance and refinement but it suited tough and craggy personality and inured him to hardship.

He spent much of the early service in Sarawak in the small and isolated station of Lingga which lies in the estuary of Batang Lupar in what is now the second Division of Sarawak. It was no pleusure resort but was an important strategic centre for the control of a large region populated by lively and warlike Iban groups. Here with little, save his own strong personality and that of his principal assistant, the brave and able Malay leader Abang Aing, he sought successfully to impose the Goverment’s authority. This meant discouraging local feuds and head hunting , supporting the groups which were friendly towards the Rajah’s goverment and periocally leading exspeditionsn against those who defied the goverment’s authority. Although a hard and generally tacitum man he was the same time immenseky patient in his dealing with those under his authority , able and willing to talk and listen endlessly.

 He respect local custom and thought it essential to live close to the people and to give up the refinement of European society in order to understand and sympathise with them. He was no misogynist and wrote warmly of the charm and grace of Iban girls. He was completely fearless; calm and resourceful in emergency and at his most cheerful under the stimulus of personal danger. He acquired a deep affection for Sarawak and its people and this was to become the dominant motivation for the rest of his long life. His personal characteristic were such as to gain the respect of Bornean people and none more so than the Iban among whom he spent so much of his time. The Iban were an energetic, warlike, egalitarian people. They were not the original inhabitant of Sarawak but had moved over from the Kapuas valley of Indonesian Borneo, displacing or asborbing the small tribes who had lived in the area previuosly. Although a homogeneous people in matters of language and costum they were never united. The unit of organization was thet of a number of longhouses , Villages under a single roof containing up to fifty or more families, their members closely related and generally occu-pying a river valley. A dynamic individual would be accepted as the local leader. Warfare and the taking of enemy heads ( Thought tho convey great blessing on their new owaners) were the most important activities for every able-bodiedman. As the authority of Rajahs became established channnelled into activities in support of the goverment, providing the manpower for the expeditions which imposed the goverment’s authority.

 In 1857

it was the support of the Iban under Charles Brooke which crushed a rebellion by members of Chinese secret socities during which the capital Kuching was captured and the Infant State of Sarawak nearly destroy. Charles elder brother , the heir apparent,had quarrelled with James Brooke, and so Charles Brooke succeeded his Uncle in 1868.

 

 He was active in Sarawak affairs until his death in 1917.

 With only a handful of European officers he depend-ed almost entirely on local supports .Malays administration but the support of the Iban and other local peoples was also indisispensable.Many former opponent were to become loyal supporters. Slavery and endemic tribal warfare were gradually eliminated, largely through persuasion and conciliation . The last actin against pirates, the destructionof a group of lilanum boats and the rescue of most of their four hundred captives had taken place in 1862.

As in the engagement of 1848

this action too was to be the source of some controversy. Actively engaged on the Sarawak side was the Anglican Bishop at labuan and Sarawak. Bishop MacDougall, a hearty medical missionary who had only taken holy orders because his Intended bride was deter-mine to marry a clergy-man .

 The Bishop sent an account of the fighting to the london times but wrote, somewhat unfortunately “” My double-barrelled Terry’s breech-loader….proved itself a most deadly weapon….it never missed fire once in 90 rounds…. ” We are. Indeed , all most thankful to our Heavenly Father who thus ordered things for us and made us His instrument to punish those bloodthirsty toes of the Humanrace.

 The ultimate sactions avaliable to the goverment in imposing its authority were punitive expeditions, an unpaid rank and file being rewarded with loot and the heads of enemy fallen. The expansion of Sarawak at the expense of Brunei conti-nued until brought an end by the British Goverment in the early years of this century. But for this Brunei would have been entirely absorbed in Sarawak.

 The Revenues of the state grew steadily.They were, at least in the early days, derived largely from opium, spirit and gambling monopolies catering or the Chinese populations. Viewed in the light of present –day taxes on Tobacco, drinks, and betting, the Rajah was perhaps a little ahead of his time.

More attractive, however the Rajah’s Ideas on Administration. He followed his predecessor’s principles” To rule for the people and with the people and to teacch them the rights of free men under the restaints of Government” Administration was direct and informal and based on a much closer degree of social contact with the governed than was the case in any colonial territory.

The Rajah had been responsible in the year preced-ing his accession for forming a General Council which came to be known as Council Negri. This was an advisory body, the majority of whose members were local men, mostly Malays and Muslim Melanous. Thereafter it met at regular intervals.

The Rajah approved of many aspects of the life of his subjects and although slavery and headhunting were eliminated, he was prepared to tolerate most of the others. He had no wish to change the life of the countryside and compared the life styles of Sarawak country people favourrably with bthose of the labouring classes in Europe.

 He thought that the impact of the West would be to corrupt and weaken the people. He especially admired the Iban peoples. Only three years before his death he said this of them : “ What one has to admire in the Dayaks is their vitality, energy and activity;if they are not farming por otherwise employed in peaceful pursuits they are on mischief bent, worrying or killing their so-called enemies. If it was not for their vitality they would be an effete race, as a weakly flower in a garden that one scarcely takes the trouble to notice; they are, however , strong in body, a mass of muscle,quic in intelligance and perception, with brains that are as the Virgin soil and only require seedlings of agoodly sort to be planted. I feel sure, to produce useful things on a future day, I never tire of their misdeeds and I have reason to know that on many occasions they desired to obtain my head and boil it on a cauldron” The realationship between the Rajah and his wife and the Sarawk Malays were closed and indeed affectinate.

His wife has dsecribed,how,when one of her children was stillborn, the Anglican Bishop refused to allow it to be buried in consecrated ground because it had not been baptised. She wrote “The Datus(the Malay Chief) on hearing this, were so indignant at such a state of thing that, although good Mohammedans, they came to the Astana,laid the poor mite in a coffin and carried it themselves to the cementetry, where it was buried with affection and dignity” The Rajah always rose at five in the morning.

When not away travelling he would then go for a ride. After breakfast he would cross the Sarawak river to be greeted by the senior officers and the Malay Datus and proceed to the goverment office. Here he would superinted and transact every kind of government business and sit in ncourt where he could be approach informality by any member of the public. Justice was arbitary but probably fair. There were few coded laws, one of the few being society was a capital offence.

This was a legacy of the 1857 rebellion

 but subsequently Sarawak, unlike Malaya and Singapore, had no problems with secret societies. Matters relating to local costum were deelt with by the Datus and other local chiefs. The Rajah was agreat reader and once commented that a good book and a profuse perpiration were indispensable in Sarawak for health and happiness. At the age of forty-six, at the suggestion of his wife, he took up the study of Frebch with a French schoolmaster who had been shipwrecked off Sarawak coast.

He became a staunch francophile, kept his diaries in French and always trevelled in French ships. Accessible to all his subjects and he expected his officers to be accessible too. He country’s finances werr carefully husbanded and the Brookes never became wealthy. In England they were no more than moderately well-off country bgentlemen.

The rajah’s only real indulgence was fox-hunting for which, whenever possible in later, he returned to England in the northen winter. He might have done more to plan for the education of the people he loved but he was more concerned to give them peace and security and to protect them from undesir-able outside influences.

His last public address to Council Negri ended with sn sdmonition against foreign commercial exploitation: “There may others who will appear after my time with soft and smiling countensances to deprive you of what I slemnly and truly consider te be your right and that is the land. It is your inheritance on which your flesh and blood exist, the source of your self existence which if once lost , no amount of money could ever recover. After my life the future will remain with you to be independent and tree citizens, or be humbled and interior class without pride in yourselves or in your race.

 You must choose between two, the owner send the master on one side or the dependent and coelie on the other. It is for you to see that whatever rules this land that the land is not granted away to strangers. This is the bdanger after I have passed away. I am now old and cannot live many more year if any. I have had a long life, but my cord must have nearly reached its end. I now bid you bid goodbye A year later he was dead. (The author and his wife lived for many years in Sarawak).

Under the 1888 agreement,

 negotiated by Sir Charles Anthony Brooke, 2nd Rajah of Sarawak, all the foreign affairs of Sarawak were to the responsibility of British Government. Internal affairs remained the responsibility of the Brooke Rajahs

 

1890

 

 

 

 

The Seizure Of Limbang

*Limbang was the property of Sultan Hashim




*The seized of Limbang by Charles Brooke in 17 March 1890


*Limbang was rich agricultural in sago

*Loss of Limbang to Sarawak was badly effected the economic and political stability of Brunei

*Sultan Hashim Protested to British Goverment and demanded that Charles Brooke be punished

*The British Goverment send its new consul for Borneo and Trevenan to investigate the situation in Limbang

*The findings were invalid->only 15 of 33 local chiefs were present.

*The 15 local chief were Brooke’s officer and the sultan refused to accept Trevenan

*Sir Cecil Clementismith,the British High commissioner suggested that Charles Brooke have to pay $6000 to Sultan Hashim as a result Sultan refused.


*The British Government ignored Sultan’s refusal to cede Limbang


*In August 1895 the British Goverment embrassed by Sultan’s refusal to accept compensation from Charles Brooke and announced that the matter was closed.

After read the history above

We understand Limbang before  belong to Brunei

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.September.1953.

From Shaedah Muslim theater cover of British Colony North Borneo to Limbang Sarawak. Look the back of this cover below,and also the last letter from Sarawak to Indonesia before confrontation 1963.

 

1.1.2 Armentrout,Fred S.”Dreams of a pagan past preserved in Sarawak”

 April,5th.1897

 

 

Postally used cover from CDS Sarawak 5.APL.97 to Wien Austria,with Charles brooke stamps 3c and added Straits Victoria stamp 5c CDS Singapore

InAugust 1897,

at the age of twenty three, Vyner Bfrooke, the son Of Charles Brooke , joined the Raja staff permanetly.

He then spent several year ser ving his time as Resident of different district

until May 12th 1904,

 he was proclaimed the Rajah’s heir before the council Negri.’

 Charles then decreed that his son would reside in Kuching and share his duties. His new position empowered him with the control of outstation affairs, to deputize on behalf of his father in the supreme court and the supreme and general councils and to used the Rajah’s flag and the royal umbrella

From 1904 onwards,

Charles had sufficient trust in his son to leave him in charge of the affairs of the country whenever he returned to England.

 On 24th May 1917,

 just one week after the death of Charles Brooke and in accordance with his wishes, he was publicicly declared Rajah of Sarawak.

1.1.3 Clipping & Ducument a. Rajah Charles Brooke private love.

 He seated himself near her and placed a grubby piece of paper on the piano keys.”Read that” was all he said. Written wich pencil on the paper were thr following words :”With a humble demean if the king were to pray that you’d be his queen. Wouled not you say Nay?” Renee ‘s first reaction was to laugh and the Rajah was rather upset and cross at her attitude. He assured her that he nmeant every word that was written on the note.

 He told her that she could do a lot of good in Sarawak and if her answer was yes, he would be very happy. Weighing up her life as it had been and seeing herself as not being of much use to anyone in England. Renee decided to say yes.

She knew that the Rajah couldn’t possibly be in love with her but perhaps realising his chances of finding another woman to marry. Apart from her mother, were rather slim . she woul do as well as anyone. She wasn’t in love with him either althoungh she respected and admired him for the great man that he was and felt that by marrying him she might be of some use to someone after all.

Her mother and relatives were aghast at the idea of Renee marrying a man so much older than herself and as if that wasn’t enough, she was being taken off to live in some uncivilised country at the other end of the world.

However,the Rajah wasdetermined to merry her and his silent determintation finally overcome all opposition.

They were married quietly in Highworth church, in England,

on the 28th October 1869 ,

 when Renee was just twenty years old. Apart from her mother and brothers only a few friends and neighbours were present. Her relatives and the Rajah’s parent decided to stay away. After the wedding the Rajah and Renee left to spend the night in Exeter before proceeding to”Burrator”, where they were to spend their honeymoon. This was a small house in Devonshere left to the Rajah by his uncle James Brooke. Before boarding the train for Exeter the Rajah purchased a copy of the “Times” and “Punch” magazine.

 He settled his new bride in one corner of the comparment with “Punch” and sttled himself in another corner, where he became totally immersed in his paper until they reached Exeter. They arrived at the hotel just in time for dinner which unfortunately, the Rajah felt was tpoo expensive to indulge in. Instead odered grilled pheasants legs, bread and butter,tea and a half bottle of port.

 

1.2. Pictures Talk

1.2.1 Rajah sign Charles Brooke sign and seal

1.2.2 Profile

 1)The Young Charles Brooke

 

2)Rajah Charles Anthony Brooke

 

 

 3)Young Renee

4)Charles Brooke Family

 

 1.2.3 Landscape

1)Sarawak River 2)Old Sarawak House 3)Native Iban in the river 4)Iban soldier 5)Courthouse and Astana,1890 6)Carpenter street,1890 7)Kuching Courthouse,1890 8)Astana from the Sarawak River,1890 9) PADU rivers

 1.3. The Second Rajah coins

 1.3.1 Brass Coins

1)Brass ¼ cent

 

 2)Brass half cent

3)Brass one cent

 

4)Brass one cent hole

1.3.2 Silver Coins

 1)Silver 5 cent

 

2)Silver 10 cent

 

 3)Silver 20 cent

 

 

 

 

 

4)Silver 50 cent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 1.4. The Second Rajah Stamps

 

 

 

C.Brooke postage revenue 10 c and 12 cent , limited edition read complete information in this blog’Unique Sarawak Document and Postal History” ,the postage revenue stamps below also limited edition, some used as revenue with R overprint look at “Sarawak Revenue History”

 

 

C.Brooke postage revenue 32 cent(very rae on postally used cover)

 

 

C.Brooke postage and ravenue 16 c and 25 cent (very rare on postally used cover)

 

 

C.Brooke postage revenue $ 1.(veryrare n postally used cover)

 

 

Overprint 2 on Charles Brooke postage -revenue(very rare on postally used cover)

 

 

Overprint one cent on Charles brooke Postge revenue (very rare on postally used cover)

 

 

 

1.4.1 Common Stamps

1)Jan.1 st ,1871,no Watermark,P 11 irregular,Litho.by Maclure ,Mac-donald & Co.

2)Jan.1st.1875, P 11 ½ -12 by (?),may be by Maclure ,Mac-donnald &co

3)Nov.10th,1908. reprint type 1888 limited editions, but with Postage & Postage inscribed, p 14 , no Wmk, by De La Rue. 1.5.2 Limited Editions Stamps&Postal Hidtory

 a. Limited edition STAMPS 1)1888, postage & Revenue limited edition stamps. Edition between 181.080 – 12.120. 6c –edition 12.840 16 c-edition 10.400 1 dollar-edition 12.120 2)Jan 1st 1874, TWO CENTS surcharged in black on 1871 second Rajah stamps. 3)Nov.10th 1888 ,Limited edition Postage & Revenue second Rajah Stamps

4)May ,23rd 1892, Surcharged ONE CENT on 1871 stamps

5)1895 OLDER SECOND RAJAH LIMITED STAMPS Edition 30.000-60.000

 6)1899, surcharged 2 & 4 CENTS ON 1878 STAMPS

 b. Rare Postally used  Covers

1).Postally used Cover .2 cent postage & Revenue with india stamps cds Sarawak ang Singapore.

 2) 1 cent postage & Postage charles Brooke on picture postcard (provenance Dr F.Ngu)

3).Myerscough covers 1.5.3 STAMPS VARIATIONS

 a). 1871, second Rajah first stamps with manuscript surchard” e ctt “(One cent ?), never report before. b. 1874, TWO CENTS surcharged 1871 second rajah first stamps in 1994 this were bogus stamps, but in 2004 “ Recent research has shown that it is almost cretain five enused copies exist. Two or three copies are known used. Forgeries of this surcharged with forged cancellation exist up to about 20 in number, but there are readily identifiable “(Steve Tan,2004)

c.) Small c ,TWO CENTs variation, normal TWO CENTS and antique 1899 stamps Found in Indonesia , used, cds SARA(WAK) .

 

d.) Another variations in postally used stamps or covers still waited informations.

 1)Flea dot on Charles Brooke forehead’s hair on 2c postage & postage,postally Use CDS K

2)Manuscript (on) e ctt on three cent Charles brooke first stamps, CDS square S.

3)Variation eight cent dark green Charles Brooke first stamps off center, perforation 14 (normal 11 ½-12) and smaller size. 1.6 The second Rajah Posmark 1)CDS square S first Sarawak postal stamped on six cent charles brooke first stamps 2)Cds round type Sarawak on 3 cent charles Brooke first stamps 3)CDS round type SARAWAK ON 8 C POSTAGE & POSTAGE Cds round type SADONG on 2 c postage & postage. 4)Cds round type Miri on 3 c postage & postage. 5)Cds round type S. 6)Cds round type K on 2 c Charles Brooke Postage & Postage. 7)Cds round Kuching 1907 on 4 cent Charles brooke poste & Postage. 8)Sarawak round cds on 5 cent charles Brooke postage & Revenue. 1.7 The Second Rajah

 

Revenue History

1)Used off sheet Charles Brooke Revenue,5 cent,25 cent,50 cents,1 dollars,3 dollars,4 dollar,5 dollar, and to dollars 2)Dead of Transcription(Surat Tukar Nama) with combination 5 DOLLARS CHARLES brooke revenue and one dollars CHARLES vyner BROOKE STAMPS (provenance l.T.ong) 3)The same as L.T.Ong Revenue history above, I found the same ,date 23th Mar 1935, 4)Charles Brooke High Nominal Revenue 5 dollars block of six an ten dollars block of 16 (Provenance H.H.Ngu) 5)Older Chales Brooke 3 c stamps used as Revenue ,1917 (provenace L.T.Ong) 1.8 The Second Rajah Paper Money 1)Charles Brooke Ten Dollar Cancelled paper money. 2)The Earliest Sarawak Papemoney,Sarawak Government Treasury,five cents,ten cents,twenty cents, twenty Five cents,fifty cents one dollar 3)Charles Brooke one Dollar papermoney 4)Charles Brooke Ten Dollars Papermoney 5)Sarawak Ten cents paper money The Sarawak Charles Brooke paper money above provenace by Mr Steve Tan Kuala Lumpur (photo)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

THE LAST RAJAH BROOKE

 

 

3.1. THE  RAJAH CHARLES VYNER BROOKE

 

 

 

3.1.1 Historic Background

a.Before World War II


Of the Three Rajahs, it’s interesting to note that Vyner Brooke (as he was more commonly known) was the only one groomed to inherit what the first Rajah gained through tortuitous circumstances and the second Rajah inherited as a result of a family squabble.
Upon his birth on the 26th September 1874,

 Vyner was proclaimed Rajah Muda and on the 24th May 1917,

 just one week after the death of Charles Brooke and in accordance with his wishes, he was publicly declared Rajah of Sarawak.

His formal installation took place the following years 22nd of July, by which time his brother Bertram, the Tuan Muda, and the new Ranee had arrived to witness the event. With dubiuous vacillation Sarawak and its people embarked on what transpired to be the last twnety-nine years of Brooke rule in the country.

 

 

 

BETRAM WEDDING PICTURE

 


Vyner Brooke was already a familiar figure in the Sarawak having first arrived in the country at the age of two. After some years spent with a private tutor he returned to finish his schooling in England, and his next visit was when he was tweleve years old, followed by another when he was seventeen.


In August 1897,

 at the age of twenty- three, he joined the Rajah,s staff permanently. He then spent several years serving his time as resident of different state until

 on May 12th 1904

 he was proclaimed the Rajah’s heir before the Council Negri.
Charles then decreed that his son Vyner would reside in Kuching and share his duties.
His new position empowered him with the control of outstation affairs, to desputize on behalf of his father in the supreme court and the supreme and General councls and to used the Rajah’s flag and the Royal umbrella. From 1904 onwards, Charles had sufficient trust in his son Vyner to leave him in charge of the affairs of the country whenever he
returned to England.


Vyner was the opposite of his father in every respect. Handsome ,char-ming and sociable with a genteel manner, he bore a strong resemble-nce to the first rajah.
The generally held opinion among many was that because of his easy-going and unconventinal ways he did not possess the qualities necessary for alife of devotion to Sarawak and that, once the noveltry of his position of Rajah faded, he would lose interest in the country.
He love of adventurous innovations such as cars and motorcycles, and his liking for smoking and other unaccaptablenescapades added to his unreliability.
As Rajah, he seldom took others into his confidence preferring to keep his own council, projecting him as somewhat of an egigme to his officer.
During his early years of services hisbrealtionship with his father, who was not an easy man to please, was a satisfactory, if a time strained one.
But as time passed even Charles began to have doubts about the reliability of his heir. His feeling were to become even more obvious with Vyner’s marriage to Sylvia Brett. Charles never made any secret of how he felt about his daughter-in-law nor did she never hide her feeling towards him.


In reference to the second time she met him,which was on her first visit to sarawak, she wrote :”I had only seen him for a moment at my wedding and I had forgotten how starky supreme he was, how gaunt and unapproachable ; a stern figure with a hwak-like nose,one glass eye from which a constant tricle of water dripped on to his snow-white moustache and a heart of stone”
A description perhaps tinged with a touch of malice. Altough not averse to the charms and beauty of Wmen, Charles never really cultivated a relationship of much woth with Sylvia.
His dislike of her probably stemmed from his feelings toward her father, Lord Esher. From the moment they met Charles disliked and mistrusted the man; he was the type of person that stood for everything Charles loathed.
Lord Esher was a very influential person with friends in the right places. He was a model citizen, very wealthy , circulated amongst the rigfht business and political figures and was said to be a close confident of the King of England.
Charles became convinced that once Vyner gained power in Sarawk, Lord Esher would use his inmfluence to persuade him to abdicate, ar to allow him a firm footing in the commercial development of the country

That the Rajah would have preferred to be succeeded by the Tuan Muda was no secret to Vyner, having lived all his life with th4e knowledge that His parent had a greater preference for his second son.
Being quite and reserved Bertram, although not a formidalbe as it father, bore more of his character-istic traits. Whenever he was in Sarawk he spent his time in the oustations enjoying, as his father had before him, the peace and traquility of the country and the simple life he led amongst the natives.

 


When Bertram married Gladys Palmer, the only daughter of Sir Walter Palmer M.P in joly 1904,

 the Rajah was extremely happy with the union . In comparison to his relationship with Sylvia,he was on excellent terms with Gladys who wrote :”I become devoted to trhe Rajah , and some of the happiest bdays of my life were spent talking and walking with himin his grounds”


With Vyner marriage in Fabruary 1911,

 the breach between father and son widened.

In 1912,

shortly after the arrival of Vyner and his wife in Sarawak, the Rajah issued the follwing proclamation:

” I charles Broke, Rajah of Sarawak,d hereby decree that my secnd son Betram Brooke , heir presumptive t the Raj of Sarawak, in the event my eldest son , Charles Vyner Brooke , Rajah muda of Sarawak , failing to have male issued , shall be recieved on his arrival in the State of Sarawak with a Royal salute and honours equivalent to his rank .

 I further decree that he shall be recognised in the future by all inhibitants of Sarawak as being part of the Government of the State and such recognition shall be duly registered in the records of the Supreme council of the Raj of Sarawak”


While the Rajah had no real reason to disinherit Vyner, he had contrive this subtle plan so that although Vyner would still be the future Rajah, a certain amout of control would be given to his brother.
Perhaps if the Rajah had confided his intentions to the Rajah Muda before making the proclamation the trouble that ensued could have been avoided.

As it was , the Rajah was tactless in the letest move of his , Vyner was upset and deeply resentful. With his hurt, his sense of duty so openly insulted and the slight on his and his’s wife ability to prduce a son and heir ( they already had one daughter) , he reacted spontaneuosly with little thought to the consequences.

He wrote to his father and in the reply he recieved the Rajah said that the only word could explain Vyner’s feelings was “Jealousy”. With that ,Vyner wrote again stating that if Rajah persited with his proposal of the new Bill “I shall be reluctantly obliged to make a public protest against your actions, and to leave the country until things are more satisfactory arranged”
The letter also pointed out that :” The position you propose to put me into must inevitably degrade me in the eyes of population , and amount to admitting that you do not consider me fit to govern this country without the sanctions and apprval of my younger brother .”
He then expressed a hope that Rajah ‘s reply would bring the news that the proposal for Betram’s elevation in status in Sarawak were being reconsidered .
Such a declaration of oposition and defiance stunned the Rajah, whose word had always been law.


His official reply to Vyner on 10th June.1912 ,

 read : “As your letter reiterates your disobedience to my commands, i Hereby officially informed you that in consequence of this acts, I give notice that I shall not in future require your servive in the Gouvernment office nor in the Supreme court”

He went on to say that “obedience to the Rajah” had always been the rule and would remain so as long as he was Rajah.

He then suggested that Vyner should leave the country as soon as it was convenient to do so . Enclosed with the official letter was also a personal one in which the Rajah told his son that he had almost decided to resign in his favour “ and leave it to you to hold the Raj with your present title until my death” he hinted broadly that he was still willing to transfer the Raj at the end of the year.

This latest turn of event greatly shocked the people of Sarawak. As far as Vyner was conserned the personal letter from his father didn’t after the situation in the slightest , and , in spite of Sylvia pleading with him to stay in the hope that things would sort themselves out, his mind was made up.


“My father never changes his mind and neither do I” he told his wife . Having spent hardly a month in Sarawak, Vyner and Sylvia packed their bags and set sail for England .

Before leaving they left letters fr Betram who was n his way back frm Engand, the content of which were not very pleasant. Vyner, uncertain of the role of his brother played in the setting up of a state Commite in london of which he also was the president wrote :”I am to the dirty work out here , the letter Sylvia left for her brother in law was rude beyond reason”

Sylvia and vyner

Sylvia Brooke was the consort of His Highness Sir Vyner Brooke, last Rajah of Sarawak, a short-lived dynasty of Englishmen who ruled over part of the island of Borneo between and 1841 and 1946. Called the White Rajahs, the dynasty began when James Brooke was awarded a large grant of land from the Sultan of Brunei.

Unmarried and without legitimate issue, the title of Rajah passed to his nephew Charles Brooke in 1868, who married Margaret Alice Lili de Windt.

Their eldest son Vyner became Rajah in 1917 on the death of his father,

and it is to this gentleman that the fascinating Sylvia was married.

I had already read the autobiography of Margaret, second Ranee of Sarawak, a rather dry and dignified tome which makes only a handful of references to the headhunting Dyaks of Borneo and then only in terms of their troublesome and aggressive natures. Their customs are barely discussed; instead Margaret dwells on the cultural delights of the peaceful tribes under her husband’s rule and his constant battle to improve the lot of the general populace via trade and control of the murderous Dyaks.

 Margaret comes across as a cultured woman who developed a deep and abiding love for Sarawak; her story gives no hint as to the true state of affairs, which was that she was estranged from her husband, a philandering and parsimonious man, and spent much of her time in England attempting to find husbands for her three sons.

She was regarded at best by her peers as hugely eccentric and at worst a “treacherous beast” who surrounded herself with intrigue, suffered from delusions of grandeur and had a faint air of disrespectability about her.

 

From left to right: James Brooke, founder of the Sarawak dynasty; Vyner Brooke, who abdicated in 1946 and Sylvia his wife, who did so much to undermine the Brooke legacy

Philip Eade, the author of Sylvia’s biography, appears prejudiced against the royal couple from the onset, quoting early on a historian who described Sylvia as “wretched” and the couple as a “seedy pair”.

 None of this is even remotely inferred in Margaret’s book, who portrays her son only as brave and thoughtful and makes no reference to Sylvia at all – a result, perhaps, of their massive falling out in later years. Eade quotes several very unflattering descriptions of Sylvia by her contemporaries before we even reach the end of the prologue. The entire story is, of course, far more complicated.

Despite her privileged upbringing, Sylvia was a deeply unhappy child, overshadowed by her luminous parents, their colourful friends and her confident siblings. By her own account she attempted suicide three times by her early teens, in typically outré fashion, first eating rotten sardines, then by lying naked in the snow and finally by wrapping herself in wet towels.

Before she married Vyner she had begun to forge a respectable writing career of her own and counted amongst her friends George Bernard Shaw and JM Barry, the author of Peter Pan. However she suffered from chronically poor self-esteem, a psychological condition unknown in the early 1900’s.

She described herself as a “grim though undeniably plump spinster, dreaming of the things that might have been”, while longing to be loved for her own sake rather than for the social position bestowed on her by birth. Her protracted courtship of and by Vyner was farcical in the extreme, opposed by both sets of parents and spanning years, punctuated by awkward meetings beset by self doubt and mundaneness.

According to Sylvia,

the couple did not have relations until their wedding night and it did not go well. This was to set the tone for their entire relationship, which was, according to her husband, better off based on friendship anyway.

He was morbidly shy with his white contemporaries, but more relaxed with his native subjects, with whom he had spent most of his formative years. And he followed in the footsteps of his father, taking many European and native mistresses, some of whom were procured by Sylvia herself, possibly in an attempt to control him. Since she herself had several liaisons and obsessive “friendships” with men over the course of their marriage, the relationship could hardly be called unequal and indeed might today be held up as a very successful form of open marriage.

Sylvia and Vyner’s early years together were marked by extreme family jealousies and squabbling with his siblings and their wives, with the old Rajah inclined to distrust Sylvia’s family and their motives in allowing her to marry his son, fearing a “back door” take over of his beloved Sarawak and its wealth of resources by the English government. During this time Sylvia had two daughters and continued with her own writing career and social calendar in England, noting that in Sarawak she was serenaded with the Sarawak national anthem when she went to the bath house but in England was plain old Mrs Brooke.

Sylvia had already gained a reputation within her own family for cattish and malicious behaviour. Her letters home from Sarawak during the first world war were full of malevolent comments and unflattering descriptions of Rajah Charles, somewhat understandably as the “doddery” old Rajah had a number of unpleasant habits, including relieving himself in public at State events. In truth she shocked the Europeans living in Sarawak, who expected decorous behaviour from their Ranee-in-waiting.

 

On 17th May 1917

Charles Brooke died and on 21st May Vyner was proclaimed Rajah in his place. Sylvia was in no position to enjoy her new status, but lay gravely ill in England and during this time became increasingly paranoid, convinced that there were plots underfoot to depose her husband and install his younger brother Bertram, who the old Rajah had preferred, in his place. Added to this was the understanding that she could have no more children and that none of her three daughters would be allowed to inherit the Sarawak throne.

Sylvia and Vyner settled into life as Rajah and Ranee. Spending much of her time in England without her husband now that the Great War was over, Sylvia’s behaviour became more bohemian, and at one point she facetiously reassured her mother than she and her sister Doll were “not prostitutes”, although they did do “unconventional things”. This aura of disrespectability was to remain with her all her life and did much, in the long run, to undermine the authority of the Sarawak monarchy.

When in Sarawak, the royal couple held dinners, card parties and dances, although European company was thin. Both she and her husband advanced the standing of individual officers based on their infatuations with either the men or their wives.

 In London Sylvia shamelessly capitalised on her title in order to mix with the stars of the day, people like Tallulah Bankhead and DH Lawrence, and spent Sarawak revenues on a lavish lifestyle for herself and her daughters. She also began a series of Machiavellian plots to change the line of succession from Vyner’s despised nephew Anthony to her daughters.

The death of her father in 1930,

 the one restraining influence in her life, only served to lessen her sense of decorum more, and she also actively encouraged her daughters to behave outrageously, in turn reducing the dignity of the Sarawak monarchy as a whole.

As Vyner himself became more idle and eccentric, and the administration more amateurish in the eyes of an evolving world, the English Colonial Office began to look upon the province as a possible acquisition.

Perhaps seeing the likely end to the Sarawak monarchy, and with their personal finances increasingly in tatters, she and Vyner shopped out Sarawak to the British, and when an outright sale was rejected, exchanged 200,000 pounds and other financial incentives for a Constitution and reduction in absolute powers. However, it was the onset of war in the south Pacific in 1941 that brought about the beginning of the end of the Brooke dynastic rule. Vyner and Sylvia unceremoniously abandoned Sarawak to its fate before the Japanese invaded, tarnishing what was left of their reputations irreparably.

 Finally, after many attempts to either sell Sarawak or reinstate himself as absolute monarch,

Vyner formally abdicated in 1946,

as much, apparently, to spite his despised heir-apparent nephew as for any other reason. The Ranee knew instantly knew what she had lost along with her title; over the following years, Sylvia and her daughters’ lives slowly degenerated into genteel mediocrity.

She spent much of her remaining life living out of suitcases and travelling between various family members,

finally dying in 1971,

 having just published her second autobiography entitled, most fittingly, Sylvia Queen of the Headhunters.

How can one sum up Sylvia’s life? Most of it was lived in luxury and privilege, a fact that she apparently had no trouble taking for granted. She was despised by many for her thoughtless, meddlesome and outrageously self-serving behaviour, and yet it seems that she was no better or worse than many of her Edwardian contemporaries, who were equally self absorbed wastrels with high opinions of themselves.

 She was considered talented as a writer and some saw her as charming, bright and vivacious, rather than the majority who viewed her as an unscrupulous and eccentric liar. Eade writes her story well, although perhaps without sympathy. At the very least, it is the promised rollicking good read, a story hard to put down until the very end


In fact , Betram had agreed to the Proclamation on the belief that Vyner had already been informed of its contents. I’s questionable as to why the Rajah deemed the Proclamation as necessary one.
Perhaps he felt that his son would never be as loyal to Sarawak as he was determined to preserve the Brooke tradition.
But for now Vyner was not pre-pared to accept the throne under te conditions imposed by the Rajah.
As he cleary stated in his letter to his brother ,”I do not return to Sarawak again umless with full power. By full power I mean absolute control over the country”
When Betram arrived back in Sarawak the Royal Salute and Guard of Honour were there to welcome him. Amidst pomp and ceremony be attended the meeting of thje Supreme Council with his father .
Back in England, Vyner ‘s wife gave birth to a second daughter. When the rajah had heard the news that there was another child on the way he prepared Kuching for a big celebfration.
Flags and Banner were raised and the bell-ringers were standing by in anticipation of a grandson. With the birth of another girl the flags came down and the bell-ringers were sent home.
It was the thought of those bell-ringers that prevented me giving birth to a son and heir. I could visualize the grim old Rajah sitting in his palace, his glass eye glittering as he tapped the floor impatiently with his stick and the Chinese bell ringers hanging on the bell ropes , waiting for the signal that never came.It was enough to put anyone off.”Wrote Sylvia.
However,when The Rajah returned to England toward the end of 1912, the quarrel between him and his son was patched up. Both Vyner and Sylvia had taken steps to write letters of apology which the Rajah grud-gingly accepted.
He directed that when Vyner was away from the Stae, Bertram should assume the position of Vice-President in the Supreme Council and other Council inSarawak. When Betram was in England he was to be President of the Advisory Council in Westminster.
In Sarawak , Betram was to be shown the same respect as the Rajah and could use the Astana as hus residence if he so wished.
Charles hoped that by placing his son in the position it would be “an additional safeguard “ against speculators who wished only to make profits from the country with little concern for its welfare.
Another clause in the Will was that no changes were to be carried out in the State or Government by Vyner without first consulting with his brother.;”I fervently hope that my sons will see the necessity of acting together to keep intact and develop the resources of the country which has been brought to its present state
By myself and my faithful followers after so many years of devotion to it”
The Will also eiterated that the policy and methods of Government of Sarawak which had been adhered to by Charles and the first Rajah were not to be departed from.
He worried that his son would not devote themselves to a lifetime in the East and for that reason , urged his successor to establish themselves in Sarawak immediately after accession.
He hoped that the attractions of life in a Westren country would not divert their attention from the more pressing needs in Sarawak.
He impressed upon the new Rajah the need to spend eight months of each years in the country and stating that the task of Rajah was to be “the slave of his country and people”.
He then went on to point outh that “The Rajahs of Sarawak should habe but one home and that Sarawak. As the firs Rajah used to say to me; The head can not be long separate fromthe heart”, lastly, he directed that Betram was to recieve the title Tuan Besar.
One can only assume that the terms ofthe will must have been a great disappointment to the new Rajah, as Charles brooke was still standing by the Proclamation of 1912 that had caused such an uproar between father and son.
But in new view of his mistrust of his son and their strained relationship, it is hardly suprising that he decided to try as best he could to safeguard his country after his death.
Bertram, who couldn’t quite adjust to his new title, was happy o continue to be known as the Tuan Muda. He was devoted to Sarawak as his brother but was satisfied to let Vyner control things.
If the new Rajah was hurt by his father’s obvious trust in his brother it never showed. But Vyner was never one for harboring resentment or il feelings and he and his brother got along quite well.
However , he seldom, if ever, folloed through any recomendations put foward by Betram and rarely consulted him on matters or affairs in the State. Perhaps if Bertram had been a little more aggresive during the early of his brother’s rule the familynqurrel broughtnabout over the cession of Sarawak,might have been avoided.
As it was, Betram had perhaps waited too long to remind Vyner of the terms of their Father’s will and was not included in the more important discussions concerning the cession of the counry.
Contrary to everyone’s fears Sarawak did not change dratically over-night. The System of Government remained the same and the European officers who had served his father continued to serve Vyner with the same responbilities and trust.
Perhaps the only obvious change during the first few years was in the general atmosphere. Charles Brooke had been stern, feared and hardworking, whereas Vyner was dignified, gracious, courteous, and easy-going. But he did not take too kindly to over-familiarity and a chill glance from his sometimes cold looking blue eyes would be all it needed to nip it in the bud.
At first the Rajah did not spend as much time in the country as his father had hoped and he came and went often. But later on he settled down to a more regular routine spending the spring and summer month in England and the autumn and winter in Sarawak.
The new Renee took a great interest in her adopted country. She was entertaining and clever. For the first time since the Renee Margaret left, parties were again being held at astana .Life for the Europeans in Kuching was suddenly much more interesting.
The Renee loved to enjoy herself leaving people with the assumption that she thought only of her own pleasure. The Renee dicided that in a limited government society the safest course of follow was to treat everyone aqually.
The gossip that went around was something she had to learn to live with and try to ignore.


Vyner, who had a weakness for woman, found some of his officers wives”pretty and alluring” and the Renee felt that some of the women made use of this weakness . She on the other hand but her fair share of handling the attentions and flattery of the men who were trying tp”advance themselves with Vyner through me “ She felt that for people who had “ as we did, absolute power” temtations were inevitable.


Kuching was much quieter when the Tuan Besar was in control whenever Vyner was back in England. There were no parties and Betram didn’t even live in the Astana , preferring instead a more humble abode close by.
One of the first changes that came about under the new Rajah was the disbanding of the Sarawak Rangers which was then turned into a constabulary forces.


This was, in line with his policy of gradual change di occur in Sarawak. The country continued to progress both economicaly and socially and more public services were developed.
Vyner undertook the reorganization the railway, which had been set upnby his father, and by 1920 it was possible to travel along its full length of ten miles after dark.


More wireless stations were added, so that by 1927 ,

there were stations throughout the country.
The hospital service was improved and a government dentist was appointed. And a printer from England was engaged to improve on the only newspaper-The Sarawak Gazette- which was set up in 1870 but only appeared sporadically.
More European women arrived in Kuching to joined their husbands and a club was opened

in 1920

for their pleasure.
The first Cinema in the country was opened by the Rajah and named after his wife. It proved a profitable venture and shows were held there regulary. Kuching was also undergoing a period of relaxation under the easy-going ruleof the new Rajah.

Office hours were not as steneous as they used to be but the officers in the outstation still had to work as hard as ever.
New offices were created ,

there was a new departemeny of Trade and

in 1929 ,

 a Secretary for Chinese Affairs was appointed.
Most of the officials from the days of Charles Brooke had either died or retired and very soon there wasn’t anyone left who remenered the difficult and troubled times of the early reign of the second Rajah. Sarawak prospered and flourished and looked foward to a bright future, but family quarrels, which seemed to be part and parcel of the Brooke tradition,loomed ominously on the horizon.

1936

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

His Highness Rajah Vyner of Sarawak (Charles Vyner de Windt Brooke)

 

 

 

Headhunter dressed up for death-dance & skulls kept as trophies

 

 

 

The Brooke clan in an earlier era

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rajah Vyner Brooke 1927 Sarawak coin

 

 

Sketch map of Sarawak

 

 

 

 

December 1946 newspaper report – Churchill To Move Censure Vote Over Sarawak

 

 

Anthony Brooke should have become the 4th White Rajah of Sarawak had it not been for his uncle Charles Vyner Brooke (the 3rd White Rajah), who disinherited him.  (Anthony Brooke passed away in New Zealand in March 2011 at the age of 98)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Sarawak is not British and it would be an anachronism if it were reduced from the status of a sovereign independent State to a Crown colony,” declared Anthony Brooke, Rajah Mudah (Crown Prince) of Sarawak

 (January 1946 newspaper report)

 

 

 

May 1949 newspaper report

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Victoria was unwilling to recognize the Rajah of Sarawak (the above firsthand account is by a member of the Brooke dynasty in the 19th Century)

 

The Barclay TWINS’ mansion (or “palace”), Brecqhou (in the Channel Islands)

In accordance with this 1888 Agreement, Great Britain despatched troops and material to bolster the defences of Sarawak during the 1930s. During the late 1930s the Royal Air Force based 205th RAF Squadron at Kuching. This was a seaplane squadron consisting of Walrus Flying Boats. However, this was withdrawn in 1941 and returned to Singapore.

Realizing that war was imminent, the Brooke Government, under Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, conducted preliminary work to establish airstrips at selected locations throughout the country.

These airstrips would be located at Kuching, Oya, Mukah, Bintulu, and Miri. By 1938 work was completed on all the airstrips except Bintulu, which was discontinued in October 1938 due to financial reasons.

 On 26 September 1938, the Kuching Airstrip was opened. It was situated at the 7th Mile (Bukit Stabar) and measured 700 meters long by 300 meters wide.

However, despite the modern air facilities available, the RAF stationed no aircraft in Sarawak during 1941. In addition, the Royal Navy withdrew from Sarawak, and the British Protectorates of Labuan and North Borneo in 1940.

With no air or sea forces stationed in or around Sarawak, the British government encouraged the Brooke Regime to adopt a “scorched earth policy” in the event of a Japanese attack.

The Singapore Conference of October 1940 further presented the dismal defence situation of Sarawak by stating that without command of the sea or air, it would be pointless to defend Sarawak and the other British colonies in the area. An alternative plan was proposed by Air Vice-Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham which suggested that 200 RAF and Royal Dutch Aircraft be used to defend the territories of Sarawak, Labuan, Brunei, and British North Borneo. Brooke-Popham stated that this should be sufficient to defend the territories against any Japanese attack. His request for such an outrageous amount of aircraft was declined by the British and Dutch governments on the grounds that they were simply not available.

Later, it was proposed to develop a Denial Scheme. Returning to the “scorched-earth” policy mentioned earlier, Denial Schemes were in place to destroy the oil installations at Miri and Lutong. In addition, the Bukit Sabir Airfield (11 km south of Kuching, the capital of Sarawak), was to be held as long as possible, then would be destroyed.

 

The prelude to the war

The island of Borneo is a land of primeval jungle. The coasts are fringed with mangrove and swamp, and over nine-tenths of the interior is covered with thick evergreen forests.

In 1941 the population was small – that of the whole island was estimated at less than three million – and there were less than a dozen settlements large enough to be called towns. There were few roads and only one short railway; communication was by the many waterways or by narrow jungle paths. Much of the interior was unexplored, or very inadequately known. It was rich in oil and other raw materials.

The island was partly Dutch and partly British. British Borneo lay along its northern seaboard and comprised the two states of British North Borneo and Sarawak, the small protected State of Brunei, and the Crown Colony of Labuan Island.

Borneo occupies a position of great strategic importance in the south-west Pacific. It lies across the main sea routes from the north to Malaya and Sumatra on the one hand, and Celebes and Java on the other. Strongly held, it could have been one of the main bastions in the defence of the Malay barrier, but neither the Dutch nor the British had the necessary resources to defend it. The available forces had to be concentrated further south for the defence of Singapore and Java, and all that could be spared for Borneo and the outlying Dutch islands were small detachments at important points which it was hoped might prove a deterrent to attack.

To gain control of the oilfields, to guard the flank of their advance on Malaya and to facilitate their eventual attack on Sumatra and western Java, the Japanese decided, as a subsidiary operation to their Malayan campaign, to seize British Borneo. This operation was launched by Southern Army eight days after the initial attack on Malaya.

The oilfields in British Borneo lay in two groups: one at Miri close to the northern boundary of Sarawak, and the other thirty-two miles north, at Seria in the State of Brunei. The crude oil was pumped from both fields to a refinery at Lutong on the coast, from which loading lines ran out to sea.

Landings were possible all along the thirty miles of beach between Miri and Lutong and there was, with the forces available, no possibility of defending the oilfields against determined attacks. Plans had therefore been made for the destruction of the oil installations. Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, Commander-in-Chief Far East, decided it would be prudent to honor the 1888 defence agreement with Sarawak. Consequently, in late 1940, he ordered the 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment, a heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery, and a detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers) to proceed to Kuching (British North Borneo).

In December 1940

a company of 2/15th Punjab was sent to Miri for the protection of the demolition parties, and

in May 1941

the rest of 2/15th Punjab was sent there to provide a garrison. This lone battalion consisted of approximately 1,050 soldiers under the command of Major C.M. Lane. For the defence of Sarawak region, it was deployed as follows:

At Miri was deployed a force of 2 officers, and 98 other ranks:
• 1 Infantry Company from 2/15 Punjab Regiment
• 6″ Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery Battery
• 1 Platoon of Royal Engineers
These troops were entrusted with the destruction of Miri Oil Fields. It was to be known as the Miri Detachment.

At Kuching was deployed a force of 1 officer, and 52 other ranks:
• 6 Platoons of infantry from 2/15 Punjab Regiment
These troops were to conduct a delaying action at the Bukit Stabar Airfield outside of Kuching. They were to be known as the Kuching Detachment. The other troops from the 2/15 Punjab were to be deployed piecemeal at the other airfield and oil facilities in Sarawak.

In addition, the Brooke Government mobilized the Sarawak Rangers. This force consisted of 1,515 troops who were primarily Iban and Dyak tribesmen trained in the art of jungle warfare led by the European Civil Servants of the Brooke Regime. British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane who commanded the battalion was placed in charge of all forces in Sarawak, which included the native Volunteer Corps, Coastal Marine Service, the armed police and a body of native troops known as the Sarawak Rangers. Collectively, this force of 2,565 troops was known as “SARFOR” (Sarawak Force).

In August 1941

 a partial denial scheme, which reduced the output of oil by seventy per cent, was put into effect. It was also decided that no attempt should be made to defend British North Borneo, Brunei or Labuan, and

 

 the Governor of North Borneo, Mr. Robert Smith,

 was informed that the Volunteers and police were to be used solely for the maintenance of internal security. It was however decided to defend Kuching because of its airfield, and because its occupation by the enemy would give access to the important Dutch airfield at Singkawang II, sixty miles to the southwest and only some 350 miles from Singapore.

Order of Battle for British forces
Sarawak, December 1941

Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane (commander)

2nd Battalion of 15th Punjab Regiment

heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery

detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers)

Sarawak Rangers

Coastal Marine Service

plus other native troops

The country between Kuching and the sea is roadless, but is intersected by a number of winding waterways which flow through mangrove swamps to the sea. There are two main approaches to the town: the first by the Sarawak River, which is navigable by vessels up to sixteen foot draught; and the second by the Santubong River, which will take vessels up to twelve foot draught. The roads from Kuching run east to Pending, north-west to Matang, and south to Serian a distance of forty miles from Kuching. The airfield lay seven miles south of the town on the Serian road. At the airfield a road branched off to the west; after crossing the Sarawak River at Batu Kitang, where there was a vehicular ferry, it terminated at Krokong fifteen miles short of the Dutch frontier.

There were two plans of defence that were proposed- Plan A and Plan B.
Plan A called for a mobile defence. The objective was to hold the Bukit Stabar Airfield as long as possible. Further delaying actions were also to be conducted so as to allow for the proper execution of the denial schemes. If enemy resistance was such that it could not be delayed, then the airfield would be destroyed and the entire force would retreat into the mountains and jungles in small parties and fight as a guerrilla force for as long as possible. Unfortunately, at

 

the Anglo-Dutch Military Conference

during September 1941 held in Kuching,

it was pointed out that Plan A could not be carried out if the Japanese landed 3,000 to 5,000 men with air and sea support. J.L. Noakes, the defeatist Sarawak Secretary for Defence, had continued to argue the inadequacy of SARFOR and that it had no hope against the Japanese if they landed in force. His idea was to take a ‘wait and see’ attitude and continue to appeal to Singapore for more troops and equipment. In the event that this was not forthcoming, Sarawak should surrender so as to prevent any bloodshed. Rajah Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, was completely against this defeatist talk and vehemently argued that Sarawak should put up a fight, a fight to maintain the honor of the Brooke Raj. At the end it was decided that the town could not be defended against the weight of attack which was to be expected, and the plan was reluctantly changed to one of static defence of the airfield.

During late November 1941, Lieutenant-General A.E. Percival, GOC Malaya Command, took a 2-day tour of Sarawak to assess the adequacy of its defence preparations. He summarized the situation as follows: “Nobody could pretend that this was a satisfactory situation, but at least it would make the enemy deploy a larger force to capture Sarawak than would have been necessary if it had not been defended at all and that, I think, is the true way to look at it…the best I could do was to promise to send them a few anti-aircraft guns and too tell them of the arrival of Prince of Wales and Repulse, which were due at Singapore in a few days…not that I expected anit-aircraft guns to be of much practical value. But I felt that the moral effect of their presence there would more than counterbalance some slight dispersion of force”.

As a result of Percival’s assessment of Sarawak’s defences, an alternative plan of action was proposed, Plan B. This was based on static defence. All available troops and supplies were to be concentrated within a 5.5 kilometer perimeter of the Bukit Stabar Airfield to ensure that its destruction was not interfered with. The rationale for Plan B was presented by Brooke-Popham as follows: “The only place which it was decided to hold was Kuching, the reason for this being not only that there was a modern airfield at this location, but that its occupation by the enemy might give access to the Dutch airfields in Borneo, furthermore, it would also give the enemy access to Singapore. Being only some 350 miles from said place”.

Further orders were issued by Vyner Brooke that all the Civil Servants not assigned to the Sarawak Rangers were to remain at their posts. No thought must be given to the abandonment of the native population by any European officer of the Brooke Raj.

The Brooke Government which had already heard of

the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (on 7 December 1941)

quickly ordered the complete and total destruction of the oil fields and airfields at Miri and Seria. Orders for the demolition of the refinery at Lutong and the denial of the oilwells reached the officer commanding at Miri

on the morning of the 8th December,

 and by the evening of the same day the task was completed. On the following day the landing ground there was made unfit for use, and on the 13th the Punjabis and the oil officials left by sea for Kuching. The destruction of the oilfields had been completed none too soon.

 

 

 

 

(Japanese troops advancing through Malaya)

 

Throughout much of World War II,  British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation.

The Japanese Empire commenced the Pacific War with the invasion of Kota Bahru in Kelantan

on 8 December 1941 at 00:25,

 about 90 minutes before the Attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii at 07:48 on 7 December Hawaii time, or 01:48 on 8 December Malayan time.

 

They then invaded the island of Borneo in mid December 1941, landing on the west coast near Miri in Sarawak; invasion was completed by 23 January 1942 when they landed at Balikpapan in Dutch Borneo on the east coast. During the occupation an estimated 100,000 people were killed.

 

Defence in Sarawak and North Borneo

The main objectives were the oilfields at Miri in Sarawak region and Seria in Brunei. The oil was refined at Tutong near Miri. Despite rich oil supplies, the Sarawak region had no air or sea forces to defend it.

 

Only in late 1940 did Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham order the 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment, a heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery, and a detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers) to be positioned at Kuching. They numbered about 1,050 men. In addition, the Brooke White Rajah government also organised the Sarawak Rangers. This force consisted of 1,515 men who were primarily Iban and Dyak tribesmen. Altogether these forces were commanded by British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane and was known as “SARFOR” (Sarawak Force).

 

After having heard of the attack on Pearl Harbor, on 8 December 1941, the Brooke government instructed that the oilfields at Miri and Seria and refinery at Lutong be quickly demolished.

 

Japanese landing and the battle

The main Japanese force, led by Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi, consisted of units from Canton, southern China:

  • 35th Infantry Brigade Headquarters
  • 124th Infantry Regiment from Japanese 18th Division
  • 2nd Yokosuka Naval Landing Force
  • 4th Naval Construction Unit
  • 1 platoon of the 12th Engineer Regiment
  • 1 unit from the 18th Division Signal Unit
  • 1 unit from the 18th Division Medical Unit
  • 4th Field Hospital, 18th Division
  • 1 unit from the 11th Water Supply and Purification Unit

 

 

(The Japanese landing off the west coast of British North Borneo, 1942)

 

On 13 December 1941,

 the Japanese invasion convoy left Cam Ranh Bay in French Indochina, with an escort of the cruiser Yura (Rear-Admiral Shintaro Hashimoto) with the destroyers of the 12th Destroyer Division, Murakumo, Shinonome, Shirakumo and Usugumo, submarine-chaser Ch 7 and the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru. Ten transport ships carried the Japanese 35th Infantry Brigade HQ under the command of Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi. The Support Force consisted of Rear-Admiral Takeo Kurita with the cruisers Kumano and Suzuya and the destroyers Fubuki and Sagiri.

 

The Japanese forces intended to capture Miri and Seria, while the rest would capture Kuching and nearby airfields. The convoy proceeded without being detected and,

at dawn on 15 December 1941,

 two landing units secured Miri and Seria with only very little resistance from British forces. A few hours later, Lutong was captured as well.

 

Meanwhile, on 31 December 1941,

the force under Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe moved northward to occupy Brunei, Labuan Island, and Jesselton (now called Kota Kinabalu). On 18 January 1942, using small fishing boats, the Japanese landed at Sandakan, the seat of government of British North Borneo.

The North Borneo Armed Constabulary, with only 650 men, hardly provided any resistance to slow down the Japanese invasion.

 

After securing the oilfields, on 22 December,

 the main Japanese forces moved westwards to Kuching. The Japanese airforce bombed Singkawang airfield to prevent a Dutch attack. After a battle between the Japanese fleet and a Dutch submarine, the fleet approached

the mouth of the Santubong river on 23 December.

The convoy arrived off Cape Sipang and the troops in twenty transport ships, commanded by Colonel Akinosuke Oka, landed at 04:00, 24 December. Although 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment resisted the attack, they soon became out-numbered and retreated up the river. By the afternoon, Kuching was in the hands of Japanese forces.

 

At about 16:40 on 25 December,

 the Japanese troops successfully captured Kuching airfield. The Punjab regiment retreated through the jungle to the Singkawang area. After Singkawang was secured as well on 29 December, the rest of the British and Dutch troops retreated further into the jungle southward trying to reach Sampit and Pangkalanbun, where a Dutch airfield at Kotawaringin was located. South and central Kalimantan were taken by the Japanese Navy following attacks from east and west. After ten weeks in the jungle-covered mountains, the Allied troops surrendered on 1 April 1942. Lastly, Sarawak fell into the hands of The Empire of Sun.

 

 

(Hinomaru Yosegaki – Japanese WWII Good Luck Flag)

 

 

  The map of the Dutch East Indies 1941-1942

 

 

On 1 January 1942,

 two infantry platoons commanded by a company commander landed on Labuan Island, capturing the British Resident, Hugh Humphrey who later recalled: “I was repeatedly hit by a Japanese officer with his sword (in its scabbard) and exhibited for 24 hours to the public in an improvised cage, on the grounds that, before the Japanese arrived, I had sabotaged the war effort of the Imperial Japanese Forces by destroying stocks of aviation fuel on the island”. [1] On 8 January, Kawaguchi proceeded to Jesselton and having occupied that town and Beaufort, where he disarmed the small police unit. Using ten small fishing boats, two infantry companies (minus two platoons), commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe, captured Sandakan, the seat of government of British North Borneo, and rescued the 600 interned Japanese citizens.

 On the morning of the 19th January,

 the Governor Robert Smith surrendered the State and, refusing to carry on the administration under Japanese control, was interned with his staff. This unit then captured Tawau and Lahad Datu on the 24th and 31st respectively. This time they freed a further 1,500 Japanese citizens. The Japanese forces suffered no combat casualties during this operations.

 

The convoy which left Miri

on the 22nd of December

 was escorted by the cruiser Yura, the destroyers Murakumo, Shirakumo and Usugumo, the minesweepers W 3 and W 6 and the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru. Covering Force was consisted of cruisers Kinu, Kumano and Suzuya, with the destroyers Fubuki and Sagiri.

West of Covering Force was the 2nd Division of the 7th Cruiser Squadron (Mikuma and Mogami) with destroyer Hatsuyuki. It was sighted and reported to Air Headquarters, Far East, by Dutch reconnaissance aircraft on the morning of the 23rd, when it was about 150 miles from Kuching.

At 11.40 that morning

twenty-four Japanese aircraft bombed Singkawang II airfield, so damaging the runways that a Dutch striking force which had been ordered to attack the convoy was unable to take off with a bomb load.

 Despite the critical situation the Dutch authorities urged the transfer of their aircraft to Sumatra.

 Air Headquarters, Far East, agreed

 and during the afternoon of the 24th

 the aircraft were flown to Palembang.

The convoy did not however escape unscathed.

On the evening of the 23rd

 it was first attacked by Dutch submarine K-XIV (Lt.Cdr. C.A.J. van Well Groeneveld) sank two enemy ships and damaged two others,

and the following night of 23/24 December 1942

 another Dutch submarine K-XVI (Lt.Cdr. L.J. Jarman) torpedoed the IJN destroyer Sagiri (1,750 tons) near Kuching, Sarawak.

Their own torpedoes caught on fire and the ship simply blew up, killing immediately 121 officers and men.

The IJN destroyer Shirakumo and minesweeper W 3 rescued 120 survivors. The K-XVI was herself sunk by Japanese submarine I-66 (Cdr. Yoshitome) on her way back to Soerabaja.

Five Bristol Blenheims of 34th (B) RAF Squadron from Singapore, at almost extreme range, bombed the ships at anchor the same evening, but did little damage.

The convoy was seen at 6 p.m. on the 23rd

approaching the mouth of the Santubong River. Two hours later Colonel Lane received orders from Singapore to destroy the airfield.

 It was too late to change back to mobile defence and, as there seemed to him no point in attempting to defend a useless airfield, he asked General Percival for permission to withdraw as soon as possible into Dutch north-west Borneo.

While awaiting a reply Lane concentrated his battalion at the airfield, with forward detachments in the Pending area east of the town and on the roads to the north of it, 18-pounder gun and 3-inch mortar detachments covering the river approaches, and a Punjabi gunboat platoon, working with the Sarawak Rangers and the Coastal Marine Service, patrolling north of Kuching.

The convoy proceeded westward, arriving at a point, east of Cape Sipang

at 0300 on the 24th. At 0120,

the IJN transport Nichiran Maru with Colonel Akinosuke Oka arrived at the prearranged anchorage off the mouth of the Santubong River.

 At 0400,

the unit aboard the IJN transport Nichiran Maru, commanded by Colonel A. Oka, completed its transfer to landing barges and proceeding west of Cape Sipang.

At about 9 a.m.

 twenty enemy landing craft were observed approaching the shore.

The small Punjabi gunboat platoon, hopelessly outnumbered, withdrew up the river without loss.

 At 11 a.m.

as they neared the town the landing craft were engaged by the gun and mortar detachments, who sank four before themselves being surrounded and killed. During the afternoon three more craft were sunk by gunfire, but the remainder were able to land their troops on both sides of the river,

and by 4.30 p.m.

 the town was in Japanese hands.

Meanwhile Lane had been instructed by Percival to hold the Japanese for as long as possible and then act in the best interests of west Borneo as a whole.

Since the capture of the town threatened to cut off the forward troops, Lane ordered them to withdraw to the airfield.

The Japanese followed up

and before dark

made contact with the airfield defences.

Throughout the night

sporadic firing went on as they felt their way round the perimeter.

 Major-General Kawaguchi received a report from his intelligence officer that there was approximately 400-500 British troops in the vicinity of the Kuching airfield.

December,25th.1941

As Christmas Day dawned,

firing temporarily ceased and advantage was taken of the lull to send the hospital detachment with the women and children on ahead into Dutch Borneo.

During the morning

 the Japanese encircling movement continued, and a company was sent to hold the ferry crossing at Batu Kitang so as to keep the road clear for escape.

A general withdrawal into Dutch Borneo was ordered to start at dusk, but heavy firing was heard to the north of Batu Kitang shortly after noon and, fearing that his line of retreat would be cut, Lane decided on immediate withdrawal.

The enemy, reinforced by the 2nd Yokosuka SNLF, soon aware of his intention, launched a full-scale attack on the two Punjabi companies forming the rearguard.

Of these two companies only one platoon succeeded in rejoining the main body. The remainder, totaling four British officers and some 230 Indian troops, were cut off and either killed or captured.

 At about 1640 on the 25th,

the Japanese troops completely secured the Kuching airfield. The Japanese losses during this operation (including those at sea) were about 100 killed and 100 wounded. The rest of the battalion reached Batu Kitang without loss to find the village deserted and the ferry unattended.

They had great difficulty in crossing the river, but by dark all except the covering force were over. Most of the transport had to be left behind.

. From the 26th

‘Sarfor’ ceased to exist as a combined Indian and State Force, and the Punjabis, much reduced in strength, carried on alone

 

 December,27th.1941

Following the capture of Kuching airfield, the Detachment commander ordered Colonel Oka to secure the strategic area around Kuching with the main force of the 124th Infantry Regiment, while he with one infantry battalion (excluding two companies)

 left Kuching on the 27th and returned back to Miri.

The main body made its way to Krokong. There the road ended, and the remaining vehicles and heavy equipment had to be abandoned. There, too, the Sarawak State Forces, in view of their agreement to serve only in Sarawak, were released to return to their homes

 

 

December,31st.1941

Renewed Japanese attacks threatened to cut off the covering force, but it managed to make good its escape to the southward, and after a march of about sixty miles through dense jungle with little food or water

 

By 1943

they were becoming available in quantity,with both models equpping the Sendai and Tachiarai Army Flying Schools and the Tokorozawa Army Aviation Maintenance School.

 

 

 

 

 

The White Rajah escaped to Australia when the Japanese invaded Sarawak (January 1942 newspaper report)

 

 

 

 

 

Mountbatten’s wife, Edwina, mysteriously died during a visit to Borneo.  These photos show the casket with her remains being dropped into the sea.

 

 

Mountbatten, a great-grandson of Queen Victoria, and uncle of Prince Philip, shown here with Queen Elizabeth II.  He was born as His Serene Highness Prince Louis of Battenberg, but German styles and titles were dropped in 1917.

 

 

Mountbatten’s small sailing boat in Ireland, aboard which a bomb was detonated, killing him and several others.  The bomb was planted on August 27, 1979

 

 

 

 

 

 

b. Second World War

 

 

 

The Japanese landing off the west coast of British North Borneo, 1942

 

west borneo

 

Singkawang

Read more info

The Invasion of British Borneo in 1942

The following article is taken from the British Official History book:
The War Against Japan – Volume I – The Loss of Singapore

(Chapter XIII) by Major-General S. Woodburn Kirby,
the Japanese Monograph No.26: Borneo Operations 1941-1945, USAFFE 1958 and
from numerous additional information kindly provided by
Allan Alsleben, Henry Klom, Tim Hayes, Coen van Galen, Pierre-Emmanuel Bernaudin and Graham Donaldson.

 

The Invasion of British Borneo 1942


When the second Worl War erupted in Europe, Sarawak felt little of its effect at first.
To help Britain along with its war effort , the Rajah prented its government with a gift of one and a half million dollars in 1940, followed by another million in 1941, from the Sarawak Treasury.
This should serve as some indication of how prosperous the country had become. The gift was in deference to the Treaty of 1888,in which Britain agreed to protect Sarawak against enemy attacks.
Celebrations commemorating the the Centenary of Brooke rule were held in 1941, with week long festivities from the 20th to the 28th September.
Six month earlier the Rajah had announced publicy his proposal to divest himself of absolute power and his intention of establing a consti-tution for Sarawak. The Rajah delegated his authority to a committee of Administration, which was set up on 31st March, until thre new Constitution came into force.
He also signed an agreement that would provide financially for his future and thet of his family dependent on him, and he was recieve compensation for the lost of his rights.
The constitution was issued on the 24th September, to coincide with the centenary celebrations, but under the terms of his father’s Will, the line of succession yto Raj had already been laid down and the Rajah should consult his brother before making any changes in the govern-ment or Administration of Sarawak.
The Rajah,who had sworm on his accession to honour his father’s Will,failed in his duty to carry hat promise.
`The Tuan Muda’s consultative right had been ignored and Betram could see no reason to alter the plan of succession laid down by his father which bequeahed the succession to his sons and their male issue .accord-ing to the rule of primogeniture, and failing them,to the son of his late younger Brother Stuart. Betram was already the legal heir presumptive but owing to his failing health, it’s likely that he would have denounced his right in favour of his son,Anthony,should be outlive Vyner.
The Rajah did not trust Anthony Brooke whom he had appointed Rajah Muda in 1939, but subsequently revoked the appointment due to a minor incident. The Rajah anounced the Tuan mUda as his heir but under the new constitution should Bertram die before his brother then the question of heir for Sarawak would be turned over the Committee of Administration. Under such terms the future position of an heir for Sarawak would remain uncertain.
Vyner nor his wife were too pleased with the idea of Anthony Brooke becoming Rajah of sarawak, and Sylvia tried to have the line of succession changed so that her daughter’s son could inherit the title, but nothing came of her efforts.
It seem ironic that throughtout his life his life Vyner had to accept his parent’s prference for Betram’s son would inherit the Raj.
If Vyner had a son of his own perhaps his feelings toward the persevation of the Raj would have been stronger. As matters fared, Anthony Brooke was never given the opportunity to prove whether or not he would have made a good ruler for Sarawak.
It will never be known either how the country would have adjusted the new Constitution because by Christmas day ,1941, the Japanese had invaded Sarawak.

c.Japanese Occupations
24th, Chritmas day 1941,Japanese invaded Sarawak. The Rajah Sir Charles Vyner Brooke with his secretary Gerald Mac Brayn had run to Brisbane Australia, where he made the temporary Kingdom , then he gave the responbility of the sarawak National treasure to his brother Betram Brooke as “Pesuruh Jaya Khas Sarawak” in England.
The country and its people struggled under the Japanese Occupation which lasted almost four years until, on the 11th September, the Australian forces entered Kuching and on the same day recieved the formalsurrendered of the Japanese Soldiers.

 

3.1.2 PISCTURE TALKS

1) C.V. BROOKE SIGN AND OFFICIAL STAMPED

 

 

2) PROFILE CV BROOKE
3)YOUNG CV BROOKE AND HIS WIFE
4) OLDER CV BROOKE AND WIFE
5) CV BROOKE FAMILY PICTURE
6) CV BROOKE OFFICIAL PICTURE

7) NATIVE INOCENT IBAN 1
NATIVE INNOCENT IBAN 2
9) IBAN CEREMONY
10) IBAN TATTOUGE
11) POSTALLY USED KUCHING RIVER PICTURE POSTCARD
12)KUCHING HOSPITAL

 

 

 

 

 

3.1.3 Sarawak STAMPS

 

 

Young CV Brooke $1 (very rare on postally used cover)

 

1)1918 CV BROOKE FIRST STAMPS,LIMITED EDITION 8C-9240,16 C-28.500, 20 C-36.960, 25 C-20640.


2)1932 OLDER CV BROOKE STAMPS


3)1941 OLDER CV BROOKE, 3 C GREEN,4 C BRIGHT PURPLE,8 C-CARNINE AND 15 CENT BLUE.(RARE BECAUSE MANY USED WITH DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT AND OVERPRINT BMA & CROWN)

VARIATIN WHITE FLEA 2 C CV BROOKE 1918 EDITION
CHALKY PAPER CV BROOKE 1928 LIMITED EDITION , 8 C BRIGHT ROSE RED-15.000, 25 CENT-10.000 AND 1 DOLLAR-10.000.

TWO CENT OVERPRINT 12 C.LIMITED EDITION-12420.

 

 

 

 

Sarawak Revenue History Collections

 

 


1) ONE SET CV BROOKE STAMPUSED as revenue,20 cent,25 CENT, 30 CENT, 50 CENT, 1 DOLLAR, 2 DOLLAR, 3 DOLLAR AND 4 DOLLAR WITH SERIKEI CHOP .

 

2)CERTIFACE OF IDENTITY WITH 50 CENT STAMP AS REVENUE,

3)3 CENT BLACK STAMPS USED AS REVENUE IN ARABIC CHAR .

4)3 CENT BLACK STAMP 1.10.37,USED AS REVENUE

5)3 CENT BLACK STAMP USED AS REVENUE IN KUCHING 10.1.1944.(SARAWAK PHILLATELIC REPORT)

6) 50 CENT DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT IN COMPLETE SAVING MONEY CHEQUE. WITH RED INLAND CHOP.

7) ONE SET FRAGMENT OF DAI NIPPON OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT STAMP AS REVENUE ;

 

n) Sime, Darby & co Revenue & Postal History.
(1)Alant Dant the last EUROPEAN BRANCH MANAGER SIME,DARBY & CO SARWAK WITH HIS SIGN ON THE RECIEVED FROM THAT FACTORY WITH 3 CEN CV BROOKE STAMPS AS REVENUE(REPORT BY HONG MING YONG)
(2) SIME,DARBY & COMPANY LIMETED MALAYA & SARAWAK AMPLOP , SEND BY SIM THIAM PECK BORNEO TO SURABAYA INDONESIA, CDS KUCHING 1949.THREE OVERPRINT CROWN ON CV BROOKE STAMPS 3 C GREEN, 4 CENT MAGENTA AND 8 CENT CARMINE WITH HANDWRITTEN THE COST 5. ( HISTORIC COVERS)

 

 

 

 

 

After the war in 1949,Sime  Darby & Co,became sime darby & company Limeted Sarawak, the old cover was used by Sim thiam Hock send to Soerabiaa Indonesia.

 

British colony sarawak postally used cover with CV Brooke stamps over print crown sent from kuching to surabaya Indonesia, send by the ex Sime Darby ,famous expatriat factory in Sarawak,some of my friend found the sime darby reciept with sarawak stamp used as revenue before WW II, and I looked in TV this factory still exist now.

Very interseting postal history,one of my best and rare collections. look at the back of this cover with sime darby name but have change with only Sarawak and Malaya  was off by pen and added the anme of sander Sim Thian Peck Borneo,who know him please give info trough comment (Dr Iwan S.)

 

 

2.11.1941. Rajah CV brooke 3 cen UAR n the recieved fro Sime Darby & Co Ltd sign by Alan Dant (courtesy PSKS,Hong Ming Yong,photocopy) III. DURING BRITISH COLONY SARAWAK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.SARAWAK CHARLES VYNER BROOKE STAMPS USED AS REVENUE

(1) SARAWAK CV BROOKE STAMPS LOW NOMINAL USED AS REVENUE

 

Rajah CV Brooke 20 cent UAR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 25 cent UAR

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 30 and 50 cent UAR

SARAWAK CV BROOKE HIGH NOMINAL STAMPS USED AS REVENUE

 

5.9.1931 Rajah CV Brooke $1 UAR.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $4 UAR

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $4 and $3 used as revenue (UAR) with Serikei Inland Dept. official chop in violet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cvbrooke $10.revenue

 

 

Rajah Vyner Brooke Sarawak postage stamp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SARAWAK CV BROOKE STAMP

 

Rajah CV Brooke $4 UAR

 

PS USED AS REVENUE ON COMPLETE DOCUMENT.

 

20.11.34 Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent used As revenue(UAR) on Identity document.

 

 

 

11.8.1937 Rajah CV Brooke 3 cent used as revenue on arabic written Document.

 

 

1.10.1937 Rajah CV Brooke 5 cent on the arabic written Recieved Document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

II.SARAWAK REVENUE  DURING DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION

DAI NIPPON


a) 50 CENT OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT JUICHI GATSU 1944, 15.10.2604; NI GATSU ,

b) STRIP TWO 5O CENT,

OVAL OVE RPRINT BLUE, NI GATSU(2604).


c) 1 DOLLAR, OVAL OVPT BLUE, NI GATSU
D) TRIP TWO 1 DOLLAR, OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT, JU GATSU

 

d) 2 DOLLAR , OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT ,200/04

 


e) 2 DOLLAR, BIGGER OVAL BLUE OVERPRINT


f) 2 DOLLAR AND ONE DOLLAR OVERPRINT ROUND RED,JUICHI GATSU.

 


g) 5 CENT VIOLET, BLACK ROUND DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT
h) SQUARE VIOLET OVERPRINT 50 CENT STAMP
i)Round red Dai nippon overprint 2 cent green CV BROOKE STAMPS

J) RED BIGGER OVAL DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT WITH STRIGHT OVERPRINT ON 1 DOLLAR CV BROOKE STAMPS.

 

 

k)SMALL ROUND RED OVERPRINT ON 3 C CV BROOKE GREEN.

 

l) ONE SET VIOLRT BIGGER OVAL DAI NIPPON OVERPRINT ON CV BROOKE STAMPS, 50 CENT,1 DOLLAR,2 DOLLAR, 3 DOLLAR.

 

 

 

m)SURAT IKRAR BERPINDAH NAMA (CHANGE OF THE OWNER NAME CERTIFICATE) WITH STRIP TWO 2 DOLLAR CV BROOKE STAMPS OVERPRINT ROUND RED AS REVENUE, 20 THMARCH 1946.

 

LOOK THE CLOSED UP DAI NIPPON REVENEU SARAWAK

WITH RECEIVED INLAND CHOPED

 

Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent(2x) bold violet Dai Nippon Revenue overprint”recieved inland war” with Squqred court chop in red on fragment Deposit Document.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $1(2x) with Bold violet Dai Nippon Revenue overprint “Recieved Inward” with Square court chop in red on fragment Deposit document.

 

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $2 with violet Dai Nippon revenue overprint “Recieve in ward ” and Square court Chop in Red ,fragment Deposit document.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $2 + $1 overprint red Dai nippon revenue “Recieved inward” with Dai Nippon squared court choped on fragment Deposit document.

 

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 5 cent with unidentified Black round overprint (Private or official Dai Nippon ? please comment)

 

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent with FISCALmchinese  hanchoped (private chinese fiscal revenue Handchope?please comment)

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $1 with double Dai Nippon overprint thin red “recived inaward” and violet sarawak Dai nippron yubin Kyoku (not clear official or private handchoped ,please comment)

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $1 overprint thin violet Dai Nippon Revenue “Recieved inward’

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $2 overprint thin violet Dai nippon revenue “Recieved inward”

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $3 overprint thin violet Dainippon revenue overprint”Recieved Inward”

 

 

1945- Rajah CV Brooke $2 (2x) with red Dai Nippon “Recieved Inward” overprint on the Land’s Change of Name certificate issued at Sibu.

 

 

REVENUE

 

Rajah CV Brooke overprint crown $5 (UAR)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14.1.1949.Rajah CV brooke 8 cent overprint Crown used as renenue ( UAR) on the recieved of buying gun at Hong Joo Company 3,Gambier road,Kuching .Sarawak.

 

 

 

 

 

1.10.1949 Rajah CV Brooke overprint crown 6 cent Used as revenue on The recieved of buying Guns at Kuching Gun Shop.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CV Brooke 4$ (illustration revenue, very rare on postally used cover)

 

 

CV Brooke 3 $ (illustration revenue,very rare used on postally cover)

 

 

o) CROWN OVERPRINT 5 DOLLARD CV BROOKE BROWN RED STAMPS USED AS REVENUE.

p)OFFICIAL DAI NIPPON STAMPED ON CONSTRUCTION GENERAL SURVEY 7 DOLLAR AS THE WORKER FEE CERTIFICATE (PRIVATE COLLECTION).WITH TWO SAME ANOTHER TYPE(FROM THE AUCTIONS)

q) 3 CENT GREEN CV BROOKE STAMP OVERPRINT CROWN AS REVEUOE ON HONG JOO SHOT GUN FACTORY RECIVED,

h)5 CENT BROWN CV BROOKE STAMPS USED AS REVENUE ON CHIN 7 SON SHOTGUN RECIEVED.

I)IWAN ‘S PUNCH HOLE STAMPS AS REVENUE
(a) 3 X 3 DOLLAR + 1 DOLLAR CV BROOKE STAMPS USED A REVENUE ,26.3.49 (PRIVATE COLLECTION,FIRS REPORT)
(b)STRIP FOUR OF 4 DOLLAR CV BROOKE PUCH HOLE REVENUE , USED AS REVENUE 20.4.50 (PRIVATE COLLECTION,FIRST REPORT)

(c) BLOCK FIVE OF 5 DOLLAR CV BROOKE PUCH HOLE STAMPS AS REVENUE WITH INLAND KUCHING SARAWK STAMPED .20-11-49.(PRIVATE COLLECTION FIRST REPORT.)

(d)5 dollar King George withouth punch hole used as revenue.

(e) Mr Bill report to mr Ong, block four 5 dollar King George with one punch hole and the other no punch,
(Transition between puch and no puch)

(f) SARAWAK BRITHISH COLONY STAMPS USED AS REVENUE, G-5 DOLLAR,2 DOLLAR AND 50 CENT,I DOLLAR . E- 1 AND 2 DOLLARS.

J. POSTALLY USED QUEEN ELISABETH II SARAWAK STAMPS FROM KUCHING 7 JY 1963 TO JAKARTA INDONESIA TWO MONTH BEFORE THE BIRTH OF MALAYSIA10 SEPT 1963. &CONFRON-TATION

3.1.5 UNIQUE PICTURE

1) G.G. VAN DER KOP TRAVELLING’S PICTURES.
(a) KUCHING RIVER VIEW LAND-SCAPE,RIGHT AND LEFT
(b)Kuching river and Astana
(c) Chinese street and Gouverment office.
(d) Sarawak Museum.

2) Sencored Pictures from dreams of a pagan past prewsented in Sarawak.
(a) Rajah Charles Brooke with hid wife.
(b)iban girl and black ink sencored on the bare breast.
(c) a serial of iban ethic pictures

3)Anticession REVOLT PICTURES
(a)PICTURE ‘S COVER-BOOK
(b)RAJAH CHARLES BROOKE AND MALAY LEADERS

4) RAJAH ‘S CERTIFICATE
(a) RAJAH CHARLES BROOKE LAND’S CERTIFICATE
(b) RAJAH CHARLES VYNER BROOKE LAND’S CERTIFICATE

3.1.6 COINS
1) 1/2 CENT CV BROOKE COPPER COIN.
2) 5 CENT CV BROOKE COIN
3) 10 CENT CV BROOKE COIN

 


4)20 CENT CV BROOKE SILVER COIN

 

 


5)50 CENT CV BROOKE SILVER COIN

 

 

 

3.1.6 PAPER MONEY

Emergency


1) 10 cent unissued

 

1b)ONE DOLLAR YOUNG CVB


 

 

2) BLUE ONE DOLLAR CVB


3) TWENTY FIVE KATTIS RUBBER BONDS

 


4) ONE PICUL RUBBER BONDS
5) SERIAL NUMBER ONE DOLLAR DAI NIPPON MALAYA
6)SERIAL NUMBER FIVE DOLLAR DAI NIPPON MALAYA

 

 

 

 

 

7) GREEN ONE DOLLAR CVB

 

 

 

 

 

8)FIVE DOLLAR CV BROOKE

 

 


9) TEN DOLLAR CVB

 


10) 25 DOLLAR CVB
11)50 DOLLAR NCVB

 

 


12)100 DOLLAR SPECIMEN CVB

JAPANESE OCCUPATION BANKNOTE

Japanese Invasion Money Of Malaya.(1942-1945)

 

The Japanese Imperial forces landed at Kota Bahru, Kelantan, on the east coast of Malaya, on 8 December 1941. A mere two months later, General Yamashita’s army had chased the British forces into Singapore island. On 15 February 1942, General Percival surrendered the island to the Japanese, and 130,000 British, Indian and Australian troops found themselves unwilling ‘guests’ of the Japanese army.

 

The Japanese Southern Money Operations swung into action and the Japanese Southern Development Bank issued replacement currencies at par-one Straits dollar. Notes were printed for denominations of 1 cent upwards and no coins were ever issued.

 

 

MA $10.00 With Serial Numbers.

Initially, the $1, $5 and $10 notes issued had engraved faces, were serially numbered in addition to having control letters (such as MA, MB, etc.) and incorporated safety features, like a kiri flower watermark and flower watermark and security threads. However, spiralling inflation, which came as the Allied troops elsewhere inched towards victory, led to serial numbers being dropped in October 1942, leaving only the control letters. Then higher denominations, like $100 and $1,000, were churned out while lower value notes declined in quality until they were finally printed on plain paper. There were two different types on $100 notes. The fist featured a native hut on the second issue (made in 1945), showed natives tapping rubber trees. This latter- issue $100 note no longer included the statement ‘Promise to pay the bearer on demand’!

 

 

By 1944, inflation was at such a rate that the 1-cent, 5-cent, 10-cent, 50-cent, $1 and $5 notes were no longer considered to be of sufficient value to justify printing. After the end of Word War II, the Japanese occupation money  WITHOUT SERIAL NUMBER became valueless.

 

Banana money and the Japanese Occupation: The $10 note, decorate with the design of a banana plant, gave rise to the name ‘banana’ money.

THE RARE ONE IS WITH SERIAL NUMBER

 

 

Showing posts with label SARAWAK. Show all posts

Showing posts with label SARAWAK. Show all posts

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

 

 

 



SARAWAK GOVERNMENT 1936 RECEIPT RAJAH BROOKE ERA
 $10 DOLLAR BILL , SERIES NO. 1880




 LARGE SIZE NOTE 215MMX130MM

 

 

 

 



ORIGINAL CHOICE FINE CONDITION WITH CENTRE  HOLE 


SARAWAK 1929 $10 DOLLAR ,ONE OF MOST POPULAR LOCALES FOR 
COLLECTORS.PROBLEM FREE HIGH GRADE EXAMPLES OF THIS 1929 ISSUE ARE FAR LESS FREQUENTLY SEEN THAN THE LATER ISSUES. 


AN INTERESTING STAMPING OF “CHOP LEONG AIK SINGAPORE” IS FOUND ON THE BACK. THIS COMPANY IS STILL BUSSINESS TODAY.

Friday, July 15, 2011

 

 

 



ORIGINAL FINE CONDITION WITH NO TEAR NO HOLE  


SCARCE KEY DATE 1938

 

 

 



ORIGINAL VG  CONDITION  SCARCE KEY DATE  NO

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter fourth

Borneo during WW II

The secret war of Borneo

 

 

culminating with the Borneo campaign of 1941-1945 was one of the most complex operations involving Allied land, air and sea forces in the war. It was also the last Australian campaign to be planned and undertaken.

Borneo had been captured by the Japanese in early 1942.

 

 

Most of the island was part of the Netherlands East Indies (modern Indonesia) but the north and north-west was British territory.

During 1942 and 1943,

many prisoners of war, including Australians, were sent to various locations on the island. …

The decision by the Allies to invade Borneo in 1945

was for the most part political. It had only marginal strategic value. General Douglas MacArthur, Commander-in-Chief of Allied forces in the South-West Pacific Area, planned the operation partly to alleviate concerns of the Australian government that its forces were being relegated to operational backwaters, as New Guinea had become.

MacArthur had largely left Australian forces

out of the most significant operation of this stage of the war – the liberation of the Philippines – with only some warships and a few air force units taking part. The invasion of Borneo was intended to make Australian forces more visible again in pressing home the war against Japan. General MacArthur selected Borneo partly on the basis that bases on the island could be used to support an invasion of Java.

The recapture of Java from the Japanese

would formally restore control of the Netherlands East Indies to the Dutch. The Allies would also be able to capture the many oilfields in Borneo; however, this would have little effect on the war because American air and naval blockades of Japan had virtually cut off Borneo from Japan. No oil was reaching Japan from Borneo. And by the time it would all  be over,  another  special  forces legend would be born, and  25 years later another legend to this never-never land involving  a mythical Marine Sergeant from Corregidor by the French Author who wrote of him would also appear…

A  Marine Sergeant named Learoyd

Do to the secrecy  of  MacArthur’s  Allied Intelligence Bureau (AIB )much of the popular myth  the non participants of the secret war or share of any  secret operations in Borneo comes from  the book and subsequent underrated epic movie  both titiled–  “Farwell to The  King,” based on  the 1969 novel L’Adieu au Roi by French author Pierre Schoendoeffer  who took great license from tales he learned as a French  Soldier meeting various Ausies and Yanks who had served in the secret back water war, of Borneo. Produced 22 years ago, the story goes like this:

As a U.S. Marine  — Sergeant Learoyd — with several of his marines — all  retreat  from the Japanese invasion of the Philippines and subsequent fall of Corregidor  by commandeering a small boat ,  they head across the open sea in a small bat and land via vicious surf  onto a Borneo beach.  There blessed to have found land , Sgt Learoyd  and mates,  take off and into the waiting hands of the Japanese who brutally execute them all –  scared he runs deep into the jungle where his is captured by native Bornese head hunter tribesmen , where through ritual and acceptance by them challenges the heir apparent to the throne of  Borneo and killing him becomes the King of Borneo — the leader of a   personal empire among the headhunters in this war story told in the style of Joseph Conrad and Rudyard Kipling.

 

 

 

When a  British Captain and commando leader

 

assigned to Australia SOA ‘Zed force’ and his  Black Colonial Queens West African Rifle Regiment Sergeant,  are parachuted into the jungle Learoyd’s tribesmen find them and deliver them to Learoyd he tells them of how he came to be King. They  give him the standard UW line( seemingly written in WW II Borneo) (him they need the reluctant  Communist King and his tribesmen to join them,  and their about to arrive supplemental joint Aussie  and American OSS team , to  fight the..

 

Learoyd who has taken a wife, takes a wife, and believed that WW II is behind him will have no part in the war until it  arrives at his front door of his longhouse.

 

A combined Japanese air attack and corespnding with by the commandos arrival seal his fate and Learoyd’s emerald forest changes,  Circumstance forces him to revert to his military tactics to save his tribe he  conducts a war of vengeance when the Japanese attack his adopted people..

 

Demanding a treaty from General MacArthur to ensure the  post war period keeps the Borneo people free, Learoyd  becomes enraged when Macarthur’s treaty with the Borneo people is not up held he surrenders’ himself AWOL so that they are given there stone age Jungle and its freedoms. However,  while he is locked in the  brig of the transport ship  ferrying him back to the states to face certain courts martial,  Learoyd is released by  his friend the British SOE team leader,   who in  the end,  allows Learoyd to jump ship and swim to shore and make way back into the jungle to  from  and disappear amongst the natives  back into the wilds of  Borneo.


Farewell to the King,”

is a 1989 film written and directed by John Milius. It stars  British Nigel Havers as the SOE officer,  Fran McRae as the Black British colonial Sgt., famed surfer Gerry Lopez as a headhunting Borneo  tribesman and Nick Nolte, as the Marine Sergeant Learoyd. Milius’ does a great job directing the film. His images here have a similarity to a David Lean military picture, like Bridge On The River Kwai, or Lawrence Of Arabia.   Milius has brought us some of the better U.S. themed military action movies including Uncommon Valor a fictional film based on Vietnam MIA hunters ; The  Wind and the Lion, based on President Theodore Roosevelt’s morocco expedition of 1904 and  Rough Riders (which assisted in helping congress select the same Colonel Teddy Roosevelt for a posthumous Medal of Honor )– all draws us in wonderful and gripping, thought-provoking, action adventures.  Farewell to the King has one of the finest on screen CQB sequences ever dramatized.

While Milius was not in the military, he often chooses stories with characters which reflect the values and mind set of the professional soldier which is why his films have served those audiences, well. Any elite commando trooper or adventurer with a military background can watch a Milius directed film and see the detail he takes to insure the character arches reflect values of the American Servicemen and ideas taken to watching this film cannot be anything but griped by it, as it is  a thinking man’s “war movie”. “Farewell To The King,” shows the war through the eyes of a man who has been to hell and back. It draws us in wonderful and gripping, thought-provoking, action adventure.

Yet for all the fine and wonderful effort  the director put into “Farwell To The King”, not he nor author Pierre Schoendoeffer could have known that much of the  stories involving  characters in the secret back water war, of Borneo were not true — yet had a truth to them than greater than  the non fiction  characters they depicted. You see, the books original author  as a former soldier may have  by his writing in  1969 have learned of tales and legends of the secret operations in the Borneo Highlands  in WW II,  but even so, since it  his take on the real folks whom they were based on was still very highly classified. His tale and the Hollywood version of it, could only ‘dance around” the facts. And if  the following facts you  read below were  somehow ‘available’ to him  to draw upon.. Schoendoeffer fictional tale is actually better than the fine credit is has received.

The Movie and MacArthur’s Secret

Sgt. Learoyd the King was a fictional  creation of  Schoendoeffer as was the British officer Fairbourne…Or were they?  Both were based on real secret warriors who fought in that theater?   Again since the exploits of the actions  were not declassified  until  nearly 2000, the most interesting fact of the movie is how the truth of the back story is a honest interpretation based on here say and legend,  that were spoken openly at the time  of authorship.

For instance, few openly knew (until well into the mid to late 1980’s of General MacArthur’s very classified and secret Allied Intelligence Bureau (AIB).  Let alone how the AIB authorized the Borneo back water war, and yet although all American in concept, most of its personnel for Borneo, were not.

As you may recall  Macarthur forbade  Donovan’s  OSS was to operate in  the pacific, he had the Army’s  G-2, U.S. Navy ONI,   and Brits Dutch and Aussies  to round out  AIB for that job…but know one knew the detail or how jointly special ops AIB really was until long after the war.  The AIB  had something more seasoned than the new Army Alamo Scouts  or  driect action mission Rangers,  Marine Raiders or Navy Frogmen :  A  force in the combination of  the OSS OG’s ( Operational Groups )  he disliked that was originated  elsewhere…

Z Special Unit, also known as Z -Forceor the Services Reconnaissance Department  (SRD)…

Was a joint Allied special forces unit formed to operate behind Japanese lines in Southeast Asia;  including Borneo,  South east Asia. Predominantly staffed by Aussies, Z Special Unit was a specialist recon and sabotage  and unconventional warfare unit that included Brits,  Dutch, New Zealanders Indonesians, Timorese and the people of Borneo. Z force predominantly operated on Borneo and the islands of the former Dutch or Netherlands East Indies.

Besides the Borneo operations the unit carried out a total of 81 covert operations in the South West Pacific theatre under the AIB and countless others throughout Borneo. Parties inserted by parachute or submarine to provide intel and conduct unconventional guerilla warfare( UW). The best-known of these missions were

Operation Jaywick and Operation Rimau,

two of the most classic and maritime commando sorties  of the war both of which involved super endurance swimmer canoeist SBS style raids  on Japanese shipping in Singapore Harbor; however  the latter of which resulted in the unfortunate  deaths of twenty-three commandos either in action or by execution after capture, by which experts in the field say was due to infil /exfil techniques to the target that Using operational swimmers via  underwater combat diver  insertion, would have resulted differently.

Few details of these operations have been officially released, although details have emerged from the personal accounts of some Z Special Unit personnel.

How Z-Force came to be:  Meet the AIB

Prior to couple years leading up to MacArthur’s landings in Borneo in 1945,  the South East Asia South West pacific theater  was  mostly Japanese occupied and the allies had not gotten there act together.

While the OSS and British SOE were operating in Europe and China-Burma-India theater — all fairly close to Borneo –,  Macarthur forbid Donovan’s OSS to operate in the Pacific Theater to which he was Supreme Commander,  and  where Borneo logistically  fell under during the war. 

So he established the Allied Intelligence Bureau(AIB) to meet  the needs of joint British Dutch a U.S. and Australian Special operations under his force command, in the Pacific theater.  Established in June 1942 under the command of Australian Colonel C.G. Roberts, He reported directly to U.S.,   Major-General Charles A. Willoughby who was MacArthur’ s  Chief Intelligence Officer for the  South West Pacific area (SWPA). Interestingly enough Willoughby was born in Germany and named Karl Widenbach at birth. He still spoke with a thick German accent when he worked for MacArthur. He was an admirer of Spanish dictator, General Franco.

 

A joint U.S., Aussie, Dutch, Kiwi, and Brit intel and spec ops agency, AIB was responsible for all operating parties of spooks(spies) coast watchers  and commandos behind Jap lines in order to collect intelligence and conduct nconvetional against Jap forces  under General MacArthur’s. The AIB was formed in June 1942 to coordinate the existing Allied propaganda and guerrilla organizations. The first controller of the AIB was Colonel C.G. Roberts. At its peak the AIB contained men from ten individual services and controlled or coordinated eight separate organizations. The role of the AIB was to obtain information about the enemy:

 

“…to weaken the enemy by sabotage and destruction of morale and to lend aid and assistance to local effort to he same end in enemy territories.” ~AIB motto

 

There were four sections of AIB: A, B, C and D.

B Section, focused on secret intelligence, and was known as Secret Intelligence Australia(SIA). Ironically and much to General MacArthur’s displeasure, B section reported directly to MI6 in London but was not accountable in any way to either the Aussies or MacArthur.( Ironically in the Farewell to the King Movie the British Officer in the field  is reporting directly to London as well…a fact little know  by the public at the time of the writing…) C Section,  gathered field intelligence through Coast Watchers (aka M-Force), natives and civilians.  D section was the psyops, propaganda arm. However it was A Section that concerns this tale.

 

A Section AIB, was later known as the Services Reconnaissance Department (SRD)(aka Zed Force Z Force and Z Special Unit , mentioned earlier). It was also known as Inter-Allied Services Department (IASD), Special Operations Australia (SOA) and was an Aussie military intel and special recon unit (SR). Authorized by Australia’s first and only Field Marshal, Sir Thomas Albert Blamey (Decorated with GBE, KCB CMG, DSO, ED 24 January 1884 – 27 May 1951) in March of 1942, following the outbreak of war, the unit was modeled initially on the British Special Operations Executive(SOE); it organized initially by a  British Army officer and was also renamed Special Operations Executive Australia (SOA). When the AIB was established in June 1942, SRD became a branch of AIB.

SRD /IASD/ SOA oversaw intelligence-gathering, reconnaissance and raiding missions in Japanese-occupied areas. This was primarily done via M- force as coast watchers and Z Force as unconventional SR operatives focusing on information collection and commando operations.

While MacArthur had U.S. Marine Raiders and U.S. Navy UDT’s for direct action Amphibious missions and Alamo Scouts and Rangers working behind the lines in for MacArthur’s American operations, by the time Borneo happened the AIB was  cooking up pure genius!

Borneo and Z Force

Prior to MacArthurs amphibious landings on Borneo in 1945, Z-Force was the ticket to cause fear in the hearts and minds of the Jap and kick his ass. Between 1943-1945, Z Special Unit conducted SR Ops, harassing attacks and sabotage behind Jap lines in Borneo, as well as the training of natives for operations very similar to what today’s U.S. Army SF and Aussie SAS considers to be Unconventional warfare(UW) . These operations were fought at such a high tempo and ferocity of fire power, that the Japs  only saw and felt Owen Sub-guns ablaze  and could not anticipate the fine suppressed  Barrel of the near silent, Welrod 9mm Silences Pistol  or sub sonic .45 from a Delisle carbine,  let alone blow darts from a Dahlak blow gun…as the Z Forces used their fine stealthy skills of Bush and Jungle  fighters;   and assaulting with intensity, that they  to really put fear into the enemy.

The first of these operations was Operation Python (which was split into two operations Python I and Python II)

Python I

Was the first Borneo Z -Force op. Led by Francis George Leech Chester,  a  charismatic South African born British officer and rubber plantation owner before the war,  Chester was the Bad ass Richard Marcinko of the Z Force.  Chester’s Z operatives reported on Jap sea-traffic in the Sibuti passage and the Balabac Strait of the Sulu Sea, just to the north of North Borneo. After landing along Labian Point in early October 1943 while he dashed about and harassed jap forces with nasty hit and run raids. They also supported and provided equipment and supplies for Filipino guerrillas under the command of an American officer, Captain J. A. Hamner.

Chester found out on a later operation, that due to the activities of Python I a number of posters with a picture of Chester offering $15,000 reward for his capture-dead or alive were offered by the Japs for his capture…and legend had it that he could “cut his way through close jungle quicker than almost any man alive”, but that he had never known him walk more than 100 yards in Melbourne without summoning a taxi”

Chesters operatives form this operaiton were highly decorated and he was awarded a  British  DSO and the American Presidential Medal of Freedom. Unfortunately he died from complicaitons of blackwater fever shortly after the war.

Python II

In January 1944,  Z force officer Bill Jinkins,  led Z Special Unit operatives with the objective of organizing the native population for guerrilla warfare. These early efforts did cause havoc to the enemy  not bear any significant results.

Through the rest of 1944-45 , Z-Force Operations Agas 1 and Agas 3, Jaguar, Crocidile Politician  and  Semut I, II, III and IV  were all operations  groups of five to 25 commandos carried out within  interior Jungle and coastal sea lane  surveillance, sabotage, attacks against Jap forces, and the training of Bornean resistance forces in UW The Guerrillas with their own native  skills set had the Japanese running mad .

Vast details of these operations have emerged from the personal accounts of some Z Special Unit personnel, which our next months story will delve into…

 

Operations SEMUT : Z Force and Headhunters,

The wild men of Borneo

Bangau Gugang was  a Dahlak tribes men with operating with a Z Force group after he was brought from Ba Kelalan valley to Long Beluyu as a porter.

 

Upon reaching Long Beluyu he and two other men were ordered to go with a group to Sabah. According to Bangau he had a very interesting experience in Merapok. In his own words:

“…once when they had a fierce fight with the Jap troops in Merapok, he was running out of bullets, so he had to find a way out from the fighting ground. By so doing he met with a Jap soldier, whom he guessed also had no more bullets. He charged after him. A few times the Jap soldiers aimed at him as he was chasing the Jap soldier; they but failed to open fire. He continued chasing him by swimming in the water under the ‘Nipah’ trees by the bank of the Lawas River somewhere in Merapok…At last he managed to get him by surprise and beheaded him. Sang Sigar (an interpreter) tried to ask him what gun he was using, but he told him that he wasn’t sure of the gun, but that it was the usual type his friends were using.

~ Personal account of Bangau Gugang as told to Sang Sigar at Ba Kelalan in 1997, For Aussie SAS Command HQ, Z-Force  historical project ‘Voices of Borneo’

“…Bangau Gugang was indeed a:  ‘member of my small party which I led against a small party of Japs in the mangroves at Merapok. We were up to our necks and waist in water, the distance between the two opposing groups was between approx 2 1/2 yards to 10 yards, the standard of shooting on both sides was appalling, so that to the best of my knowledge, the only two Japs killed by gun fire were from my carbine. The Japs were never renown for their accuracy, the headhunters even less so. Bangau states that he ran out of bullets. Every guerrilla was issued with ten rounds. I kept a small cache in reserve (the shortage was due to Major Tom Harrisson’s incompetent logistics). Bangau (and the others) had a rough time. Ah Toh[ another Native guerrilla fighter] and I had to scream to cease-fire then we attacked the Japs with our parangs[long machete like knifes]. It was a hideous experience for all of us who were involved (more so for the poor Japs I suppose). That plus a few other incidents in Libya, Greece and Crete left me with a legacy of nightmares for many years. That Bangau remembers so vividly his experiences in that incident touches me.”

 

~ a Personal account of Tribesmen Bangau Gugang at the Bala-Palaba Incident during  Operation Semut, 1945 as told  by Former Z-Force Semut I operative ] Corporal Roland Griffiths-Marsh , to   Major  Jim Truscott Austrsailian SAS in December 1996 , For Aussie SAS Command HQ, Z-Force  historical project ‘Voices of Borneo.’

Tales like the above quotes, the legends of Semut and its characters like Bangau Gugang ,   are most likely where author Schoendoerrfer got his material for “Farewell to the King” but sharing a beer  as a former French Para with Legionnaire in Indochina during the 1950’s.

WWII Jap occupied Borneo was no picnic. They treated all of the indigenous peoples like scum:  Japs massacred many many Malay and Dayak peoples often, especially among the Dahlaks of the Kapit Division (state) of Sarawak  on Borneo. Following this treatment, the Dahlaks formed a special force to assist the AIB SRD  Z force men Using a special skill set they had all but prior to the Japanese arrival had abolished to put the fear into the japs: Head Hunting.

In 1944, ‘Z’ Force- men – were sent to the island to encourage Dahlak villagers to engage the Japanese in guerrilla warfare. This was to become highly successful. Operation Semut  I and the Merapok  and Bala-Palaba incident from Corproal Griffths-Marsh and Bangau,  represented one of several dozen smaller special operations conducted by the  Z-Force  within one UW enterprise.

But what of MacArthurs Allied Intelligence Bureau  with American Army Captain CJ Hanmmer of AIB  supported by Z-Force from Borneo and  mentioned earlier, – Were there eother Americans as well,  to influence the Farwell to The King legend ?

 

Cobelry Crew: B-24 Pilots who bailed out over Borneo

Yes ! Is the answer and it is now referred to as “The Airmen and the Headhunters”.

This fascinating tale of an event, took place in the final year of World War II: A small band of U.S. Army airmen parachuted into the dense jungles of Borneo after there B-24 Liberator was shot down in there by the Japanese over Borneo. Landing in good condition they were befriended by the Dahak people in the high jungle plateau,  and were the only other Americans there during WW II.

“….With no radio all they knew of the world’s third biggest [island] could be summed up in the Barnum and Bailey Circus phrase, ‘the wild men of Borneo.’ These ‘wild men’ had been headhunters … and, who knows, maybe some of them still were.”

Maybe?!!?

Balderdash! These were practicing headhunters!

Another Z Force Operative Chinese/Australian Jack Wong Sue confirmed this:

“Part of the job was to train local guerilla forces consisting of Malays, Chinese and other native forces.

 

Jack Wong Sue, FGL Chester and OP Agas team

The short, dark and muscular Murut head hunters of Sabah like all others, had a deep hatred of the cruel Japanese of the time. They were masters in the art of head hunting. Their blow pipes were deadly accurate and they took great delight in collecting Japanese head trophies that were often displayed on top of village poles. The third death march in Borneo consisted of 75 POW and approximately 200 Japanese soldiers. Jackie followed part of this route with his commanding officer for 5 days. Sadly, the POW were  dropping off like flies as their Japanese captors slaughtered the weak and falling. Powerless to help in any way, they had to return to Sandakan. When the last POW fell,the Muruts would have wasted no time in delivering their poisonous darts into Japanese flesh..”

~ Jack Wong Sue, Z-Force operative of Ausitralan/Chinese heritage

Z force —  in fact some who came to rescue the Americans seven months later —  and did so with tribesmen who were Head Hunters against the Japs. The American Airmen survived their hospitality for minding their manners and acting:

“… like guests, not soldiers. In return they were fed, clothed and hidden from the Japanese until their dramatic rescue – [from the British Major  who the " Farwell to the King" British officer was based upon]- seven months later.”

~ Judith Heinman

(These airmen are a fascinating a central part of “The Airmen and the Headhunters,” an episode of the 2007  PBS television series “Secrets of the Dead”)

 

The reasons these Airmen were able to be rescued was all to do with the real Britsh Major,  his modus operandi and the outfit he ran with whom with the headhunting dahlak tribes men and other Bornese people made the Jap enemy ever wish they had never ventured into this part of the world.

 

‘Some of the difficulties encountered by the A.I.B. stemmed from the fact that it had toco-ordinate four separate national groups with differing aims and allegiances; some, undoubtedly, from the fact that the kind of organization it controlled tends to attract men who are not only adventurous but imaginative, individualistic and temperamental to an unusual degree. Such men are enthusiasts who see their own chosen activity, whether it be propaganda, sabotage, or irregular warfare, as exerting a far greater effect on the progress of the war than it actually did…”

~ Major  Jim Truscott Austrsailian SAS in December 1996 , For Aussie SAS Command HQ, Z-Force  historical project ‘Voices of Borneo’

 

Enter The Wild man of Borneo: Tom  Harrisson the most offending soul alive

If  South African Major  F.G.L. Chester of Operation Python I can be compared to Richard Marcinko; Harrisson was  most likely  the character  Schoendoeffer  based the fictional  American Learoyd on, in his Farewell to the King tale!

Major Tom Harnett Harrisson DSO OBE (1911-1976) , was a British polymath (someone whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas…) In the course of his life he was a  Broadcaster, journalist,  explorer Soldier, Guerilla fighter ethnologist, museum curator, archaeologist, documentarian, film-maker, conservationist and writer.  Harrisson was born in Argentina, educated in England at Cambridge, conducted ornithological and anthropological research in Sarawak region of Borneo (1932) and later the New Hebrides (1933-5).Former U.S. Diplomat Judith Heimann and friend of Harrisson’s and author of books on both the airmen and the headhunters and Harrisson himself,  describe him as  wild as any headhunter  more specifically:

 

“the most offending man alive …A romantic polymath, a drunken bully, an original-thinking iconoclast, a dreadful husband and father, a fearless adventurer, a Richard Burton of his time…[truly] the most offending soul alive. ”  For those of you too young to remember Richard Burton the Actor to whom she refers, he really was  one to the true pioneering ‘genius bad boys’  British stage and film ,and Harrisson was to have been able to have run circles around him. Harrisson’s dark side; hot-tempered, arrogant, hard drinking, with a lifelong penchant for making enemies, he ‘married once, probably twice for money’ and virtually abandoned his schizophrenic son.”

 

But during the war after initial service in the enlisted ranks, Harrisson was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Reconnaissance Corps on 21 November 1943.He had been recruited (some sources say by a confusion of names, despite his apparent suitability) for a plan to use the native peoples of Borneo against the Japanese and attached to  Z Force.

 

On 25 March 1945, then Major Harrisson leading seven other  Z- Force operatives,  parachuted with from a B-24  Liberator onto a high plateau thus commencing Operation Semut I. The plateau was occupied by the Kelabit head hunters and their guests: the eleven U. S. Airmen.

 

An indigenous people of the Sarawak highlands in Borneo, the Kelabi tribe, lived at a high elevation on a plateau slightly over 1,200 meters. Because there are few roads and the area is largely inaccessible by river because of rapids, the highlands and the Kelabit are relatively untouched by modern western influences. There, tightly knit communities live in inherited long houses and practice a generations-old form of agriculture – they are cultivators of wet paddy , hill rice, corn,  wet paddy, hill rice,  pineapple, pumpkin, cucumber, bean and fruit. Hunting and fishing is also practiced. Domesticated buffalo are valued highly, seven of which are traditionally required for the dowry for an upper class bride.

 

As the allies moved in on expunging the Japs from Borneo, the Kelabit, like other natives of Borneo, were co-opted by the Allies into fighting the Japanese. Tom Harrison was the man to do the job.  With the old tradition of Head hunting about to be revived, Harrisson’s Pre war experience in Borneo was invaluable to organizing the tribes as a combat. Harrisson would lead  the Semut I operations (one of four Semut operations in the area), which parachuted into their midst in 1945 to make contact; they were supplied weapons by the Australian military and played an essential role in the liberation of Borneo.

As expected from a leader like Harrisson, report from those who commanded him and served under him both loved and hated him. His wild seat of the pants eccentric style of leadership was often not approved by his cadre, but adored by the natives. But he and the few dozen Australian Z Force men under him did train a thousand Dayaks from the Kapit Division( state on Borneo) to battle the Japanese with UW guerilla.  His Army of tribesmen killed or captured some 2,000 Japanese soldiers, and were able to provide the Allies with intelligence vital in securing Japanese-held oil fields. He also was instrumental for carving an airstrip out of the high mountains and laden it with a bamboo runway so that a plane could land there to retrieve the stranded U.S. aircrew. Which Harrisson did.

 

Harrisson and Z force with Bamboo Airstrip to evac Airmen form Borneo

Not knowing Harrisson’s personal politics, his actions make him an eccentric idealist.  He embraced indigenous people and did become a protector of, and advocate for,them, at odds with traditional anthropologists. Harrisson was a forerunner of the contemporary movement to preserve local cultures and ecosystems… a sold conservationist — something even special forces units contend with from time to time…But when he did have to step up to the plate and rescue a stranded allied crew and kill the Jap enemy, he did so with wild gallantry only a wild man of Borneo could. Harrisson was a true legend of his own mind.

 

However even his legend shortly became overshadowed before the exploits could be shared over a long house camp fire, they were swallowed up by the tide of General MacArthur…

 

OBOE SIX:

Codenamed Operation Oboe Six: The Battle of North Borneo was part of the second phase of the Allied operations to capture the island of Borneo    — the wider Borneo campaign of the Pacific War, it was fought between 10 June and 15 August 1945 in North Borneo (later known as Sabah ).  And by the time it took place Z Force operations were in full tilt in the highlands.

The battle involved a series of amphibious landings by Aussie forces with U.S.Navy gun fire and air cover on various points on the mainland around Brunei Bay and upon islands situated around the bay. Japanese opposition to the landings was sporadic initially, although as the campaign progressed a number of considerable clashes occurred and both sides suffered relatively significant casualties. Ultimately, however, the Allies were successful in seizing control of the region, although to a large extent the strategic gains that possession of North Borneo provided the Allies with were ultimately negated by the sudden conclusion of the war in August 1945.  However, on the morning of, July 1, 1945, MacArthur personally observed the last major amphibious landing of the Second World War, when after the naval bombardment was concluded, the 7th Australian Division hit the beach at Balikpapan.


( PHOTO An 8 by 10 inch black and white photograph depicting MacArthur receiving salutes as he comes on board the Cleveland, signed in fountain pen, quite likely on the Cleveland that very day: “Douglas MacArthur, Borneo, 1945″. The photo also has “Official photograph USS Cleveland” stamped on the reverse ).

MacArthur’s Frogmen

While MacArthur had Army Rangers and Alamo Scouts and Marine Raiders by the time he had reached Borneo for the OBOE SIX landings,   some of  the most notable behind the lines men he had working  for him   were not  Army or Marines,  but U.S. Navy UDT Frogmen. Who were taking gun fire to get his Aussie amphibious forces ashore.  Frogmen, of UDT  11,  18 to be exact . As the U.S. Navy supported the Navy UDT teams 11 and 18 cleared the beaches at Balikpapan. Conducted some harrowing beach reconnaissances:

 

“I was a member UDT Team 11 and participated in the invasion at Brunei Bay and Balikapapan[Borneo]. No mention was made of our work prior to the invasion…There were 3 rows of pile driven posts on the beaches that were to be used for the assult troops. There were also many mines that had to be destroyed. We took care of both of these obstacles and brought back information regarding water depths and beach exits. Without this information no successful landings could have been accomplished. I personally helped brief General MacArthur as to the best possible landing sites…on the invasion of Brunie Bay in Borneo. It was the last invasion of World War II. He changed part of his plan because of what I suggested because I had been swimming into the beaches. “

~Donald Lumsden UDT 11, WW II

“21 June 1945. Here at last, Team EIGHTEEN learned what its assignment was to be. Orders and the operations plan for the invasion of Balikipapan, S.E. Borneo were published to the team….On the morning of 28 June 1945 (FOX – 3 day) the team performed its assigned duties of clearing the Klandasan beaches for the assault forces just as they had the Manggar Ketjil area. The procedure of dropping and retrieving swimmers was modified somewhat due to the mortar and machine gun fire the enemy was concentrating in the swimming area. Visibility was poor for the second day and softening-up bombing runs weren’t completed until 0820 when the LCPRs crossed the gunboat line.  Mark 127 demolition packs were the basic change used on the Klandasan Beach obstacles; the team obtained just enough Mark 127s at Moratai to perform one operation with the larger charges, and since Klandasan was considered the “hotter” beach and the one to be utilized in the landing they were used there.

 

Boats went in very close–within 100 yards to the beach here and one was hit by a 37 millimeter shell, but fortunately a flying mattress absorbed the shrapnel and protected all personnel involved; the gunboats closed to 1000 yards to counter the enemy harassing fire. By 1030 the swimmers were in the LCPRs and returning to the APD, while the control boat remained in a position to view the effect of the shot. The charges had been well placed and the beach lay unobstructed to the passage of assault troops. All hands returned to the SCHMITT and the Commanding Officer made his demolition report to Commander Demolition Unit.

 

At 0600 on 1 July 1945 (FOX Day) a boat carrying three officers and a volunteer boat crew left the ship. This boat was flying a red flag and was designated as Underwater Demolition Team wave guide, whose job it was to lead the first wave to the beach and locate the gap made in the obstacles during the demolition.

 

At 0900 (H-Hour) the Underwater Demolition Team boat led the first wave in, preceding it by one hundred yards. As the wave neared the shore it was discovered by the wave guide that they would hit the beach too far left. Accordingly, instead of retiring at 900 yards as planned, the wave guide shifted to the left flank of the wave and forced it to the right. This quick thinking prevented a possible serious disaster. The entire operation went off as scheduled and proved very successful.

 

On 2 July 1945, eight and a half tons of tetrytol were transported to the beach for use by Australian Army Engineers. On 3 July 1945 at 1900 the SCHMITT left Balikipapan for Morotai. Arriving 6 June 1945, the team departed the same day for Hollandia, New Guinea.”

~Navy UDT 18 History

 

(editors Note:  when MacArthur returned to the Philipines it was OSS Operational  UDT Frogmen men who made that possible…again for another time and place…)

 

RAN  Beach Commandos

 

The Royal Australian Navy also formed commando units along the lines of the British Royal Naval Commandos ( and U.S. Beach Master …) to go ashore with the first waves of major amphibious assaults( right after UDT 11 and 18 cleared the beach heads) , to signpost the beaches control boat traffic, communicate with the maritime forces,  and carry out other naval tasks. These were known as (Royal -Australian-Navy)RAN Commandos.

In April 1945, Beach Commando B’s Commander B. G. B. Morris, RANVR went into action in the Battle of Tarakan, supporting the Aussie Army’s 26 Infantry Brigade and 2nd Beach Group. Two beach commandos were killed and two wounded. Morris was awarded the U.S. Bronze Star for his role in the Tarakan Landings. Beach Commandos A and C, under Lieutenant Commander R. McKauge D.S.C., RANVR took part in the 9th Division and  1st Beach Group’s Landing at Brunei and Labuan. Beach Commandos B and D participated in the  7th  Division and 2nd beach  Groups landings in the Battle of Balikpapan.

The Royal Australian Navy  Commandos fought  various direct action missions with gallantry in  support of the major Oboe Six l landings on the beach with great support  coming form their network of native tribal assistance and coast watchers and  the myth of several curious operations and actions  involving some rather flamboyant figures,  some  larger than life – some mythical in proportion,  some who recognition is unknown out side of their tight knit ever fading cadre of members .

But all this was a necessary if ballsy side show these Yank and Aussie High water mark commandos were more a direct action bunch to the real behind the lines adventures of Borneo’s Secret Z force warriors . Their network of native tribal assistance, coast watchers and  the myth of several curious operations and actions  involving some rather flamboyant figures,  some  larger than life – some mythical in proportion,  some who recognition is unknown out side of their tight knit ever fading cadre of members.

We may never know how author Schoendoeffer came up with his tales and characters, but Harrisson  alone had to be the inspiration for Learoyd and Fairbourne. Author Schoendoeffer was a former sailor, French Army Alpine soldier and who at the battle for  Dien Ben Phu also became a combat camera man who spent four months as a Vietminh POW. Perhaps he had did invent the Farwell To The King  tale to escape his mind from being a former POW? This remains unclear, despite parallels to people like Harrisson who he may have had access too.

Harrisson’s biographer Heinmann back in 2007 suggested we are not winning the current  war in Iraq and Afghanistan  the way General’s McCrystal  and Petraeus and Admiral Olson  desire, due to how we do not work with them as the Z force did with the  various folks,  hearts and mind wise:

 

“…the United States is failing to have a major influence on sectarian and tribal leaders in Iraq. In fact, our huge “footprint” in Iraq and Afghanistan may be hurting us more than it helps.

 

That irony came to light recently when I was researching a book about the Allies’ special operations in Borneo during World War II…I came to learn these facts in the course of writing a book…And now, as I read the newspapers, I cannot help noticing how in today’s unconventional wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, our soldiers’ and leaders’ current lack of success in co-opting the local people contrasts with what was achieved by a small number of American airmen 60-odd years ago…”

~From “‘Guests’ can succeed where occupiers fail ” By Judith M.  Heinmann, New York Times: Friday, November 9, 2007

 

Z Special Unit ( Z Force) Operative training with distinct Owen Submachinegun

The difference between 1945 and now is then the Aussies and allies were finding Other freedom minded tribes the Dahlak and Kalabit people to beat the enemy who was not free.  Today freedom is not a word our enslaved foe’s understand. If they did, a Caliphate and Sharia law for the western world would not be a thought for those hell bent on killing world cruising yacht owners who pass out bibles,  or anyone else not wearing  a shemagh or a birka by annihilating anyone not like them, including those of them who understand and  desire freedom.

 

What is clear is that secret warriors do come in all flavors: Wild men of Borneo like Harrisson to mild and in between. Yet the Z Force association decided to stand down due to the passing away of its cadre and that most are now 90 plus years old. The last Z Force reunion was in Summer 2010 and similar to the many unsung former OSS and Brit SOE operatives who stay quit well into their 90’s, the surviving cadre of the Z- Force shun the lime light also. Even so the whole of Australian military and patriotic citizens have honored those who lived long enough to surpass Australia’s declassification of official secrets acts, as national treasures. Glorious and sad as that is ,the Z Force  modern legacy, the  Aussie SAS has a heritage behind it of the  RAN Commandos and Z-Force which pretty much gave them carte blanche for future UW missions Aussies  have found themselves fighting as allies and leaders,  in all campaigns from  WWII to  Iraq and  Afghanistan.

 

And how does it all relate to this wonderful tale about a Marine who became a King of Borneo?

 

Perhaps that tale is fable, or better yet a parable. A parable,  to illustrate  how the valiant t Z force men rallied a guerilla battle against the Japs that relied on the passion of theire cadre for the fight and that war has no place for those with utopian ideals be they the fictional Learoyd or the non fictional Harrisson. Fictional Marine Sgt. Learoyd and King  Learoyd –one in the same — wanted to live in never-never land of the Borneo Highland jungle. Yet ultimately knew, he could not hide from the pressures of outside unless he compromised and used his warrior skills set before disappeared back into the jungle.

 

In real war you go after and hunt the enemy and destroy him and are rarely afforded the luxuary to do little else. And when he is really misguided or hell bent on ending you our your kind, you use all stops including head hunting if that will do it — to defeat him first.

 

Harrisson tried to combine the too, as did the fictional Learoyd.  Half of Harrissons troopers understood his eccentric love for “going native” with the Borneo tribes he admired; half did not.  Harrisson like his fictional  Z  Special Unit counterpart  and  both the films British Captain Fairbourne and Learoyd stayed and fought in Borneo due to his fascination with it-a love of the place and the local populace –the war going on there was a secondary motivation. Both Learoyd and Harrisson were view by there fellow operatives as romantic idealists.

 

 

 

We the modern incarnation against a enemy more savage than the Japanese or Nazis ever were -the small cells of Islamo fascist extremists area welcome ring for  the secret warriors Since we are unable to disappear from the enemy of our current unpleasentries, perhaps its time we use Head hunting techniques to counter their garish chainsaw beheadings?    Take each one of them islamo fascists we can find and end them personally. Inflict personal harm to them in ways they feel we are not up too.  And then, use a modern A bomb —  like a the neutron Bomb — and let it  fall on them where they stand and then engage those more  enlightened Muslims who finally get the picture as to why we may elect to deploy such a weapon.

 

Headhunting? Its  probably one of the few skills sets second to a neutron bomb which will stop the Islamo-fascist in his track..

War is hell. Why not win it by reminding the bad guys, they you will not beat freedom by offering up enslavement  for  an exchange. Primitive Bornese headhunting tribesmen understood this as did those upside down under backward Aussie ‘Diggers’,  Who kicked Jap ass in Borneo … even a  author and director of a fictitious Borneo King knew it!

So what makes a secret warrior retain his secrets? In a world like ours, What kind of  Men are we to retain our honor?

A rough man.

If your a modern version of a Z Force man, You are a rough man

 

Secrecy Doc for Z Special Unit

who does what those who are incapable of what you  do, but expect you to do,  if they, were to find themselves in our boots retaining  the secrets we keep  like we secret warriors have always done… that’s why they chose you, ‘Boy-O!’

Like those 90 year old Z-Force Diggers and OSS Jedburghs who passed  the torch to   cold war era  Green Berets Marine Recon and SEALs, and they in turn passed it on to you their modern legacy, maybe when your 90 you can tell your tale too!

Keep your secrets until they are later indicated to be otherwise….Tow that line!

 

 

Chapter five

Sarawak British colony

 

 

4.1 HISTORIC BACGROUND

 

 


Anthony Brooke , the son of Betram Brooke, with tittle Raja Muda Sarawak, have knowed that The Brithis Empire will asked to have more power in Sarawak after the war.
Due to that situation he have prepared to handle the problem , he prepare the new law to serve the Rajah and Colonial Office.

 

Look betram,Anthony father ‘s  wedding picture

 

 


When he announce by the king as the chief of Sarawak state dele-gations in the conference with the British Colonial Office in 1945.
The Colonial office officer want the foreign Jurisdiction Act of 1890 have been done, transfere the sarawak state to British Crown colony and change the Brooke power to be same as the Malaya State King and join the Mac Michael agreement “ Malaya Union”.
In January 1944, British Empire to occupied North Borneo and asked Sarawak to made a new agreement to give the British empire the power to make new laws and system like in Malaya state.


In July 1945

the change of power from Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke to “yang Dipertua Negeri” like Malaya state.
On 11th Septemr 1945, the Australian forces entered Kuching and on the same day recieved the formalsurrender of the japanese soldiers.
Military rule did not come to end end until April 15th 1946, when civil government was oncemore restored to the country.
The administration was then handed back to the Rajah , who had arrived a few days before with his wife.
The scene in Kuching was one of enthusiastic rejoicing and many thought it strange that a man, who had already decided to abandon his country ,could still command so much devotion.
The British Empire want the Borneo army under British Army, and after the Japanese Army surender there were the meeting between Brithis Empire Official with sarawak state official.

IN 28th February 1945,

Anthony Brooke write a letter to the secretary of British Colonial that he and his friend was announce by the Rajah as the vice of Sarawak’s people in the meeting with them.
The British Colonial Office didn’t accepted the Anthony proposal, and they write a letter to Rajah the Anthony delegation cann’t had the responbility .
Rajah Vyner Brooke at least take the responbility of Sarawak State in nhis own hand, and fire Anthony Brooke.
In 1945 Rajah Vyner Brooke told the British Colonial secretary that he will give Sarawak to the King of Britain.

 

 

 

December 1946 newspaper report – Churchill To Move Censure Vote Over Sarawak

 

 

Anthony Brooke should have become the 4th White Rajah of Sarawak had it not been for his uncle Charles Vyner Brooke (the 3rd White Rajah), who disinherited him.  (Anthony Brooke passed away in New Zealand in March 2011 at the age of 98)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Sarawak is not British and it would be an anachronism if it were reduced from the status of a sovereign independent State to a Crown colony,” declared Anthony Brooke, Rajah Mudah (Crown Prince) of Sarawak (January 1946 newspaper report)

 

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Anthony Brooke

Anthony Brooke, who died on March 2 aged 98, was heir to the throne of Sarawak and briefly ruled the romantic jungle kingdom on Borneo with the powers of the last White Rajah.

Charles’s first three legitimate children all died within a week from cholera while sailing up the Red Sea on their way back to England on leave, but his wife subsequently bore him three more sons, the eldest of whom, Charles Vyner Brooke, known as Vyner, was destined to become the third Rajah of Sarawak. The couple’s second son, Bertram, was Anthony’s father.

Anthony Walter Dayrell Brooke, always known in his family as Peter, was born on December 10 1912, the fourth child and only son of Bertram and his wife Gladys, the only daughter of Sir Walter Palmer, first and last Baronet – and thus heiress to a sizeable slice of the Huntley & Palmer biscuit fortune.

Anthony’s mother was a restless exhibitionist who went through a number of religious conversions. In 1932 she converted to Islam while on a flight from Croydon to Paris, after which she went by the name of Khair-ul-Nissa (Fairest of Women).

She separated from her more retiring husband when Anthony was four but, having produced the longed-for son, remained in favour with her father-in-law, who ordered a 21-gun salute at Kuching when Anthony was born. The old Rajah was far less well disposed towards Vyner’s equally flamboyant wife, Sylvia, who managed only daughters.

In the Rajah’s political will he bequeathed sovereignty to Vyner but made no secret of his preference for Bertram, who would have to be consulted on any “material developments”, and stand in for his brother whenever Vyner was away from the country. After Charles’s death in 191, Vyner and Bertram effectively shared power, each spending half the year acting as Rajah in Sarawak.

As for Anthony, he grew up in England, where he was educated at Eton. After a year at Trinity, Cambridge, he studied Malay language and Muslim law at the School of Oriental Studies in London, before travelling for the first time to Borneo in June 1934.

Anthony was seconded to the Malayan Civil Service, serving as an acting resident and magistrate, before returning to Sarawak in 1936. After spells at the outstations of Nanga Meluan and Marudi, and at the Kuching Secretariat, he returned to England in 1938 to study colonial administration at Oxford and complete his grooming as his uncle’s heir.

The following year Anthony returned to Sarawak to become district officer at Mukah. Bertram, meanwhile, had become incapable, after a nervous breakdown, of discharging his responsibilities in the power-sharing arrangement with Vyner, and so in April 1939 Vyner appointed Anthony as Rajah Muda (Heir Apparent) and Officer Administering the Government during his annual periods of leave in England.

During his six months in charge of Sarawak, Anthony enacted various education reforms and amended the penal code on whipping, the protection of women and girls and the punishment of mutiny; he also issued a proclamation supporting Britain’s declaration of war against Germany and Italy.

Overall he made a favourable impression on the Governor of Straits Settlements, Sir Shenton Thomas, who noted that he seemed enthusiastic to make Sarawak a model state. The Colonial Office, too, felt that here was a man with whom it could do business, unlike the increasingly eccentric Rajah Vyner.

When Vyner returned to Sarawak in 1939 on outbreak of war in Europe, however, he was told by senior members of the Sarawak Service that his nephew had been supercilious, reluctant to take advice and had displayed a tendency to judge officers according to their horoscopes. Anthony had by then left Sarawak to get married and it was on his way back from honeymoon in Sumatra that he heard his uncle had deprived him of the title of Rajah Muda, saying he was “not yet fitted to exercise the responsibilities of this high position”.

Ranee Sylvia inferred that part of the problem had been Anthony’s marriage to Kathleen Hudden, the “commoner” sister of a Sarawak government official. “I don’t like to be snobbish,” she told reporters, “but the natives are very particular about these things.” The unreliable Ranee later alleged that Anthony had been guilty of folie de grandeur, having cardboard crowns pinned to his car and ordering traffic to draw aside as he approached. Anthony denied this.

The furore eventually subsided, a peace was brokered, and Anthony returned to Sarawak as a district officer in early 1941, and was due to be reinstated as Rajah Muda. However, in September he was again expelled from the country by Vyner, this time for objecting to various aspects of a proposed new constitution. Three months later, in December 1941, Sarawak fell to the Japanese.

By this time, Anthony was back in England, enrolled as a private soldier in the British Army. In 1944, by which time he was on Lord Louis Mountbatten’s staff in Ceylon, the British government approached Rajah Vyner suggesting they discuss how Sarawak and Britain might be “marched together in the future”.

Reluctant to involve himself in such discussions, Vyner once again turned to his nephew, restoring him again as Rajah Muda, and appointing him head of a Provisional Government of Sarawak in London to explore what the British government had in mind. The talks quickly broke down when it emerged that Britain intended that Sarawak join the Empire, an outcome to which Anthony was vehemently opposed.

Not to be frustrated, the British government made a direct approach after the war ended to the Rajah, and he agreed to cede Sarawak to the British Crown in return for a financial settlement for him and his family. He then wrote to Anthony once again abolishing his title of Rajah Muda.

The cession was put to a vote of the State Council in Kuching, where the majority of the indigenous members voted against it, but it was carried by white government officials loyal to the Rajah. Hence, on July 1 1946, Sarawak became Britain’s last colonial acquisition.

There followed a five-year campaign in Sarawak aimed at revoking its new colonial status, which Anthony Brooke helped direct from his house in Singapore. He urged that it be non-violent, but in 1949, after the second Governor, Duncan Stewart, was assassinated by a young Malay, he came under the scrutiny of MI5, who wanted to “get wind of any other plots he and his associates might be hatching”. But they turned up no evidence that he had known of the assassination plot.

For his own part, Anthony Brooke was quick to distance himself from the extremists, and when his legal challenge to the cession was finally dismissed by the Privy Council in 1951, he renounced once and for all his claim to the throne of Sarawak and sent a cable to Kuching appealing to the anti-cessionists to cease their agitation and accept His Majesty’s Government.

The anti-cessionists instead continued their resistance to colonial rule until 1963, when Sarawak was included in the newly independent federation of Malaysia. Two years later, Anthony Brooke was welcomed back by the new Sarawak Government for a nostalgic visit.

By this time he had embarked on a second career as a self-styled “travelling salesman” for world peace. In the late 1950s, he led a campaign to put morality back into British politics, and in the 1960s he toured the world on a “peace pilgrimage”, meeting Nehru, Zhou En-lai and U Nu of Burma, and walking across the Punjab with the Indian saint Vinoba Bhave. He lived with the New Age commune at Findhorn, in the northeast of Scotland, adopting their belief that flying saucers would bring “peace on earth and the brotherhood of man”.

After divorcing his first wife in 1973, he married Gita Keiller, from Sweden, 18 years his junior, and together they founded Operation Peace Through Unity, which produced a quarterly newsletter, Many to Many, with “news items, strategies, poems and letters from around the world, for use in the cause of peace, environmental protection and the rights of indigenous peoples”.

They continued their globe-trotting campaign until the late 1980s, when they came to roost in a wooden villa on a hill above the town of Wanganui on the north island of New Zealand. Towards the end of his life, Anthony Brooke remained saint-like in his good nature, and remarkably forgiving about those members of his family who had conspired to deprive him of his singular inheritance.

He is survived by his second wife and by a son and a daughter from his previous marriage; another daughter predeceased him.

 

 


In 6th February 1946,

GTM Mac Bryan as the secretary of British Colonial have came to Sarawak and have a meeting with the Sarawak’s People Council about The Sarawak treasure in England one million Poundsterning.
As the Father’s Will, Vyner Brooke must consultation with Tuan Muda about the Sarawak Kingdom after heard from Radio BCC about the Brithish Colonial proposal about Sarawak.
In 27th March 1946, two delegation from England Capt. Gammans and Lt.Colonel Rees-Williams came to sarawak to research the sarawak people actions to the law of Rajah give the power to British Empire as Colony State.
MacBryant report that the Malayu and Chinese people of Sarawak agree to the Rajah proposal to give Sarawak to the King of Britain, many Malayu adn Chinese leader didn’t agree.
The secret was opened that Datuk Patinggi of Madjlis Mesyuarat Tertinggi have recieved 12.000 poundsterling from Mac Bryan as the “Hadiah” , and Datuk Menteri, Datuk Hakim and datuk Amat also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , and Datuk Pahlawan also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , Mac Bryan also give 2000 poundsterning to Tuan Haji Nawawi who be “Saksi” the sign of Letter “”Wang yang saya terima dari Mac Bryan telah saya serahkan kepada pihak Pasukan Pentadbir Hal Ehwal Awam British Borneo kerana saya pondang wang itu sebagai Suap”
Datuk Patinggi also give 12.000 Poundsterling to “Pihak Pentadbiran British “ with “Surat Keterangan”.
The People of Sarawak think that the step of “Penyerahan” Sarawak was excellent and Tuan Muda have agreed .
The Poeple think that the situation didn’t have change, they still have the Raja , but this only the title without the power. The Vyner Brooke Stamps still used but with BMA and crown overprint,

.

 

 

 

I recently discovered this book, and bought it online. It turned out to be one of the best descriptions of the period Sir Charles Brooke spent in Sarawak. It delved into his relations with his uncle Sir James Brooke, his wife Margaret de Windt (who preferred her childhood name Ghita) and Esca Brooke Daykin, the child Charles sired with a local woman Dayang Mastiah.

I found it a very well-researched work and a fascinating read, covering areas the official history books of our boyhood stayed away from.

The blurb on the back cover has this to say … “This enthralling saga of conflict and betrayal among the famous White Rajahs of Sarawak explores the bizarre history of the Brooke family and the English dynasty they established in the topical jungles of Borneo …. Combining the flair of the novelist with meticulous research, prizewinning historian Cassandra Pybus has pieced together the hidden story of the White Rajahs to create three spellbinding narratives of adventure and passion; of personal anguish and political intrigue. Set against the wild beauty of Sarawak and the harsh but stunning terrain of Northern Canada, these three tales of power and loss are unforgettable.”

Let me share a few pictures …

 

Fig 1: Cover of “White Rajah” book

 

 

 

Fig 2: Opening pages

 

 

 

Fig 3: Published in 1996

 

 

 

Fig 4: The Contents pages

 

 

 

Fig 5: Photo of the young Esca Brooke Daykin

).

I think it would be most interesting to meet and have a chat with Ms Pybus one day

This interesting item came out in Borneo Post in April or May last year..

Any of you guys and gals who are interested in Sarawak history, especially the Brooke era, should try to visit this Expo about the last Raja Muda of Sarawak, Anthony Walter Dayrell Brooke when it opens .

Anthony Brooke passed away on 2nd March 2011 at the age of 98.

 

 

 

This came out in the Borneo Post today (thanks Leo!). I still don’t know if any of our brothers attended ….

 

 

 

A historic occasion

 

 

 

section 1 of 3 of clipping

 

 

 

section 2 of 3

 

 

section 3 of 3

 

 

From “The Sarawak Tribune” (9 June 2011)

 

In Memory of Anthony Brooke

 

by Elmer Yeo

 

KUCHING: The passing of Anthony Walter Dayrell Brooke, who was the Raja Muda (heir apparent to the throne of the White Rajah) before Sarawak was ceded to the British, marked another important chapter in the history of Sarawak.

Brooke, who was 98 years old when he passed away in New Zealand on 2 March, 2011 is survived by his wife Gita Keiller, son James Bertram Lionel Brooke and a daughter Celia Margaret Brooke.

An exhibition in his memory, highlighting his ties and links with Sarawak, is being held at the State Library in Petra Jaya here 8 to 30 June.

The Chairman of the State Library Board of Management, Tan Sri Datuk Amar Hamid Bugo, officiated at the launching of the exhibition by James Bertram Lionel Brooke, yesterday.

In his short speech, James Brooke described his father as a man of integrity and strong will.

He said he regretted not having the opportunity to get close with his father who was a travelling man and was constantly away.

He said the family had to leave Sarawak hastily in 1941 due to the impending Japanese conquest of South-East Asia, and their return to the UK where they were relocated at Liverpool.

James also spoke briefly about the decision of the Third Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke to cede Sarawak to the British government in 1946 in return for a pension, thus ending the rule of the White Rajah.

Meanwhile, the small but informative exhibition showcases Anthony Brooke’s life from his early years to the period when he was appointed the Raja Muda, and his opposition to the cessation of Sarawak to the British.

Anthony’ Brooke’s anti-cessation campaign ended in 1951 when the spread of communism became a greater threat to the stability of Sarawak.

When the anti-cessation movement came to an end, Anthony Brooke devoted his time to promote peace, unity and the protection of the environment and the indigenous people.

He divorced his first wife, Kathleen Hudden in 1965 and remarried in 1982.He and his second wife Gita Keiller visited Sarawak in 1983 to participate in the 20th anniversary celebration of the formation of Malaysia.

Anthony Brooke’s month-long stay in Sarawak (from 18 Aug to 18 Sept) in 1983 gave him the opportunity to meet with old friends, former co-workers and government officials, being invited as guest of honour at numerous functions and excursions to other parts Sarawak.

In his later years, he settled down at Wanganui in the north island of New Zealand, and to keep alive the fond memories of Sarawak, he even had a special memorabilia room called the Sarawak Room’ in his house.

The exhibition reveals that Anthony Brooke, towards the end of his life, forgave family members “who had conspired to deprive him of his singular inheritance”.

Besides the pictorials and written stories, there was also a small collection of government documents that were related to the anti-cessation period.

Al so present at the ceremony were the State Library’s Acting Chief Executive Officer Japri Bujang Masli and Anthony Brooke’s grandson, Jason Brooke.

“By the act of your ancestors and mine, and by the accident of birth, I was born to be your servant – a relationship formally recognised by the British Government in its treaties with Sarawak and my family.

That relationship was impugned but not changed by my uncle’s cessation of Sarawak, and its annexation by the British Government.

In good or ill, so long as you wish to maintain that relationship, I shall continue with gratitude, affection and pride to regard myself as your servant” – Anthony Walter Dayrell Brooke.

 

(end)

 

Posted by James Yong at 3:27 PM 2 comments

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Labels: anthony brooke, exhibition, kuching

Tuesday, January 3, 2012

This article is from early 2011, and has also been shared in the blog “Josephians of the Seventies


[Source: The Star Online]


KUCHING: Former Rajah Muda, Anthony Walter Dayrell Brooke, 98, passed away in Wanganui, New Zealand on March 2.

As the heir-apparent, he briefly administered Sarawak from 1939 to 1940 in the absence of his uncle Charles Vyner Brooke, the third and last White Rajah to rule Sarawak.

 

He is survived by his wife Gita, son James Lionel, daughter Celia and grandchildren Jason, Laurence and Sura.

 

In an email to Sarawak Tourism Federation’s Heritage Development Committee chairman Lim Kian Hock, Jason wrote that his grandfather passed away with his wife by his side at their home Rumah Brooke.

 

“His cremation took place yesterday (Thursday) at 3pm in Wanganui, in keeping with his wishes, with a memorial service to follow later this year,” said Jason.

 

Born in England in 1912 to His Highness the Tuan Muda of Sarawak, Anthony received his education at Eton and Magdalene Cambridge, before pursuing studies in Malay and Mohammedan Law at the School of Oriental and African Studies.

 

Anthony’s uncle Sir Charles Vyner Brooke was the third Rajah of Sarawak. Sir James Brooke became Rajah in 1841 and the Brooke family ruled Sarawak until the Japanese invasion in 1941.

 

As Sir Charles had no male heir, Anthony’s father, the co-ruling Tuan Muda was the heir-apparent. He, however, renounced his claim in favour of his son, duly appointed Rajah Muda (Crown Prince) and heir-apparent in his place.

 

 

Anthony had one son James (born 1940) and two daughters Celia (1942) and Angela (1944).

Anthony was the last member of the Brooke family to govern Sarawak (1939 to 1940).

 

After WWII ended, and with Sarawak liberated from Japanese rule, Anthony strongly opposed the annexation of Sarawak as a British colony in 1946, and responded to calls coming from the Malay National Union, Sarawak Dayak Association, Sarawak Youth Movement, Sarawak Women’s Association and other newly formed political groups in Sarawak to lead the independence campaign against British rule.

 

Campaigning vigorously for five years, he withdrew in 1951 only when the spread of Communism seemed a greater threat to stability in Sarawak.

 

Anthony then embarked upon a programme of world travel, speaking with groups large and small on the rights, responsibility and power of the individual in helping to bring about a democratic world order.

 

Co-founding with his wife, a charitable trust, Peace Through Unity, Anthony embarked upon a personal crusade that would span 60 years, meeting world leaders and spiritual thinkers from Chinese premier Chou En Lai to India’s Vinoba Bhave who dubbed him ‘shanty doot’ or Ambassador of Peace.

 

After Sarawak achieved independence through Malaysia, Anthony returned to the state as a guest on two occasions – in 1964 and 1983 – when he rekindled old friendships from the anti-cession days.


More info on Anthony and the other Brookes can be found in a Daily Mail article HERE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthony Brooke Orbituary

 

 

The recent obituary of Anthony Brooke, the last White Rajah, reminded me of a story my father used to tell me as a child. Luckily, although ancient, he is still alive, and he recounted it for me today.

The Brookes became the Rajah’s of Sarawak in North Borneo, Malaya in 1841 . By the time we went to live in Sarawak in 1963, the Brookes had been replaced by British colonial governors. My parents dined several times at their residence, above, and we went there to children’s parties. On one occasion the acting governor came to dinner at our house on the opposite side of the Sarawak River.

 

My father had given instructions to our minders that my brother and I should be well-behaved and out of sight upon the governor’s arrival. We duly complied, but I remember viewing the arrival from the staircase on the upper floor of the gigantic sprawling house in which we lived. It was the custom in those days that the gun was fired from the Istana at 8 o’clock to signal that the governor was sitting down for dinner.

When I was informed of the impending occasion, I asked my father, “But who will fire the gun?”. He relayed the story to the governor, and this was the ice breaker that he recounts to this day

 

 

 

 

In 1948

the first sarawak colonial stamps were printed due to commemoration of Royal Silver Wedding,, and rajah charles vyner brooke stamps overprint vit crown

 

 

 

George V crown overprint Sarawak $5 (very rare on postally used cover

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

at least in 1949 .

all Brooke Stamps were punch hole and used as Revenue.
The King Face were punch hole, the people didn’t understand they think they still have the Rajah Brooke

 

,

 

the revenue used rajah stamps with punch hole

 

 

22.11.1945

the bigger block ever seen , Block six Rajah CV brooke overprint crown $5 , the disposal stamp with puched hole used as revenue(UAR),please comment.

 

 

 

26.8.1949.

Rajah CV Brooke $3 overprint crown (2x) added CV Brooke $1 with punch hole disposal stamps Used As Revenue(UAR) , rare combination from two era before the wW II and after Dai Nippon Occupation (British Colony), emergency used because during Sarawak British Colony no reveneu issue and disposal punche hole old stamps UAR , and after that regualr Stamp without punched hole also used, see below.

 

 

 

10.4.1950.

Block six Rajah CV Brooke $4 overprint Crown , the disposal punch hole stamps Use As Revenue(UAR), only one exist,please comment.

 

1960

Sir Alexander Waddell, the last Governor of Sarawak under the Crown Colony

 

 

Sir Alexander Waddell, the last Governor of Sarawak under the Crown Colony.

He is seen above entering the Council Negeri to open its 1960 session. Besides him is Mr.F.D. Jakeway, the Chief Secretary.

 

 

May 1949 newspaper report

 

 

 

 

and the last colonial stamps issued in 1961.

 

 

 

 


The last day of British colonial Internal Administration in Sarawak 39th August 1963 and is conjuction to comm, the United nation team visited Limbang on the same day to Asseses the people view on joining malaysia.

 

In September 1963 ,

Sarawak joint the Malaysia, and have confrontation with Indonesia and North Borneo United State.

 

Look the poly one exist the united nort bornoe state embassy  jakarta cover

 


Brunei held its first election in 1962, which was won by Party Rakyat Brunei (Brunei People’s party) . Unfortunetly , the Party was manipulated by leaders who formed the illegal North Kalimantan National army (PARAKU= Pasukan Rakyat Kalimantan Utara), and staged a rebellion to overthrown the Govern-ment , The revolt was speedily crush-ed at the cost of many lives.
Sabah Chinesebhave bmuch closer linkwith China than the Chinese of Sarawak, who look more toward Singapore.
Politrical development in the Borneo territories is only a few years old, and when it began ,spurred by Indonesia, more recently by malaya’s independence and Singapore’s self goverment, more recently still by the idea of Great Malaysia, it was organized along multiu-racial lines, but this dinot last, and parties today largely represent racial group.
Sarawak is the most politically advanced of the three territories. The largest party, formed in 1959, is the Sarawak United People’s party, took control, and S.U.P.P and modelednon Singapore’s people’s Action party. It began as a mildly socialist,multi-racial party and continued that way untilmits Chinese-educated Chinese members,led by leaders of the illegal Communist party, took control, and SUPP rapidly became a Communist-front organization. Its executive officers, including chairman Ong kee Hui, a wealthy banker and grandson of the femous kapitan China General under the last White rajah, are anti –Communist but were unable to prevent Communist domination of the rank and file, adn SUPP seriously splintered.
This split was widened in 1962 when two Chinese executives of the party had their residence restricted in Sarawak and left for China, and the wife of one , and another executive , were deported to China.
The Communist behind SUPP have tried hard , by organizing among the Chinese population and other groups, to stir up opposition to Greater Malaysia.
They even used Chinese school children –a popular method in Singapore- to take part in demonstrations against malaysia when Tunku Abdulrahman visited Sarawak in November,1962. But since then first moves have been made by Liberal groups to purge the party of its Communist control and to bring it into political line wit all other parties in Sarawak who support the formation of Malaysia- and these groups seem to be succeeding.
Azhari , who is not yet forty, has worked for years among the Brunei malays and has played on their backwardness and political inferiority to the Malays of Malaya. Although he calls himself a brunei Malay and was born in Brunei, and looks more Arab than Malay. He was in Indonesian Sumatra under the Japanese in World War II and has advocated a union between Brunei and Indonesia.
He returned to Brunei in 1952 and helped from Party Ra’yat in 1956 . In 1957 he went to london to demand independence of Brunei.
He is a dynamic speaker with dreams of a “Greater brunei” and bitterly opposes Malaysia, which would prevent his real ambition is to become Political dictator of all North Borneo , including Sarawak and claim that , even if he is not a member of the Communst party, he has strong personal links with Indonesian and Singapore Communist . Other say he is a fanatical nationatlist. Whatever is true, he is a man to watch is this fermenting little Sultanate , where political reform is urgently needed.

1963

Presiden Soekarno announced “Ganyang Malaysia” in 27th July 1963, PARAKU-PGRS became heroes in Indonesia, they gurella in the Border Sarawak and West kalimantan. When Suharto as the new Indonesian leader , he made a freandly with Malaysia, and PARAKU_PGRS were attacked and in 1967 there were “Kerusuhan” anti- Chinese know as the Red Cup affairs. PGRS means Pasukan Gerilya Rakyat Sarawak were the Black Goat “Kambing Hitam” Confrontation

On 16th September 1963, Sarawak joined with Sabah ( the new name of North Borneo), Singapore, and the eleven states of Malaya to form the new Federation of Malaysia.”

 

 

 

 

 

.

Serikei 1964-1965

 

  • In 1964, Indonesia launched a campaign of confrontation against the newly-created Federation of Malaysia, seeking to de-stabilise and ultimately to destroy it. Most incursions were into Sarawak and Sabah, with a few into mainland (Western) Malaysia.

 

 

Dawn ‘stand-to’, 3 RAR, Sarawak – 1964

The Malaysian Government requested the commitment of Australian troops to Borneo in January 1965, resulting in 3RAR and 102 Field Battery (then with the BCFESR), 1SAS Squadron and a number of field and construction squadrons being deployed to Borneo. Further, 111 Light Anti Aircraft Battery, relieved later by 110 Battery, was deployed to the Butterworth Air Base in Western Malaysia in case of Indonesian air attack.

 

 

This map shows Sabah, Brunei and Sarawak on the Malaysian side of the border and Kelimantan on the Indonesian side.

In the meantime, several brigades of Indonesian regular troops had been moved from Java to Kalimantan, opposite Sarawak and Sabah. Ultimately 22,000 regular Indonesian troops including 12 infantry battalions , 4,000 irregulars and 2,000 Clandestine Communist Organisation (CCO) operatives with some 24,000 Chinese sympathisers, were involved. The Indonesian incursions into Sarawak and Sabah were in relatively small groups, often less than platoon-level.

By the end of that year, there were 21 British, Gurkha and Malaysian battalions, with supporting arms, deployed in Borneo.

The Commonwealth security forces were deployed primarily in company bases within mutually supporting gun range, patrols being mounted to secure intelligence, set ambushes and to force the Indonesians to remain behind their own border. 3RAR served on operations from March to July 1965, and 4RAR April to August 1966. 1SAS Squadron served from April to August 1965 and 2SAS Squadron from March to July 1966.

As well as operations on Borneo and the mainland of Malaysia, Australian troops, mainly from the Pacific Islands Regiment, were engaged in intensive patrolling along the only land border between Indonesia and Australian territory – in Papua New Guinea. While there was only one shooting incident, the demands of patrolling in such difficult terrain imposed a considerable drain on the available pool of Australian officers and NCOs.

Confrontation formally ended in August 1966. Australian Army casualties were seven KIA, six WIA, with 10 non-operational deaths and 14 non-operational other casualties

 

Gurkha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.2. STAMPS and REVENUE
Read in chapter three

 

4.3 Postal History
!) Seadah Covers,Postally Used cover from Colony North Borneo to Limbang Sarawak during Colonial state CDS Limbang 19 th Sept 1953, sandakan State of North Borneo 17th September, combination King George and elisabeth coronation stamps , rare combinations.
2)Richard Covers, Cds Kuching 17 yl 1963 to Djakarta, the last letter from Sarawaki, because at this day the Confrontation “Ganyang Malaysia” announced by President Soekarno and in Sept 1963 Sarawak under Malaysia. Rare and historic letter.
3)Sambas Covers, Azhari’s North Borneo United state Embassy Jakarta postally used, extreme rare covers.

4.4 PAPER MONEY
1)ONE THOUSAND DOLLARS KING GEORGE
2)TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS KING GEORGE
3)50 DOLLARS QUEEN ELISABETH

 

 


4)100 DOLLARS QUEEN ELISABETH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Postal History

Introduction

On September 24, 2011, Spink Singapore held an important philatelic auction on collections from British Southeast Asia. This includes rare items from Sarawak, Malaya and states, Singapore and North Borneo. A total of 1244 lots incorporating postal histories, stamps and collection lots were auctioned and only about 58% (730) of these were sold and the remaining 514 lots remained unsold. A bigger proportion of the lots were from Malaya/Straits Settlement, Sarawak representing about 20% and North Borneo/Labuan approximately 10%. There were negligible Brunei lots in the auction.

 

Cumulative price realisation (excluding buyer’s premium) was £418,612. Spink had a similar auction a year ago with a cumulative price of £584,827 – The Stolz I collection.

The most expensive item in that auction was  a historical cover of 1863 written by the ruler of Sarawak, James Brooke to Ms. Browne in London. It managed to topped the entire auction with a remarkable hammer price of S$40,000 (£20,127). Another interesting postal history, also from Sarawak, was the outstanding 1897 cover from Baram to Vienna which managed to reach the final price of S$29,000 (£14,625). From North Borneo/Labuan, a cover postmarked Silam was the highlight of the auction.

The Highlights:

1. The Rajah Brooke Cover

 

 

Kuching G.P.O.

1863 (10 Mar.) envelope written by Rajah Brooke to Mrs Brown in London, marked “Marseilles”, bearing India 2a. and 4a. pair (one damaged prior to use) tied by very rare “office of registry/sarawak” double-ring handstamp (Type PS2, earliest recorded date) and additionally cancelled “B/172″ in transit at Singapore, showing red crayon “1/2″ and London Paid arrival c.d.s. (27.4) with, on reverse, red “singapore/p.o” double-ring d.s.; the envelope with recipient’s notation at left.

Sold for S$ 40,000

 

Note: This cover was carried on the P&O “Singapore”, which left Singapore on 23 March and arrived at Galle on 30 March, transhipped to “S.S. Mooltan” which left the next day and arrived at Suez on 16 April. It then went overland to Alexandria for the “S.S. Euxine”, which left on 19 April and arrived at Marseilles on 25 April.

 

2. 1897 Baram cover to Austria

 

 

 

Sarawak
Baram
1897 (20 Mar.) to Vienna, bearing 1895 2c. tied by “baram” c.d.s. (Type D1) in violet, in combination with Straits Settlements 1894 8c. tied by Singapore c.d.s. (7.4), showing clear Sarawak c.d.s. (5.4) with Singapore and arrival datestamps on reverse. Extremely rare and attractive.
Sold for S$ 29,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Straits Settlement Block of 1 and half cents on half cent

 

 

 

Straits Settlements
— 1 1/2c. on 1/2a. blue, a magnificent block of sixteen (4×4) from the lower left corner of the lower right pane with sheet margin at foot and interpanneau margin at left, unused with mainly large part or full original gum; some splitting/re-enforcing, nevertheless in a fine state of preservation. The second largest unused multiple. A splendid exhibition item. S.G. 1.
Sold for S$ 19,000.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Sarawak 1895 Postal Stationery with fine Bintulu cds

 

 

 

Sarawak
Bintulu
1895 (1 Mar.) Straits Settlements 3c. stationery card to London, showing fine “bintulu” c.d.s. (Type D2) at lower left, violet Sarawak c.d.s. and the stamp impression cancelled in transit at Singapore (18.3); the card with corner creases. An extremely rare usage and the only known example of Straits Settlements stationery used at Bintulu.
Sold for S$ 18,000

 

The Karl Lewis Cover

 

 

 

This beautiful hand-painted cover was recently listed in ebay and reached an impressive final price of US$1,975.50! So what makes this cover so special?

 

Well, the answer is pretty obvious – the Karl Lewis factor! This legendary American is well known in the philatelic world for producing many marvellous hand-painted covers.

 

Based in Yokohama Japan, Lewis made arrangements for covers to be mailed from exotic countries to stamps collectors, primarily in the US. His advertisement reads “COVERS FROM THE RADIANT ISLANDS OF THE SOUTH SEAS &c.

 

 

TYPICALLY hand-painted of these islands from photographs and sketches I have made of many of them. Franked with the stamps of these islands &c. MAILED DIRECT TO YOU at TWENTY FIVE CENTS EACH…”

 

 

 

 

 

The Karl Lewis Cover

 

This beautiful hand-painted cover was recently listed in ebay and reached an impressive final price of US$1,975.50! So what makes this cover so special? Well, the answer is pretty obvious – the Karl Lewis factor! This legendary American is well known in the philatelic world for producing many marvellous hand-painted covers. Based in Yokohama Japan, Lewis made arrangements for covers to be mailed from exotic countries to stamps collectors, primarily in the US. His advertisement reads “COVERS FROM THE RADIANT ISLANDS OF THE SOUTH SEAS &c. TYPICALLY hand-painted of these islands from photographs and sketches I have made of many of them. Franked with the stamps of these islands &c. MAILED DIRECT TO YOU at TWENTY FIVE CENTS EACH…”

 

The cover above is postmarked November 20 1940. There is a brown censor tape on the right side with “Passed By Cenor 106 Singapore” rubber stamp on the front and reverse. It also includes a typed and signed letter from Karl Lewis to the addressee on his illustrated letterhead from Yokohama Japan dated October 31 1940. The scene depicted in the cover is a village by the river in Kuching, different from the other scene he usually depicts for Sarawak – The Datu’s Road.

 

From the letter to the recepient, it is quite apparent that Lewis wasn’t aware of the difference between British North Borneo and Sarawak. He writes “…but cannot send from Jesselton; as I have no correspondent there, and it would be impossible to send different cities from one island.”

 

The sender’s address is Kuching, Sarawak, British North Borneo suggesting that Lewis must have thought that Sarawak was part of North Borneo rather than a separate country in British Borneo. From the letter, Lewis wrote that he had no correspondent in Jesselton, therefore, it follows that we won’t have any hand-painted covers of scenes in North Borneo – Neither do we have any North Borneo/Labuan stamps franked on Lewis covers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Another interesting aspect of this letter is that it was written in 31 Oct 1940 and mailed from Kuching on 20 November 1940. We know that in Dec. 29, 1939, at the age of 74, Lewis suffered a paralytic stroke. This means the letter and the cover above must have been produced while he was battling with the disease with possible limitations in movements. In two letters written Feb 8 and 10, 1940, he said he was only able to sit up for two hours in the mornings and afternoons. Lewis died in 19 May 1942 while still under Japanese house arrest, leaving behind great treasures in philatelic world and beautiful hand-painted covers to be admired for many generations to come.

 

 

The other scene of Karl Lewis cover of Sarawak – The Datu’s Road – Mailed on 28 Sept 1936.

 

 

 

at 1:09 PM Posted by Marcel | 0 comments

 


Joke of the Year

Couldn’t believe my eyes when I found this cover in ebay. The seller, apparently with just 13 feedbacks, tries to sell this very common, very typical generic FDC for an eye-poping price of £1,579! Even the opening bid is £1,200. In his description he writes: “This First Day Cover was released in conjunction of the coronation day of H.M Queen Elizabeth 2. In that year, Sarawak (now under Malaysia) was still  under British ruling. This rare artifact is more than 50 years old and is highly valuable. If you have successfully purchased it, please handle with care

Compare with my collections from north borneo

 

 

 

8.10.149 front Sime,Derby &Co Kuching Sarawak to surabaja Indonesia.Very difficult to find the later cover after WWII during BMA to Indonesia. Please Indonesian collector to comment if they have another British Colony Sarawak postally cover via comment or my E-Mail.@copy right Dr iwan S.2010.

 

The Back cover from Sime,Darby &Company Malaya(pen cancalled) Sarawak to Surabaya Indonesia.

 

 

2.September.1953. Front of Shaedah Muslim theater cover from British Colony North Borneo to Limbang sarawak. Look the back of this cover below,and also the last letter from Sarawak to Indonesia before confrontation 1963.

Before  Limbang belong to Brunei,read the history below

 

 

 

The Seizure Of Limbang

*Limbang was the property of Sultan Hashim

*The seized of Limbang by Charles Brooke in 17 March 1890

*Limbang was rich agricultural in sago

*Loss of Limbang to Sarawak was badly effected the economic and political stability of Brunei

*Sultan Hashim Protested to British Goverment and demanded that Charles Brooke be punished

*The British Goverment send its new consul for Borneo and Trevenan to investigate the situation in Limbang

*The findings were invalid->only 15 of 33 local chiefs were present.

*The 15 local chief were Brooke’s officer and the sultan refused to accept Trevenan

*Sir Cecil Clementismith,the British High commissioner suggested that Charles Brooke have to pay $6000 to Sultan Hashim as a result Sultan refused.

*The British Government ignored Sultan’s refusal to cede Limbang

*In August 1895 the British Goverment embrassed by Sultan’s refusal to accept compensation from Charles Brooke and announced that the matter was closed.

 

 

 

Back cover of Shaedah Muslim theater with CDS Limbang Sarawak 18 September 1953.Small city near border betwenn Sabah-Brunei-Sarawak.

 

 

11.8,1963. The last Sarawak covers to Indonesia because six days after this cover send 17.8.63 Pres. sukarno announced confrontation against British Malaya and Borneo including Sarawak.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



FRESH MOG MNH CONDITION


PRICE RM300

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REVENUE

 

 

 

King G-V 50 cent and $2 UAR(used as Revenue)

 

 

King G-V $1 Used As Revenue(UAR)

 

 

Queen E-II $1 and $2 used as revenue(UAR)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NUMISMATIC COLLECTIONS

COIN

 

 

BANKNOTE

Sarawak picture collections

LITHOGRAPHY

 

 

PAINTING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PHOTOGRAPHY

VINTAGE

 

 

 

James Brooke when met Rajah Muda Hasyim at Kuching, after succed to destroy the pirates he became the Sarawak first Rajah due to Hasyim promisees started fromKuching ,the complete information read “Sarawak document and Postal History” in this blog.@copyright Dr Iwan S.2009.

 

Rajah Muda Hasyim during Kuching as Brunei area when he met James Brooke as him to destroyed the pirate and if success he promise to gave Kuching

 

 

The frist Rajah James Brooke

 

 

The State of Sarawak Document(Rajah waepon)

 

 

Rajah Charles vyner Brooke

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke Handsign with offiacial seal on Land certificate document.

 

 

Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke

 

The last rajah betram

dayang

 

 

George meredith with dayang muda mother

 

A woman of amazonian beauty, in 1904 she married Bertram Brooke, whose grandfather, having wrestled approximately 125,000 square kilometres of Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei, was the first White Rajah of Sarawak.

 

 

 

Chinese street early 20th century, At this street during my first visit 1994 I had seen OLd Kuching collection shop and he have the oldest picture postcard, but that time I haven.t collectig the picture, at my last visit 2008 I ddin,t met the shop please Kuching Sarawak collectors give me information,and if you have 19th century picture please send to my e.mail to put in this blog under your name.@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010.

 

Chinese street and Kuching river from the Borneo company(1939)

 

 

Rajah boat at Kuching river in the front of Rajah CV Brooke astana(palace) in 1939-Dutch Travelling in the Dutch Vintage Book.

 

 

Chinese Street Kuching(1939). During myfirst visit 1995 around this area I found Sarawak revenue History colections, but during ma last visit 2008 I mer mr Chan kee Tex at the right corner building Phillatelic office, and I cann’t found the shop where i buy Sarawak revenue , too long serching until I am late more than half hour than my appointment with Mr Chan.apologize me please.

 

 

Kuching Museum(1939), I have ever seen this museum at my visit 1994,1995, and 2009 with exciting martavan, beads and topical kuching(cat) collections.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke with the local leader (front cover of vintage book -Gill.A.R.

 

 

Pen censored on the Open Breast of native Land Dayak by the official sencored Book at Post Office or other Justice office .

 

Native

 



Another book, also called The White Rajah by Tom Williams was. Only the Japanese invasion put a THE WHITE RAJAH OF SARAWAK – savage creed of the headhunters of. This is a nicely done bio of the three white rulers of Sarawak that will appeal to those who enjoy.

Another book, also called The White Rajah by Tom Williams was. James, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB (born James Brooke; 29 April 1803 ? 11 June 1868) was the. The White Rajah escaped to Australia when the Japanese invaded Sarawak (January 1942. The Brooke family reigned for 100 years as the White Rajahs of Sarawak (the word ‘White’ is an official part of the title). Read the latest news in the country covering issue on politics, business, lifestyle, community, and so much more. James, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB (born James Brooke; 29 April 1803 ? 11 June 1868) was the first White Rajah of.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sea Dayaks (Iban) women from Sarawak, wearing rattan corsets decorated with brass rings and filigree adornments. The family adds to the corset dress as the girl ages and based on her family’s wealth. Photo Dr. Charles Hose, from Hutchinson, H. N. ed. “The Living Races of Mankind.” London: Hutchinson & Co., ca 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KELABIT

 

 

KAYAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANOTHER TRIBES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOW

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOPOGRAPHY

 

VINTAGE

BARBER SHOP SIBU

 

 

 

 

Lintang Chinese temple gate

 

 

 

NOW

KUCHING CITY

 

KUCHING AT NIGHT








 

 

 

 

SERIKIN

 

 

ANTIQUE COLLECTIONS

 

 

 

 

 

NATIVE ARTWORK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khoo Hun Yeang

Chinese overseas kapitan in British Colony and Dutch East Indie Colony

 

Khoo Hun Yeang

 

 

Khoo Chew Tong(tanjung Balai Asahan)

 

Khoo Cheng Teow

 

Yap Ah Shak

 

Low Kim Pong 劉金榜

 

Kapitan Chin Ah Yam

 

 

Yap Kwan Seng

 

 

Khoo Siew Jin

 

 

 The complete info read

Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-ROM

Borneo History Collections

Part Sarawak History Collections

 

 

Robert Yeap Notes

my great GrandPa

Khoo Hun Yeang

was Kapitan Cina- do u know someone who can research

his business deals there? Khoo Hun Yeang’s friend was Mr. Bampfyle

Resident, 1st Division Sarawak. There is today a KhooHunYeang Street

In Kuching Town. His son Khoo Siew Jin continue biz after him.

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Driwancybermuseum Galery (continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

THE  CHINESE OVERSEAS KAPITAN HISTORY COLLCTIONS

IN INDOENSIA AND MALAYA

PART TWO

DUTCH EAST INDIE

 

Chong Yeau Tian leader of the Chinese in Medan 1911

CREATED By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

 

The Chinese Overseas Kapitan

Part two

 Dutch East Indie Colony

 

Khoo Chew Tong KAPITAN CINA tanjung Balai Asahan

 

Created By

Dr4 Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

INTRODUCTIONS

//

[edit] History

[edit] Pre-colonial interaction

There was little direct Chinese involvement in what is now Indonesia before the fifteenth century. Trade between China and the Indonesian archipelago was in the hands of Indonesians, rather than Chinese.[disputed] The standard word for a Chinese trading vessel, junk, is derived from the Javanese word jong, which described large teak vessels that trekked north from Southeast Asia to southern China.[disputed] Chinese sources, however, are useful external sources of information on early Indonesia, including the records of a few emissaries such as Fa Hien, a Buddhist monk who passed the region in the fifth century on his way to India. Kingdoms of Indonesia and China had some relationships that thrived during the Tang dynasty.

Ironically, though most of the present Chinese Indonesians are not Muslims, some of the earliest Islamic evangelists in Java (Wali Songo, or the Nine Ambassadors) were of Chinese ancestry. At least four of those nine were original Chinese or Chinese descendants: Sunan Ampel, Sunan Bonang (son of Ampel and a Chinese woman), Sunan Kalijaga, and Sunan Gunungjati.[5] <This shouldn’t actually be ironic since those Islamic evangelists are actually Hui Chinese, a Chinese ethnic group who are Muslim. In contrast, most of the present Chinese Indonesians are mainly not Hui Chinese. Rather, they are mostly Han Chinese, another Chinese ethnic group which is the majority ethnic group in mainland China, coming from Fujian, Guangdong, etc.> One theory suggests that Chinese traders were among the first to bring Islam to Indonesia, including those who came to Semarang under the leadership of Admiral Zheng He, or Sam Po Kong, in the fifteenth century. Zheng He himself was a Muslim from the Hui minority ethnic group in China. Other theories based on documented accounts of Indian Gujarati traders and merchants, long familiar with Java, suggest they introduced Sufism there and the Malay Peninsula.[citation needed]

Since the voyages of Zheng He, many Chinese considered the region as an attractive trading partner.

[edit] Dutch colonial era

[edit] Favored position under the Dutch

 

 

Portrait of the Chinese kapitein of Rembang, Central Java (ca. 1913)

The largest waves of Chinese migration happened during early to middle Dutch colonial era (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries) seeking to find new opportunities of trade.

Race relations between the Chinese Indonesians and native Indonesians (pribumi) have always been problematic, and remain so up to the present. Some commentators trace this to the Dutch era when colonial policy favored the ethnic Chinese, and in so doing established the economic dominance of the Chinese over the region.[citation needed]

The caste system established by the Dutch also made it disadvantageous for ethnic Chinese to assimilate into the native population. Assimilation would mean being placed in the lowest estate together with the natives. Ethnic Chinese, together with Arabs and other “foreign orientals” were members of the second estate. The first estate was reserved for Europeans.[6]

As such, the Dutch were among the early practitioners of a classic colonial strategy practiced in many other times and places by displacing and destroying native systems of authority through favoring specific ethnic or religious minorities. They become props of colonial rule and a buffer between itself and the majority indigenous population. (France and Britain would eventually use the local Christian and Jewish communities in the Arab world in the same way.)

Having the favor of the Dutch and being considered by “intelligent, diligent, and capable of overseeing Dutch plantations”, many ethnic Chinese supported colonial rule[citation needed]. Indeed, in the early years of the Dutch East Indies, ethnic Chinese actively helped strengthen Dutch domination in the region. Souw Beng Kong, the Kapitan Cina (“Captain of the Chinese”) of Banten, for example, organized a large-scale immigration of Chinese under his rule to Batavia in the seventeenth century. This significantly destabilized the regional economy and facilitated Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Banten.

As a reward, Souw was made the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia in 1619. His successors and later, the Majoors der Chinezen, were given landed fiefdoms and the Dutch-invented hereditary title of Sia by the colonial government.

Among them, these aristocratic Peranakan families controlled a great deal of Java’s land and wealth, confiscated by the Dutch from the native (pribumi) aristocracy. Through the officership system they governed the Peranakan and ethnic Chinese populations of Batavia. The system was later extended to other centers of Dutch power in Java and the rest of the archipelago.[7] Deprived of land, the native aristocracy lacked the economic resources (income via agricultural, livestock and timber products, alluvial and subterranean mineral resources, most particularly gold and gemstones) vital to fund their kingdoms, princedoms and dukedoms. Essentially bankrupted by theft of their land and forced transition to Chinese ownership, the aristocracy was hamstrung to raise military force against the usurpers.

Both the Dutch and the Chinese participated in the trade of thousands of Javanese slaves. Javanese considered problematic were shipped off to Chinese plantations in Sumatra.[citation needed]

[edit] Massacre of 1740

Main article: 1740 Batavia massacre

In their position, the Chinese often did not receive friendly attitudes from the Dutch. In the early decades of the eighteenth century, tensions began to build. In some ways, it resulted from the fact that having settled in and around Batavia ever since its foundation, the Chinese had come to be a major element in its economic life.

Chinese workers were greatly involved in building Batavia and cultivating the adjacent agricultural areas. And Chinese traders, who were arriving in growing numbers, made the Dutch East India Company (VOC) increasingly dependent on them.

The VOC came to make most of its profits from trade among different Asian destinations rather than back to the Netherlands themselves – and it was naturally the Chinese traders residing in Batavia who had the best contacts in China.

Dutch and Chinese needed each other – which in theory should have ensured a good relationship. But an element among the Dutch colonists came to increasingly resent the situation of the Chinese being their effective social equals and economic rivals. The Chinese traders, like the Dutch ones, were tax-payers – which was an economic burden but also conferred considerable privileges (a phenomenon comparable to the later resentment of French settlers in Algeria to local Christians and Jews being legally their equals).

What set off a cataclysm of hatred and bloodshed was not only cliquish Chinese trading but the other major branch of their economic activity on Java: agricultural work carried out by poor Chinese coolies who were imported and employed by rich Chinese entrepreneurs. Such coolies were, for example, the dominant part of the labor force employed in the sugar plantations at the Ommelanden of Batavia, a major field of economic activity.

The importation of ever more coolies caused an enormous increase in the Chinese population in the VOC-ruled area of Batavia and its environs, and they came to constitute nearly half of the total population just before 1740. Already in 1690, the colonial authorities had imposed severe limitations on further immigration from China. This did not have, however, the effect of stopping the importation of more coolies. Rather, they continued to be imported through the payment of bribes to the authorities, and were all the more dependent on their employers (usually Chinese themselves) and susceptible to lucrative exploitation.

From about 1720 the sugar market went through a deepening crisis, with the markets in Europe becoming saturated, and the plantations of Java facing sharp competition from cheaper Brazilian sugar. Many of the sugar planters went bankrupt, and the authorities took no step to alleviate the situation of the workers thrown out of their jobs – with the result being bands of unemployed, hungry and desperate coolies turning to brigandage.

Belatedly, at July, 1740 the colonial authorities, c.q. Adriaan Valckenier and Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff decreed that all the coolies of the Ommelanden were to be transferred to Dutch-run plantations at Galle in Southern Ceylon. That might or might not have been the true intention, but rumors rife among the coolies were that the Dutch actually intended to throw them overboard once out of sight of the shore. Instead of boarding the ships, the coolies burst into an all-out revolt, with roaming bands robbing and killing in the countryside and some even attempting to attack Batavia itself.

There is no evidence that the better off Chinese living inside the walled area of Batavia, some five thousand in number, were planning to join the rebellious coolies outside. However, many of the Dutch inhabitants did have such suspicions. On October 9, 1740, the order was issued to search the houses of all the Chinese residents in Batavia. This soon degenerated into an all-out, three-day long massacre – with Chinese being massacred in their homes, and earlier captured Chinese being killed out of hand in prisons and hospitals.

A preacher fanned the flames from the pulpit, declaring that the killing of Chinese was “God’s Will”, and the colonial government itself reportedly posted a bounty for decapitated Chinese heads. The number of victims in these three days is variously estimated at between five thousand and ten thousand. The name Kali Angke (traditional Chinese: ; literally, “Red River”) is said to date from that time, recalling the blood flowing into the river.[8][9]

Afterwards, the “restoration of order” was proclaimed, with surviving Chinese henceforth ghettoized in specific quarters of Batavia and other Dutch-ruled cities. The Chinese area of Batavia was designated Glodok, where many Chinese still live in present-day Jakarta.

Following the massacre, the Dutch Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier was arrested and required to account for himself to the Heeren XVII (“Seventeen Lords”, the VOC directors in Amsterdam). He died in prison, however, and the charges against him were declared “annulled by death”.

The affair continued to crop up in later periods, especially in times of tension.[10]

 

Graf van de kapitein der Chinezen So Bing Kong (Bencon) te Batavia, vermoedelijk op Goenoeng Karang, een oude Chinese begraafplaats aan de Jacatraweg 1916

 

Situation now

Due to Coolaberation between Driwancybermuseum and Zheng He Museum Penang, I have made a special reasearche about the Famous  Chinese overseas In Malaya during British Colony  and Indonesia during Dutch East Indie

 

Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, 1888-11-23

Oei Tan Nio, echtgenote van de kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, op 27-jarige leeftijd

 

Oei Tjan Nio in bruidskleding, echtgenote van Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta

After work Hard and spend much time and loan, The research were finish and this info will show in Zheng He Museum Penang lead by Robert Yeap.

I also found some informations related to that famous man.like kapitan Cina in stratits settlement penang,Malacca,Singapore ,Kuching Sarawak  and also from federated Malayan like Kuala Lumpur etc,also from Indonesia(Dutch East Indie that time) like Deli medan,tanjung balai ashan ,padang city, Batavia(Jakarta),surabyaa .

 

Kapitan cina rembang 1885

Due to many realted informations,this book will be divided by two part,part one Malaya area and part two Indonesia (Dutch East Indie Area)

 

Kapitan Cina Surabaya and Mrs  1880

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan(mayor rank) Cina Surabaya Han Tjong Khing  1924

 

 

When and why the Kapitan Cina organization starting?

 

Kapitan cina(leuteant rank) Laboehan deli 1880

 I have a very best information from web blog Chinese overseas in British Colony and Kapitan cina Batavia, but some of informations cannot read all because qere protacted with the PDF and other computer technology which made only by very high technology a part of information can read, but I think enough and good informations were extist,this some of the info below.

[edit] Continued Immigration and division into three sub-communities

 

 

Chinese family portrait (ca. 1870)

Even such bloody events did not put an end to the continued Chinese emigration to the Indies, where economic opportunities not available in China itself outweighed the dangers of discrimination or persecution.

Earlier Chinese immigrants had much closer ties toward mainland China. This was manifested in their strong desire to return home and consideration of the Indies as yet another temporary settlement.

Attitudes started changing from the middle eighteenth century when the Qing emperor of the time, Qian Long, considered these expatriates to be “turncoats” and thereby a threat to China. Still, while Emperor Qian Long adopted a general “closed-door policy”, there was no evidence that Chinese expatriates were banned from returning to their original homeland.

Many of them, however, found the Indies an increasingly attractive abode. The hostile and oppressive Manchu government of the Qing dynasty brought even more migrants from China. Lured by comfortable lives, some of them no longer associated themselves with mainland China. They were called Cina Babas or Peranakans. Some Cina Babas intermarried with indigenous Indonesian (pribumis), often the slave-girl of a coollie.

Most, however, identified themselves as Dutchmen, embraced Christianity, generally enjoyed higher education and social status, and mimicking Western lifestyles considered themselves the more refined. They got to be called Qiao Sheng (literally, “foreign-born”). Beginning in the late Nineteenth Century, most of the Dutch-invented aristocratic “Sia” families underwent rapid westernization. By the early decades of the twentieth century, many of them—especially those domiciled around Batavia—had become “more Dutch than the Dutch themselves”. The Sias were consequently some of the strongest proponents of colonial rule.

Those who still maintained ties toward China, whose main belief was Confucianism, considered Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs unfilial, all the more so because Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs typically shunned Chinese tradition. The ones who still maintained “purity” were called Cina Totoks.

These three groups of Chinese Indonesians had starkly different nationalistic views and tendencies. At the time

  • Qiao Shengs were more inclined toward the Dutch;
  • Cina Totoks were more inclined toward mainland China;

and

  • Cina Babas were more toward the indigenous population of the Indies.

[edit] Changing Dutch policies and decline of the Sia aristocracy

 

Chinese paifang in Bandung on the occasion of the marriage of Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard in 1937

By the 1920s and 1930s, the long standing hold over the economy of the old Sia families, Qiao Sheng par excellence, was systematically destroyed by the very Dutch colonial government they supported . Following Queen Wilhelmina‘s speech to the Estates General (the Dutch Parliament) in which she insisted that a “moral debt” was owed to the people of the East Indies, the colonial government implemented its so-called “social policy”. This was aimed at ending feudalism in Java and breaking up the large estates of the Peranakan pretender aristocracy.

It was the Chinese Sias, more than the native aristocracy, who suffered from this measure. The native aristocracy did not own much land, due to the fact that the Dutch had generations prior forcibly confiscated and split the former Kingdom of Majapahit into four. The Dutch, to remedy the unfavourabale and indeed racist treatment of the natives, initiated a program of civil service employment for suitably pliable upper middle-class semi-aristocratic families, known as priyayi.

Dutch compulsory acquisition of Peranakan fiefdoms destroyed many of the older Chinese landowning families. While some successfully managed to get into business, most former Sias—their title becoming obsolete by the 1940s—were swamped in economic power by Totok Chinese. This latter group remains, even today, the most powerful economic group in Indonesia.[11]

Concomittant with the decline of the feudal-type Sias, Chinese Indonesians underwent a process of modernization and of building up Western-type political and social institutions. Chinese Indonesians built the first of their schools in Surabaya in the 1920s—one of the first non-Western schools in Java—and by the 1960s, many Chinese schools had been established in the major cities. The first Chinese newspapers were also printed during this era, and several Chinese political parties were established. These parties ranged from those who saw themselves as part of the Indonesian nationalist movement, and those who felt that Chinese Indonesians were still Chinese citizens – a question that was left unresolved for many decades.[citation needed]

[edit] Nationalism and revolution (1900–1945)

[edit] Reflections of Chinese mainland politics

Later waves of migrants still maintained ties to China, mainly by supporting Chinese nationalistic movements to overthrow the Qing dynasty. Although the support was mainly monetary, some Chinese Indonesians were actively involved in the inside politics, especially so during the Sun Yat Sen era. Cina Totoks were particularly active.

Although the Chinese Communists were largely unsupported at first, from the 1930s on the Communists’ effort to drive the Japanese occupants out of China gained the support of many Cina Totoks and even some Qiao Shengs. Thus, Indonesian Chinese manifestations of support towards mainland China became divided into two camps, parallel with the civil war sides in China itself: Nationalistic (Kuomintang or Guómíndǎng) and Communistic (Gòngchǎndǎng).

[edit] Sympathy for Indonesian nationalism

At the turn of the 20th century, however, Cina Babass were increasingly assimilated into Indonesian culture. Younger generations of Cina Totoks still tried to maintain ties with China.

Although the Dutch had given the Chinese Indonesians a special status, they were becoming increasingly oppressive and discriminative against all Chinese Indonesians. So, all three groups – Qiao Shengs, Cina Babas, and Cina Totoks – were more and more cooperative toward the Indonesian national movement, especially in providing monetary support.

This comment is disputed as much documentary evidence amply illustrates overwhelming Chinese support for Dutch paramilitary attempts to crush the Independence movement thereby incurring long-standing enmity of the Indonesian native.

More and more Chinese Indonesians were involved in Indonesian politics. Cina Totoks typically set up specific Chinese political parties which aimed at an Indonesia-China alliance and established newspapers. Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs typically joined nationalist parties jointly with pribumis. Some of them, serving as officers in the Dutch Army and later the Japanese one, but never used their positions to help the national movement.

 

 

On 10 November 1928, the Chinese weekly Sin Po published what is now known as Indonesia Raya, Indonesia’s national anthem.

They were also among the pioneers of Indonesian newspapers. In their fledgling publishing companies, they published their own political ideas along with contributions from other Indonesian writers. In November 1928, the Chinese weekly Sin Po (traditional Chinese: 新報; pinyin: xīn bào) was the first paper to openly publish the text of the national anthem Indonesia Raya. On occasion, those involved in such activities ran a concrete risk of imprisonment or even of their lives, as the Dutch colonial authorities banned nationalistic publications and activities.

Chinese Indonesians were active in supporting the independence movement during the 1940s Japanese occupation, when all but the Overseas Chinese Association (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Huáqiáo Zhōnghuì) were banned by the Japanese military authorities. Some notable pro-independence activists were Siauw Giok Tjhan and Liem Koen Hian, but the latter died as a People’s Republic of China citizen (Kusuma,2004:27). Yap Tjwan Bing, a member of Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, became a US citizen in the 1960s.

 

 

 

Kapitan cina medan Tjong A Fie 1906

 

Kapitan Cina Medan Tjonng A Fie with family 1900

 

Huwelijk van de dochter van de Kapitein der Chinezen Jap Soen Tjai te Medan

The Chinese Consulate

The formation of Chinese consulate in Singapore in 1877 , an Penang in 1890, also in Padang West Sumatra and Payakumbuh West Sumatra (years still not known) respectively was primanly to serve as communicate between the Chinese Gouvernment  and the Chinese overseas . Apart from that it was also the Chinese tentative to gain support and loyality from her wealthy  Overseas member.

 

Tjong Jong Hian, kapitein der Chinezen te Medan 1910

 

 

The house of Kapitan cina medan Tjong Jong Hian 1900

The office of the Vice-consult functions in various aspects and capacities .The diplomatic rule of the Chinese Vice-Consul was based in demography and geography of British Malaya and Duitcg East Indie For istance

 

1893

Installatie van Tjong Yong Hian als kapitein en Tjong A Fie als luitenant der Chinezen te Medan

The Penang Brand engaged with the Chinese Affairs in Penang <Perak,Sealngor, Kedah and Perlis.Whereass the Singapore branch comcerned in the areas such as Johor, Malacca, Negri Sembilan , Kelantan and Trengannu

 

Kapitan Cina Tanjungpura Medan Hho Tsai Toan in 1890

 

The prime role of the Vice-Consul was also concerned in protecting the Chinese and their business interest however in the ealy 1900’s other Chinese organizations  such as the Chinese Advisory board (1890) ,Chinese chamber of Commerce Po Leung Kok(1886) as well as other Chinese clan association had surged in all mayor owns in British Malaya thus the importance of the Vice consult had apparentely ceased.

 

Vrouw van de kapitein der Chinezen te Batavia en een meisje 1867

In 1891 ,the vice consult of Singapore was promote to the rank of Consult gereal in south East asia and in 1933 the chinedse consult was established in Kuala lumpur and the Chinese Affairs in the Federataed of Malaya.

Source

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan Cina Langkat  Tjoeng Njan Khin with government in Binjei

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan*mayor rank) cina Aceh Lie A sie

Op de rug gezien v.l.n.r.: majoor K. van der Maaten, sultan Mohammad Dawot Sjah, Toeankoe Ibrahim (zoon van de sultan) en assistent-resident W.J.F. Vermeulen; V.l.n.r. tegenover majoor K. van der Maaten: luitenant-generaal J.B. van Heutsz (gedeeltelijk), assistent-resident A.C. Veenhuizen, luitenant-kolonel G.C.E. van Daalen (gedeeltelijk), onbekend, controleur C. Schultz, Toeankoe Pangeran Oesén, Toeankoe Machmoet, onbekend, majoor titulair der Chinezen Lie A Sie

 

Kapitan(leuteannt rank) can meando 1873

 

The same situation same in Dutch East Indie(Indonesia now) but the rank different,there were Mayor Cina, Kapitan Cina and Leutenant Cina depend on the demography and geography of dutch east indie from government, Residentie,subresidentie(Assisten-resident area) and more small area.

 

Kapitan Cina Medan 1900 Oen Goan The

 

In Padang there were two Chinese vice-consut at Pariaman name Lir Ma Say, he ever send money to Dutch east ndie government to help the Krakato eruption victim in 19th century but later closed because move to Padang city there were vicde consut Gho Goan Tee and Lie Ma say became the first Mayor Cina, and then Gho Goa tee,then Ang Eng Lay, then Lie Oen Kiong,then the son of Gho Goan Tee(Gho sun Tong) his brother Gho Sun hin merried my Aunt Kang Kim Lian they lived at Singapore. My grandgrandpa Chua Chay Hiok(Tjoa Tjay Hiok) became the vice Consult in Payakumbuh west Sumatra upland ,later my uncle TJOa seng Lian became the Kapitan cina at Payakumbuh he ever send money to help republic of China during sun Yat sen(Kuomintang) to build the railways ,

 

Opening van de eerste jaarmarkt te Semarang 1908

At Batavia(now Jakarta) the first Kapitan was So ban Kong,he strated from Bantam ,then moved to Batavia during VOC first built this city in 16th century, then the Khouw faili were the next kapitan cina Batavia. I was found the best book about a dutch man travelling in ndonesia in late 19th century,in that rare book I found the pictures of the first kaiptan cina Padang city profile Lie Ma say, and other 19th century book about tarvellin in Java also I found the profil of Surabaya kapitan Cina.

In  The 1941 Dutch East Indie Almanac book  were list all the kapitan cina from all part of Indonesia,and from the Book of Dutch and colony ‘s employe 1939, I found the kapitan cina and famous Chinese overseas in Dutch East indie complete with profile picture and short life histories .

 

 

De gemeenteraadsleden van Bindjai met enkele dame

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

Indonesian National Revolution

During the Indonesian National Revolution following World War II, many Chinese Indonesians supported the Independence movement. BPUPKI’s (Body for Investigating Preparation Attempts of Indonesia’s Independence) membership included six ethnic Chinese members who contributed to the drafting of the Indonesian Constitution in 1945.[citation needed] The formation of all-Chinese Indonesian units in the Revolution was discussed,[12] similar to the formation of the all-Japanese American Nisei units in World War II. This suggestion was ultimately rejected, and the ethnic Chinese were advised to instead join their local pro-Independence groups. Due to the lack of such clearly-defined ethnic unit, the precise number of Chinese Indonesians who took part in the Indonesian National Revolution, and their percentage of the Chinese Indonesian community as a whole, remains disputed. It is a sensitive issue due to it sometimes being linked to the post-war status of Chinese Indonesians and their equal status (or lack of one) in the Indonesia created by that war.

In 1946, the Consul General of the Republic of China, Chiang Chia Tung, expressed in Malang the ROC’s support for Indonesia’s independence

 

 

 

 

Root of Tionghoa


The word has been used in a letter Tionghwa loyal to the Nippon army .
Chinese or tionghwa , is a term that is made by people of Chinese descent in Indonesia , which is derived from the Chinese word zhonghua . Zhonghua pronounced in Hokkien dialect of Chinese .

 

 

Chinese overseas at Baroes Tapanoeli in 1910

Discourse Tsung Hwa at least been started since 1880, which is the desire of the people in China to be free from the power of the royal dynasty and establish a more democratic and stronger . This discourse to be heard by people of Chinese origin living in the Dutch East Indies when it was called the Chinese People .

 

 

Chinese overseas Tin Worker  at Bangka 1920

A group of people from China whose children were born in the Dutch East Indies , felt the need to learn the culture and language . In 1900 , they founded the school in the Dutch East Indies , under the auspices of an entity called ” Tjung Hwei Hwa Kwan ” , which is when the pronunciation becomes Tiong Hoa Hwe Indonesianized Kwan ( THHK ) . THHK along the way not only provide Chinese language and culture education , but also foster a sense of unity among the Chinese in the Netherlands Indies , along with changes in the term ” China ” to ” Chinese ” in the Dutch East Indies .


 

Uitreiking van een onderscheiding aan de kapitein der Chinezen, Tan Djoe An, bij zijn aftreden door de resident te Modjokerto in 1918

 

Population in Indonesia

 

 

 

Kapitan cina Ambarawa Kwee An Kie 1875


Based Volkstelling ( census ) in the Dutch East Indies , Indonesian – Chinese population reached 1.233 million ( 2.03 % ) of the population of Indonesia in 1930. [ 5 ] There is no official data on the number of Chinese population in Indonesia issued by the government since Indonesian independence . But the American anthropologist , G.W. Skinner , in his research has estimated the Chinese population in Indonesia reached 2.505 million ( 2.5% ) in 1961 . [ 6 ]

 

Chenese overseas in DEI in 1876

 

In the population census in 2000 , when for the first time census respondents were asked about their ethnic origin , only 1 % of the total Indonesian population claiming to be Chinese . A rough estimate of the number of trust – Indonesian ethnic Chinese today is located in between the range of 4 % – 5 % of the total population of Indonesia . [ 7 ]
Region of origin in China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Installatie van de majoor der Chinezen door resident W.J.M. Michielsen, vermoedelijk dhr. Pjang a Yong te Medan in 1893

 

 

Aanwezige bestuursambtenaren onder andere: resident van de Oostkust van Sumatra W.J.M. Michielsen, assistent-resident J.C. van Hasselt en secretaris J.A. van Rijn van Alkemade


Map the distribution of ancestral tribal homelands Chinese – Indonesian
The height of the coastal trade interaction southeastern China , causing a lot of people who also feel the need to go out cruising for trade . The main aim when it was Southeast Asia . Because the cruise is highly dependent on monsoons , then each year the traders will live in areas of Southeast Asia who visited them . And so on there are traders who decided to settle down and marry local women , there are also traders who returned to China to continue to trade .

 


V.l.n.r. op de 1e rij: Daliloeddin, Moorianto Koesoemo Oetojo, Soenito, Soedjarwo Tjondronegoro, onbekende, Abdoerachman, onbekende, Djalal Moechsin, onbekende, Adnin; op de 2e rij: Zain Sjarif, Annie de Ridder, Reny [Irene Yvonne] Poetiray, Rasono Woerjaningrat, mevr. Alings, mevr. Abdoerachman, Margriet Tuera (vertegenwoordigster Kaoem Iboe Indonesia), dochter van mevr. Alings; op de 3e rij: Sidartawan, Joesoef Moedadalam, mevr. Poernomo, Soenardi, onbekende, mevr. Soenardi, 2 Chinezen, 2 onbekenden, Evie [Georgine Eveline] Poetiray, 4 onbekenden, Hartono; op de 4e rij: Soegeng Notohadinegoro, Hadiono Koesoemo Oetojo, Madeleine Hubrecht, Soehoenan Hamzah, Soeripno, Ati Nataatmadja (dochter van regent Tjiandjoer); 2 onbekenden, Trees Nataatmadja (dochter regent Tjiandjoer), Koessardjono

 

Chinese people in Indonesia , mostly originating from southeast China . They include the tribes :
 Hakka
§
§ Hainan
 Hokkien
§
 Cantonese
§
§ Hokchia
 Tiochiu
§
The area of origin is concentrated in the coastal southeast is understandable , because of the Tang Dynasty from port cities in coastal southeastern China indeed has become a bustling trading port . Quanzhou been noted as the largest airport and the busiest port in the world in those days . [ Citation needed ]

Undo edits

 

Title Chinese optocht te Sitoebondo ter gelegenheid van het vijfentwintigjarig regeringsjubileum van koningin Wilhelmina in 1923 Op de banier staan in Chinese karakters drie plaatsnamen uit de Fujian provincie in China: “Zhou, Xinghua en Fuqing”. Waarschijnlijk de plaatsen waar deze overzeesche Chinezen vandaan komen.Is this translation better than the original?

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The first recorded movement of people from China into Maritime Southeast Asia was the arrival of Mongol forces under Kublai Khan that culminated in the invasion of Java in 1293.

 The Mongols introduced Chinese technologies to the island, including shipbuilding and coinage. Their intervention hastened the decline of the classical kingdoms such as Singhasari and precipitated the rise of the Majapahit empire.[16]

 

Chinezen dragen een balk voor de bouw van een boortoren te Pangkalanbrandan in 1929

Album, Foto-boek I, was bestemd voor de moeder van E.P.L. de Hoog. Zie ook albums 1041, 1042 en 1043.

Some Chinese and Portuguese sources indicate that Chinese traders were the first to arrive on Ternate and Tidore in the Maluku Islands to buy cloves, but they were later driven out by Javanese traders as Majapahit expanded.[17]

 

 

 Khoe Hock Cho (rechts in het midden) op de dag van zijn benoeming tot luitenant der Chinezen te Tandjoengbalai en P. Scheffer, assistent-resident van Asahan, vóór de Chineesche Hollandsche School te Tandjoengbalai

 

Kapitan (lieutenant rank) Cina Tanjungbalai Asahan  khoe Hock cho 1927

Chinese Muslim traders from the eastern coast of China arrived at the coastal towns of Indonesia and Malaysia in the early 15th century. They were led by the mariner Zheng He, who commanded several expeditions to southeastern Asia between 1405 and 1430. In the book The Overall Survey of the Ocean’s Shores (瀛涯勝覽), his translator Ma Huan documented the activities of the Chinese Muslims in the archipelago and the legacy left by Zheng He and his men.[18] These traders settled along the northern coast of Java, but there is no documentation of their settlements beyond the 16th century. The Chinese Muslims were likely to have been absorbed into the majority Muslim population.[19] Between 1450 and 1520, the Ming Dynasty‘s interest in southeastern Asia reached a low point and trade, both legal and illegal, rarely reached the archipelago.[20] The Portuguese made no mention of any resident Chinese minority population when they arrived in Indonesia in the early 16th century.[21] Trade from the north was re-established when China legalized private trade in 1567 through licensing 50 junks a year. Several years later silver began flowing into the region, from Japan, Mexico, and Europe, and trade flourished once again. Distinct Chinese colonies emerged in hundreds of ports throughout southeastern Asia, including the pepper port of Banten.[20]

Chinese traders boycotted Portuguese Malacca after it fell to the Portuguese in the 1511 Capture of Malacca.[22] The Chinese engaged in business with Malays and Javanese instead of the Portuguese.[23] Some Chinese in Java assisted in Muslim attempts to reconquer the city using ships. The Javanese–Chinese participation in retaking Malacca was recorded in “The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon”.[22]

 

 

Chinese ethnic in the 1930s .

Removal of traders from the north to the south occurs on a large scale . Chinese emperor then, Tsi Thi Huang , memakarsai displacement.

In the book Lord of the Rims ( from Coastal Taipan ) written by Sterling Seagrave , mentioned four reasons Emperor who managed to unite the Chinese mainland in that incident .
 First , Tsi fear with his biological father bribes science , Prime Minister Lu Pei Wei , go spread the merchant who is a supporter of his father . As said the book , Tsi is the son of an affair between the Prime Minister Lu Pei Wei with concubines . Lu put a mistress who was pregnant concubines .

 

 

Groepsfoto van het personeel van Regionale Werk Plaats van de Nederlandsche Nieuw Guinea Petroleum Maatschappij genomen voor het vertrek van E.P.L. de Hoog van Babo in West-Nieuw-Guinea

Groepsfoto van het personeel van Regionale Werk Plaats van de Nederlandsche Nieuw Guinea Petroleum Maatschappij genomen voor het vertrek van E.P.L. de Hoog van Babo in West-Nieuw-Guinea

When 10 -year -old Tsi he was appointed emperor . Lu became Prime Minister for 10 years . And the only prime minister of gologan merchants during Chinese history .

The second reason , North China famous for its agriculture . So it is a cleansing action against the traders .

 

Hoogwaardigheidsbekleders bij Sjarif Kasim Abdul Djalil Saifoedin (3e v.r.), sultan van Siak in 1905 V.l.n.r.: [...] (luitenant der Chinezen), luitenant Koentze, [...] (vermoedelijk de broer van de sultan), sultan Sjarif Kasim Abdul Djalil Saifoedin, [...] (vermoedelijk bestuursambtenaar) en luitenant De Graaf


Later , the emperor wanted to develop the Chinese population in the South .
The final reason relates to the orthodox view of Confucianism which was looked down on the merchants , the merchants put under farmers : with logic , most farmers still produce rice , while the merchants did not return any results .
The Emperor ordered the transfer of the merchants ( and their friends ) on a large scale to the southern regions ( Fu Jian , Kwang – Tong ) .

The is then spread throughout the world , estimated at 55 million people . Four percent of the total number of inhabitants of the land which is also known as the Chinese .

However , the deployment of a third invasion of China into the world community . The first wave is done by Zheng He ( Cheng Ho ) about six hundred
years ago ( National Geographic ) . Admiral is only known Muslim , took his army south regions trace . History textbooks mention he had stopped in Java and made ​​a covenant with the king and locals.

The second deployment occurred when struck Chinese opium war in 1840 . Ruling Qing Dynasty tried to stop the opium . But , as the British saw great potential in this trade , they instead send warships as an answer . China defeated and ditandanganilah opium trade agreements allow Britain handed Hong Kong and in the lap of the Queen of England .

Many Chinese people who escaped from the state of chaos that hit the country . They spread to southern Asia , including Southeast Asia .
This is the beginning of the theory of Chinese people entering the area of ​​West Sumatra .


 

Sudarma , elders there to justify it . ” I was born in Padang . ‘s Been half a century in Padang . Grandfather I have parents , who called kongconya already in Padang . Parents My mother got it from the original Chinese . So the age of 12 years he joined his parents in Indonesia . Actually, the objective is not to Indonesia . goal was probably to the Philippines . attacked But since the storm, stranded in Bagan Si Api Api . Nah , keep walking , eventually arrived at Padang , Padang settled in , “he says .

Could be , parents Sudarma a resident who came in the second wave . The truth of the fact it can be strengthened with age See Hin Kiong Temple is located in Kampung China .
Dick Halim ( 80 ) , the Chinese elders estimate pagoda built before 1860. It could be because , according to records Erniawati , Padang State University lecturer and researcher at the Chinese community Minang , the pagoda was burned in

1861 .

Chinese Captain Lie Say
Lie Ma Say 

Major Chinese Lie Say
who was appointed by the Dutch to bring in workers from China to rebuild the shrine . “Muslims are also looking mosque where to go , right? ” Said Erniwati .

Another theory is derived from the Chinese Padang Pariaman . Ernawati , who wrote the book Smoke Hio in Minang , Chinese Community in West Sumatra , estimates The Chinese already in Pariaman in the 13th century . When entered into Pariaman Aceh .

Not surprising actually . Pariaman is a haven for the merchants in those days . Pariaman a trading center on the coast . Not surprisingly , in 1630 , Christine Dobbin , author of the economic turmoil and the Rise of Islam and the Padri Movement , 1784-1847 Minangkabau , Chinese quarter estimates already exist in Pariaman .

Unfortunately, a tragic event to trigger the departure of the Chinese from Pariaman . During the Japanese occupation , the Chinese brought her two daughters to the Japan office .
 The other vision ditanggap by young men who happened to see him . Traitor whispers erupted immediately . Two girls was immediately taken to the beach and dibelek with kangso ( a tool made from aluminum cans ) .

According Erniwati , the attack was carried out without a plan. Hence , the tool is not sharp weapons are usually prepared to kill . “Besides , the punishment for traitors . Not only the Chinese people feel the punishment , community leaders who also became a Japanese spy , got the same sentence . , “Said the bachelor 2 UNP ‘s History majors .

Fear crept Chinese society . Gradually they began to leave Pariaman .
By 1965 some Chinese people still dwell there . However , entering the 1967 is rather difficult to find the slant-eyed in Pariaman . ” Because of what happened PKI or PRRI , ” said Erniawati . Slowly the Chinese berangur moved to Padang . Precisely , in the cottage at the moment.

However , the reason could also be the basis of the economy . Pariaman no longer considered fertile ground for 19th century trade approach . So it is not just Chinese traders who left , but also traders from other regions .

 

READ MORE INFORMATION
Dr Iwan note
I get information from the grand son Tjoe Lie – grand son ( great grandson ) of Ma Lie Say ,
Lie Ma Say dating from China’s Qing dynasty in the late 19th century, around the years 1830 to 1840 with or near the wife as a trade envoy Qing Empire in Pariaman , then he moved to Padang Panjang and Batusanggkar here he married again and had a son that is

Namely Soan Lie Tong Li who has two sons Sam and Lie Lin . Lie Lie son sam has Djoe Tong who has several sons and daughters of the Lie Tjoe Yang , his wife Tjan Tjeng hay ( my wife’s mother ‘s brother ) , and my pastor friend Lie Tjoe san ( Sandarma Akhbar SH ) .
According to my brother Dr. Johan Main Edhie , my sister’s husband’s grandfather Ie Po Tak Bun Tjoa major pariaman married to his son ( probably lie lin ) called Lie Hok Seng ( they do not have children , your child meangkat Ipo Tjoa Kang Sung Tak Bun Him whose wife sister Tjoa toen oldest Gin ,
 

Kang brother kim Bwee ( no1 ) . lian.tjabo kim kang kang and sim poe , Kang Kim Mua ( No. 3 ) , namely his mother drg Tjoe Lie Heng – wife named Ben Pangabean kim hwa Kang , as well as my father’s wife ‘s sister Djintjek keng Ie the GHO Lie Kim named her jade – Go siei Hong , GSlan , GHO Soei ing.bersaudara Nine . ( Dr iwan note )

Ethical Trade Platform Minang – China Relations


It is estimated , there were 12 thousand Chinese people lived in Padang. Hundreds of clan or tribe inhabiting .
However , only eight tribes who have a home meeting . GHO is the eighth tribe , Lie – Kwee , Tan , Ong , Tjoa – Kwa , Lim Hwang and Kho . Kho clan is a clan who built the house last meetings. ” Marga another few in number . So do not build a house meeting , “said Rush of Family Hanura Lie – Kwee . Lie- Kwee currently has 600 members . All were over 17 years old .
( At least the genus Auyong , is the founder of the famous daily KOMPAS Auyong Peng Koen was born in Payakumbuh – known as PKOyong – Dr Iwan note )

As the name implies , the meeting house was used to organize events involving one family. For example, the Lunar ( Chinese New Year ) , Cap Go Meh ( 15th day of the Chinese New Year celebration ) , Kio , Sipasan or Pek Chun ( the feast that commemorates the height of summer ) . In fact , the 140 th anniversary , the family plans to invite Lie – Kwee – Kwee Lie entire tribe residing in Indonesia . ” But , it’s three years away , ” said Lie Kian Guan secretary secretary Lie – Kwee family set .
Kinship is to be number one for the Chinese . And as ” indigenous ” people of Central Asia ( Japan and Korea ) , they are maintaining the dignity of the family . If embarrassing , suicide or disposed of the family is an appropriate punishment . ” On the field , for example, many families are no longer recognized , to the extent that made ​​the ad in the paper , because it tarnished the family disgrace , ” said Hanura .

They had great respect for ancestors . This is a fundamental attitude to the Chinese . ” It’s influenced by the teachings of Tao Confunsius and attached to each of the Chinese , ” said Erniwati .

One more is the attitude of the Chinese authorities often approach . In the Dutch period they were considered second-class citizens . While indigenous third grade . So also in Japanese and Sukarno era . They get an opportunity that many people are not even natives though .

Only in the Suharto era , tap the Chinese trade a little freedom is restricted in the public eye . Therefore , some Chinese people become successful entrepreneurs such as Sui Liong Liem ( Salim ) , the owner of Bank BCA . ( Dr Iwan note : Sofyan Wanandi – Liem Bian from Padang koen one successful Chinese entrepreneurs )

At the time of Sukarno’s Dutch and they are placed with a single purpose , the economy . Dutch resettle them along the Dutch region , such as in the area to be monitored Kampuang Cino in overseeing their trade . Soekarno Likewise , those in the ‘ hand over ‘ in one place and only allowed to trade .

This , according to Hanura , there are pros and cons . On the one hand they fulfilled economically , but on the other hand they can not contribute in other areas . ” How many civil servants who are of Chinese descent ,” he asked .

Jealousy had mastered the natives saw their success in trade . No wonder , when there are riots , the Chinese became targets as the events of 1998. ” Though not all Chinese people rich . Look at Tanah Kongsi market , ” said Hanura .
However , in the crunch Padang Minang ethnic Chinese and does not occur or is not as big as other cities . According Erniwati , the unique relationship between the two.
As a fellow tribe strong trade and has a strong culture and religion , should conflicts often occur . ” It seems , ethical trade makes both respect each other , ” said Erniwati .

Ethical trade makes both tribes are in a position of a friend . It looks like the two have shared trade area . Trade dominated the national level as well as the Minang people to the international area , the Chinese had been the ruler .

99 % Could not Chinese
Loose from the Soeharto era , the Chinese became more freely . Government pressure is much reduced . The Chinese are more liberated in performing worship and culture . No wonder the Chinese New Year or Cap Go Meh feels more festive than year to year . ” The most exciting event was Sipasan . Cap Go Meh At this time the show will take place most festive Sipasan because Sipasan long , “said Xin Xui who trade in front of the HBT .

Even so , alkulturasi quietly been taking place. China long before people breathe easier.

‘ The proof , 99 % of Chinese people who live here can no longer be Chinese , ” said Hanura . Distance away from ancestral lands , as well as limited memory makes Chinese culture slowly began to be forgotten . Many residents in Padang ‘s Chinatown was shocked when Erniwati mention Chinese traditions that had never been heard . Language that emerged was impressed funny . Tanah Kongsi market may witness alkulturasi languages. If you were there , Malay – Chinese sounds here and there . Pigi where lu ( going ) , Telok kecik papaw ( urinating large eggs , kind of expression ) , it would ndak o ( he will not) , for example .
To attenuate the distance , ceremonies , religious warnings sought to be implemented as it should . Although it only to write Chinese characters without understanding its meaning. ” Ndak ambo know , do , ” said Hanura when asked the purpose of the text contained in lanterns .

When interviewed Hanura palanquin procession is preparing event on Thursday ( 5/2 ) ago . A mystical events like dabuih at Coastal . The goal of the ancestors . Kio houses paraded to the other clans . ” To friendship , ” said Arif Rusli Rusdi , Jiko ( representative ) of the Lie and Kwee family .

Additionally , Sipasan be unique in Kampung Chinese art . In fact according to Hanura , art is not found in other Chinatowns in Indonesian .

During Mother’s Day , the Chinese community held a unique competition . Race wearing marapulai Minangkabau. Variations also vary . There Sawahlunto wedding dress , Bukittinggi , Payakumbuh , “said Hanura who happens to get a wedding dress from Padang .

From there he also learned that culturally there is a very obvious similarities between the Minang culture with Chinese . ” Especially the wedding dress . And Telong said in a poem has similarities with Tenglong ( lanterns ) . “
Erniwati similarities justify it even called this a bit sensitive to the Minang .

Another visible change is the Chinese people are now no longer closed to accept members from outside the ethnic . In fact , many players brown -skinned dragon or lion . ” There’s even a Muslim , ” said Hanura .
 

No wonder that there was a lion dance show , not all players yellow . Belo eyes also appeared as the head emerged from behind the lion dance .
Can not be touched when “spring ” this will end . Erniwati convinced that the Chinese community in Padang will not get political interference and excessive pressure from the Minangkabau ethnic . ( Yusrizal KW / Andika Destika Khagen / S.Metron M / Esha Tough Son / Gus RY ) from Padang Ekpres Daily Newspaper

 

I hope this informations about Chiense overseas history especially vice consuslt cina and kapitan Cina with related collections will made the next generation now how their relatives grand-grandpa became very success live in Indonesia and Malaysia (that time straits,federated Malaya and dutch east Indie)

I will put some info from this book in Mr Robert Yeap ‘s Zheng he museum Penang which we are coabolrations with mutual benefit, and if someone want to get the full information can buy the complete CD-ROM straight to me via my email address

iwansywandy@gmail.com

Jkarta November 2013

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE HISTORY OF CHINESE OVERSEAS IN INDONESIA DURING DUTCH EAST INDIE

Chinese immigrants to the Indonesian archipelago almost entirely originated from ethnic Han groups of what are now the Fujian and Guangdong provinces in southern China, known for their regional diversity.[78]

The Han Chinese form the largest ethnic group in the world with large numbers living in Southeast Asia.[79] Nearly all Chinese Indonesians are either patrilineal descendants of these early immigrants, or new immigrants born in mainland China.[80]

 

 

The tin mines of Bangka Island almost entirely employed Chinese workers.

Top of Form

Tambang timah Pulau Bangka hampir seluruhnya mempekerjakan pekerja Cina.

Sebagai kelompok pertama dari orang-orang Cina untuk menetap dalam jumlah besar, Hokkien selatan Fujian menjadi kelompok imigran yang dominan hingga pertengahan abad ke-19.
Maritim-pedagang budaya mereka berasal dari pekerjaan perdagangan mereka sementara di Indonesia. Keturunan dari Hokkiens adalah kelompok dominan di Indonesia Timur, Tengah, dan Jawa Timur, dan pantai barat Sumatera.
Tiociu, tetangga selatan Hokkien, ditemukan di seluruh pantai timur Sumatera, di Kepulauan Riau, dan di bagian barat Kalimantan. Mereka lebih disukai sebagai buruh perkebunan di Sumatera, tetapi telah menjadi pedagang di daerah mana Hokkien yang tidak terwakili. [81]
The Hakka, tidak seperti Hokkien dan Teochew, berasal dari daerah pedalaman pegunungan Guangdong dan tidak memiliki budaya maritim. [81] Karena medan yang tidak produktif daerah rumah mereka, Hakka beremigrasi karena kebutuhan ekonomi dalam beberapa gelombang dari 1850-1930 dan yang termiskin dari kelompok imigran Cina. Meskipun mereka pada awalnya dihuni pusat pertambangan barat Kalimantan dan Pulau Bangka, Hakkas menjadi tertarik pada pertumbuhan yang cepat dari Batavia dan Jawa Barat di akhir abad 19 [82].
Orang Kanton, seperti Hakka, yang terkenal di seluruh Asia Tenggara sebagai penambang. Migrasi mereka di abad ke-19 sebagian besar diarahkan pada tambang timah Bangka, di lepas pantai timur Sumatera. Terkemuka tradisional sebagai pengrajin terampil, Kanton manfaat dari kontak dekat dengan orang Eropa di Guangdong dan Hong Kong dengan belajar tentang keberhasilan mesin dan industri. Mereka bermigrasi ke Jawa sekitar waktu yang sama seperti Hakka, tapi untuk alasan yang berbeda. Di kota-kota di Indonesia mereka menjadi pengrajin, pekerja mesin, dan pemilik bisnis kecil seperti restoran dan hotel-menjaga layanan. The Kanton yang merata di seluruh kepulauan dan nomor jauh lebih sedikit daripada Hokkien atau Hakka. Akibatnya peran mereka sangat penting sekunder dalam masyarakat Tionghoa [82].

As the first group of Chinese people to settle in large numbers, the Hokkien of southern Fujian became the dominant immigrant group until the middle of the 19th century.

Their maritime-mercantile culture comes from their trade occupations whilst in Indonesia. Descendants of Hokkiens are the dominant group in eastern Indonesia, Central and East Java, and the western coast of Sumatra.

Teochews, southern neighbors of the Hokkien, are found throughout the eastern coast of Sumatra, in the Riau Archipelago, and in western Borneo. They were preferred as plantation laborers in Sumatra but have become traders in regions where the Hokkien are not well represented.[81]

The Hakka, unlike the Hokkien and the Teochew, originate from the mountainous inland regions of Guangdong and do not have a maritime culture.[81] Due to the unproductive terrain of their home region, the Hakka emigrated out of economic necessity in several waves from 1850 to 1930 and were the poorest of the Chinese immigrant groups. Although they initially populated the mining centers of western Borneo and Bangka Island, Hakkas became attracted to the rapid growth of Batavia and West Java in the late 19th century.[82]

Cantonese people, like the Hakka, were well known throughout Southeast Asia as mineworkers. Their migration in the 19th century was largely directed toward the tin mines of Bangka, off the east coast of Sumatra. Notable traditionally as skilled artisans, the Cantonese benefited from close contact with Europeans in Guangdong and Hong Kong by learning about machinery and industrial success. They migrated to Java about the same time as the Hakka, but for different reasons. In Indonesia’s cities they became artisans, machine workers, and owners of small businesses such as restaurants and hotel-keeping services. The Cantonese are evenly dispersed throughout the archipelago and number far less than the Hokkien or the Hakka. Consequently their roles are of secondary importance in the Chinese communities.[82]

 

By the time the Dutch arrived in the early 17th century,

major Chinese settlements existed along the north coast of Java. Most were traders and merchants, but they also practiced agriculture in inland areas.

The Dutch contracted many of these immigrants as skilled artisans in the construction of Batavia (Jakarta) on the northwestern coast of Java.[19]

A recently created harbor was selected as the new headquarters of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) in 1609 by Jan Pieterszoon Coen. It grew into a major hub for trade with China and India.

Batavia became home to the largest Chinese community in the archipelago and remains so in the 21st century.[24]

Coen and other early Governors-General promoted the entry of Chinese immigrants to new settlements “for the benefit of those places and for the purpose of gathering spices like cloves, nutmeg, and mace”.[25]

The port’s Chinese population of 300–400 in 1619 had grown to at least 10,000 by 1740.[26] The Dutch, however, introduced a racial classification system that separated residents of Chinese ancestry from those of other ancestry.[27]

Most of those who settled in the archipelago had already severed their ties with the mainland and welcomed favorable treatment and protection under the Dutch.[28]

Some became “revenue farmers”, middlemen within the corporate structure of the VOC, tasked with collecting export–import duties and managing the harvest of natural resources;[29] although this was highly profitable, it earned the enmity of the pribumi population. Others worked as opium farmers.[30]

Following the 1740 Batavia massacre and ensuing war, in which the Chinese rebelled against the Dutch,[31] the Dutch attempted to place a quota on the number of Chinese who could enter the Indies.

Amoy was designated as the only immigration port to the archipelago, and ships were limited to a specified number of crew and passengers depending on size. This quota was adjusted at times to meet demand for overseas workers, such as in July 1802 when sugar mills near Batavia were in need of workers.[32]

When the VOC was nationalized on 31 December 1799, many freedoms the Chinese experienced under the corporation were eliminated by the Dutch government.

Among them was the Chinese monopoly on the salt trade which had been granted by the VOC administration.[33]

An 1816 regulation introduced a requirement for the indigenous population and Chinese traveling within the territory to obtain a travel permit. Those who did not carry a permit faced arrest by security officers.

The Governor-General also introduced a resolution in 1825 which forbade “foreign Asians in Java such as Malays, Buginese and Chinese” from living within the same neighborhood as the native population.[34]

Following the costly Java War (1825–1830) the Dutch introduced a new agrarian and cultivation system that required farmers to “yield up a portion of their fields and cultivate crops suitable for the European market”. Compulsory cultivation restored the economy of the colony, but ended the system of revenue farms established under the VOC.[35]

 

 

The first Dutch Chinese Schools were established in 1892 following a split in curriculum from the native population.

The Chinese were perceived as temporary residents and encountered difficulties in obtaining land rights. Europeans were prioritized in the choice of plantation areas, while colonial officials believed the remaining plots must be protected and preserved for the indigenous population.

Short-term and renewable leases of varying lengths[b] were later introduced as a temporary measure, but many Chinese remained on these lands upon expiration of their contracts and became squatters.[36]

In the second half of the 19th century the colonial government began experimenting with the idea of an “Ethical Policy” to protect the indigenous population, casting the Chinese as the “foremost enemy of the state”. Under the new policy the administration increased restrictions on Chinese economic activities, which they believed exploited the native population.[37]

In western Borneo the Chinese established their first major mining settlement in 1760. Ousting Dutch settlers and the local Malay princes, they joined into a new republic known as Lanfang.

By 1819 they came into conflict with the new Dutch government and were seen as “incompatible” with its objectives, yet indispensable for the development of the region.[38] The Bangka–Belitung Islands also became examples of major settlements in rural areas.

In 1851 28 Chinese were recorded on the islands and by 1915 the population had risen to nearly 40,000 and fishing and tobacco industries had developed. Coolies brought into the region after the end of the 19th century were mostly hired from the Straits Settlements owing to recruiting obstacles that existed in China.[39]

CHINA: Through the Lens of John Thomson 1868-1872

An historic photographic exhibition including 150 images taken in China between 1868 and 1872. The exhibition includes a wide variety of images, themes and locations in China from Beijing to Fujian to Guangdong including landscapes, people, architecture, domestic and street scenes.  The show in Beijing is accompanied by several displays of original clothes from the era.

John Thomson (1837–1921) was born in Edinburgh two years before the invention of the daguerreotype was announced to the world in 1839.

This discovery was the beginning of photography. That same year Fox Talbot introduced the calotype process, and with this new medium David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, two remarkable Scottish photographers living in Edinburgh, produced nearly 3,000 images, including city views, landscapes and scenes of everyday life. Their work undoubtedly had a profound influence on Thomson.

 In the years leading up to Thomson becoming a professional photographer, the technology of photography also developed at an incredible speed. The invention of the wet-collodian process in 1850 is regarded as the watershed: it reduced the exposure time and the cost of making photographs; it also produced sharper images. The wet-collodian process quickly replaced daguerreotype and calotype.

As Thomson remarked: ‘the detail in wet-collodian negatives was of microscopic minuteness whilst presenting the finest gradation and printing quality which had never indeed been surpassed by any known method’. But this in itself added to his difficulties: it was necessary to make the negatives on glass plates that had to be coated with wet-collodian emulsion before the exposure was made, thus there was a large amount of cumbersome equipment that had to be carried from place to place.

Yet Thomson persevered. To endure hardship was part of his Victorian education. He showed enormous energy and stamina. Like many of his Victorian contemporaries, he was excited by the opening up of Africa and Asia to the West, and he shared in the enthusiasm for exploring exotic places. He believed that by using photography, ‘the explorer may add not only to the interest, but to the permanent value of his work’.  And ‘the camera should be a power in this age of instruction to instruct the age’.

In 1862, Thomson set out for Singapore, where he opened a studio and established himself as a professional portrait photographer. Meanwhile, he also became increasingly interested in the local culture and people. From Singapore he travelled into Malaya and Sumatra and took a number of photographs of local landscapes and people. In 1866, after moving to Bangkok, he made his first photographic expedition into Cambodia and Indo-China (Vietnam). His photographs of Cambodia and Siam (Thailand) established him as a serious travel photographer, and gained him membership of both the Ethnographic Society of London and the Royal Geographic Society.

During his second trip to Asia, Thomson based himself at the thriving British Crown Colony of Hong Kong in 1868. There he studied Chinese and Chinese culture while making a few short trips into Guangdong. Thomson’s major China expedition began in 1870. For two years he travelled extensively from Guangdong to Fujian, and then to eastern and northern China, including the imperial capital Beijing, before heading down to the River Yangtse, altogether covering nearly 5000 miles. In China, Thomson excelled as a photographer in quality, depth and breadth, and also in artistic sensibility. The experience he gained, and the techniques he developed, on the streets of Beijing laid the foundation for his Street Life in London, compiled five years later. This established him as the pioneer of photojournalism and one of the most influential photographers of his generation.

After returning to Britain, Thomson took up an active role informing the public about China. Besides giving illustrated presentations, he continuously published photographic and written works on China. He sensed that a profound transformation was taking place in the world, and ‘through the agency of steam and telegraphy, [China] is being brought day by day into closer relationship with ourselves … China cannot much longer lie undisturbed in statii quo.’  Undoubtedly his photographs contributed greatly to 19th-century Europe’s view of Asia and filled the visual gap between East and West. He became known as ‘China’ Thomson.

Yet what marked Thomson’s work out was not simply the massive amount of visual information he offered. His uniqueness was his zeal to present a faithful and precise, though not always agreeable, account of China and Chinese people. He wanted his audiences to witness China’s floods, famines, pestilences and civil wars; but even more so, he wanted share them the human aspect of life in China. He wanted his work to transcend that of the casual illustration of idiosyncratic types, to portray human beings as individuals full of peculiarities.

In 1920, Thomson decided to sell his 650 glass negatives, including those of China, to the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum, but died before the transaction could be completed. Eventually Henry Solomon Wellcome (1853–1936), the American-born pharmacist and philanthropist, bought the negatives from Thomson’s heirs.

Although Wellcome’s museum had a medical and historical theme, Wellcome was a cosmopolitan, and, in some aspects, compulsive collector. He also had an anthropological approach to history, and his ultimate aim was to create a Museum of Man, although this dream was never realised. After his death much of his collection, including Thomson’s negatives in three wooden crates, ended up in the Wellcome Library in London, where they remain today.

The 150 images included in this exhibition are all from the Wellcome Library’s collection. While a few images were reproduced in Thomson’s published works and shown in exhibitions, the great majority of his photographs have never been exhibited. Take, for example, the stereoscopes. Each of these negatives comprises two photographs taken from slightly different angles. Previously, due to the cost of photo-publishing, only one of the exposures was printed.

The images included for this exhibition have been chosen mainly for their locations, namely those of Beijing, Guangdong and Fujian.

The photographs Thomson took in Fujian and Guangdong are his strongest series of landscapes. But they also show his sensitivity.

The human aspect of his work was even more evident in his photos of the poor. In Guangdong and Fujian, he became increasingly concerned with the lives and conditions of ordinary Chinese.

As he travelled further, this concern developed. In the imperial capital of Beijing, Thomson not only displayed his talent as professional portrait photographer, his street scenes of Beijing showed that he was ahead of his time. These deeply moving images are sometimes compared to street photographs by the great 20th-century masters like Andre Kertesz, Henri Cartier-Bresson or Robert Doisneau. But more importantly, they will remain as incredibly valuable historical material for anyone wishing to understand 19th-century China and its people in their struggle to become modern.

Fujian Province, China

 

 

Provinsi Fujian adalah tanah nenek moyang saya yang meninggalkan tepi pantai provinsi ini pada abad ke-19 dan tenggelam akar di Nanyang – Laut Selatan. Atau dikenal sebagai Asia Tenggara. Mereka tinggal selama beberapa generasi di Malaysia sebelum ayah saya membuat jalan selatan ke dinamo pulau yang muncul dari Singapura yang meledak ekonomis tidak lama setelah ia tiba. Menjadi anak di luar negeri berkali-kali dihapus, saya tidak bisa memikirkan satu alasan mengapa saya harus jauh tertarik di Fujian, selain kepeduliannya motherlands yang memanggil semua yang meninggalkan pantainya dari ikan untuk unggas ke manusia. Melalui pembacaan latar belakang saya, saya ingin melukis pemandangan Anda dalam kata-kata. Mungkin suatu hari, aku akan bisa untuk mengisi stroke luas

(Kakek saya Gho kim Thian dating dari Cganzhou atau Tjiang tjioe Hokkien setelah pernah ikut ayahnya(ngkongtjo) ke Indonesia karena tidak mau menikah dengan wanita yang dipilih orang tuanya, Ia mengembara ke sumatera barat menuju kota Pajakumbuh, disana ia sebagai orang sinkek ditampung oleh ngkongtjo saya Tjoa Tjay hiok,ayah dari kakek saya Tjoa Gin Toen di Payakumbuh, dipekerjakan diperusahaan dagangnya,

Kmudian ia dijodohkan dengan anak saudaranya Tjoa giok Wan, dan ternyata putranya,ayah saya G.T.Bo(Djohan Oetama) kem menikah dengan putrid pamannya sendiri Anna Tjoa Giok Lan,

Ayah saya selalu memanggil mertuanya Ngkoe(paman).-

Tahun 2008 saya berkesempatan mengunjungi kampong halaman kakek saya versama isteri Lily ,yang berjarak 2 jam dengan Bus dari Xianmen dan perumahan seperti di kota Padang berada disamping suatu wihara yang sangat indah Kay yuan temple namanya,dengan suatu pagoda yang Indah,

saya heran mengapa kakek saya mau meninggalkan kota Changzhou yang begitu Indah,apakah mungkin karena pengaruh serangan Dai Nippon di Manchuria/ dan kemudian terjadi pembantaiaan di Nanking,mungkin saja, ngkongtjo saya pernah menyusul putranya Gho kim thian tetapi tidak bertemu muka hanya melambaikan tsnggan di pelabuhan Teluk Bayur saja,ini saat baru diketahui kakek saya sudah menikah dan tunagannya di tiongkok baru diputuskan.catatan dr Iwan)

Fujian province is the homeland of my ancestors who left the shores of this coastal province in the 19th century and sank roots in Nanyang – the South Seas. Otherwise known as South East Asia. They lived for generations in Malaysia before my father made his way south to the emerging island dynamo of Singapore which exploded economically not long after he arrived. Being an overseas son many times removed, I can’t think of a single reason why I should be remotely interested in Fujian, other than the stirrings of motherlands that call all who leave its shores from fish to fowl to mankind. Through my background readings, I’d like to paint you a landscape in words. Maybe one day, I’ll be able to fill in the broad strokes…


The Mountains of Fujian

Fujian is predominantly mountainous – walled in on the north, west and south sides. A truly spectacular sight. The precious arable flat land is rich but self limiting for a growing population.

There are over 1,000 islands off the Fujian coast which provides welcome fishing grounds for subsistence and over 600 species of fish.

The islands also provide the geographic shelter that created natural harbours for Fuzhou (Hokchew), Quanzhou (Chuanchew) and Xiamen (Amoy) to develop into trading ports

In fact, during the Tang dynasty of 608 – 907 AD – China’s Renaissance Period of culture, literature, trade and arts, Chuanchew was a mecca for Arab and European traders who called the city Zaytun.

At the height of such international travel and trade, Hokkiens began to follow the trading routes into South East Asia and setting up trading settlements.

Thus began the Fujian Exodus.

THE STORY OF THE FUJIAN EXODUS

The Fujian Exodus is a story of hope and inspiration.

Of pioneering and sacrifice.

It is a legacy that we can all be proud of.

 

 

 

 


Trade Winds Fan The Flames Of Fujian Migration


Manila
Dibutuhkan hanya tiga hari
dengan  sampah untuk mencapai Manila dari Fujian. Manila adalah pusat strategis perdagangan galleon di pusat Asia. Manila adalah depot perdagangan perak Meksiko pada rute ke China sebagai pembayaran atas sutra dan porselen.

Para Hokkiens baik siap untuk bertindak sebagai perantara di Manila untuk perdagangan ini dan segera membentuk sebuah komunitas yang masih berlangsung hingga hari ini.

 

Manila

It takes only three days for a junk to reach Manila from Fujian. Manila was a strategic hub of the galleon trade in the centre of Asia. Manila was a trade depot for Mexican silver on route to China as payment for silk and porcelain. The Hokkiens were well poised to act as intermediaries in Manila for this trade and soon formed a community that still thrives today.


Perdagangan Bebas di Singapura dan Malaya
Janji keberuntungan terbatas terletak di jantung perdagangan bebas Asia Tenggara – Singapura dan Malaysia – kemudian dikenal sebagai Settlements Selat Singapura, Penang dan Malaka.
Semua tiga kota adalah pelabuhan alam dan pelabuhan seperti Amoy dan Chuanchew. Hokkiens pergi dari pelabuhan ke pelabuhan dan membentuk masyarakat yang mengakar sampai hari ini.
Ke hari Penang, Malaka dan Singapura dan dialek Min’Nan masih Fraca lingua paling Cina di sana

Free Trade in Singapore and Malaya

The promise of limitless fortune lay in the free trade heartland of South East Asia – Singapore and Malaysia – then known as the Straits Settlements of Singapore, Penang and Malacca.

All three cities were natural ports and harbours like Amoy and Chuanchew. Hokkiens went from port to port and formed communities that are entrenched to this day.

Go to Penang, Malacca and Singapore today and the Min’Nan dialect is still the lingua fraca of most Chinese there.


Warisan Keberanian dan Ketahanan
Tan Kah Kee. Kekasih
Patriot Cina yang memimpin kampanye penggalangan dana dari Singapura untuk membantu anti-perang upaya China dalam Perang Dunia 2. Dia dihormati di Singapura Hokkien Huay Kuan, terbesar dialek bangsa asosiasi klan.
Jimei juga merupakan kota kelahiran Mr Tan Kah Kee-, pemimpin Cina terkenal di luar negeri yang mengabdikan homself sepenuhnya terhadap pendidikan cause.He mulai berbagai sekolah di kota, termasuk Sekolah Jimei normal, Jimei Navigasi Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Produk Technical Institute dan Pertanian Sekolah selain TK Jimei, Jimei Sekolah Dasar dan Sekolah Menengah Jimei.

Kediaman mantan Mr.Tan Kah-Kee terletak di Jalan Jiageng di kota Jimei.It masih menjaga penampilan lama untuk dikunjungi dan direnungkan. Mr.Tan Kah-kee tinggal hemat sepanjang hidupnya. Tidak ada yang dapat tetap bergeming ketika mereka melihat betapa sederhananya  pakaian yang mereka kebutuhan sehari-hari
Tan Kah Kee didirikan Amoy University di Xiamen dan membangun sebuah distrik sekolah untuk memajukan penyebab pendidikan di provinsi rumah kami. Pada kematiannya, ia diberi pemakaman kenegaraan oleh Beijing.

 

Legacies of Courage and Resilience

Tan Kah Kee. Beloved China Patriot who led the fund raising campaign from Singapore to aid China’s anti-war effort in World War 2. He honoured in Singapore’s Hokkien Huay Kuan, the nation’s largest dialect clan association.

Jimei is also the hometown of Mr. Tan Kah-Kee, a famous overseas Chinese leader who devoted homself wholly to the education cause.He had started various schools in the town, including Jimei Normal School,Jimei Navigation Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Products Technical Institute and Agriculture School besides Jimei Kindergarden, Jimei Primary School and Jimei Middle School.

 

The former residence of Mr.Tan Kah-Kee is situated on Jiageng Road in the town of Jimei.It is still keeping its old looks to be visited and pondered. Mr.Tan Kah-kee was living frugally all his life. No one can keep unmoved when they see how simple those daily necessities and clothings are.

Tan Kah Kee established Amoy University in Xiamen and built a school district to further the cause of education in our home province. At his death, he was given a state funeral by Beijing.

(Perlu dilakukan penelitian situasi di Padang sumatera barat yang situasi hamper sama ,walaupun tentunya agak berbeda akibat pengaruh situasi, seperti Kakek iibu saya ,ayak dari nenek saya Tan Kim soan yang bernama Tan giok lin dating dari Filipina bersama isteri yang juga dari Hokian,dan saat isterinya meninggal menikah dengan putrid Minangkabau Asli dan memeluk agama Isdlam, ia mendirikan Bioskop pertama di kota Padang bernama Scalabio,saat meninggal dengan penguburan menurut agama Islam dan dikuburkan dikuburan Islam Pasir Angek dipinggir pantai dekat kuburan keramat Kiai Islam,saat ini sudah dibongkar dan kuburannya dipindahkan ke tabing.catatan dr Iwan)

 

LOCAL BORN

Hokkiens as a rule, migrated without their women, to save them from a life of hardship worse than the one they leave behind. Consequently, marriages with local Malay women in Singapore, Malaya and the Philippines created a new line of Chinese descendants who never knew the motherland.

In the Philippines, they were known as the Chinese mestizos.

The most famous mestizo of all was none other than the national hero of the Philippines – Jose Rizal, a Philippines patriot who engineered a failed revolution against the Spanish colonialists and was martyred..(The dsam in Indonesia Dr Iwan Note)

 

 

Divided nationalism (1900–1949)[edit source | editbeta]

 

 

Chinese language school owned by the Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan in Sungailiat, Bangka

The Chinese revolutionary figure Sun Yat-sen visited southeast Asia in 1900,[40] and later that year the socio-religious organization Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan (中華 會館), also known as the Chinese Association, was founded. Their goal was to urge ethnic Chinese in the Indies to support the revolutionary movement in China.

 

Tionghoa Cianjur 1890

In its effort to build Chinese-speaking schools the association argued that the teaching of the English and Chinese languages should be prioritized over Dutch, to provide themselves with the means of taking, in the words of Phoa Keng Hek, “a two or three-day voyage (Java–Singapore) into a wider world where they can move freely” and overcome restrictions of their activities.[41]

Several years later the Dutch authorities abandoned its segregation policies, abolished travel permits for the ethnic Chinese, and allowed them to freely move throughout the colony.

The 1911 Xinhai Revolution and the 1912 founding of the Republic of China coincided with a growing Chinese-nationalist movement within the Indies.[40]

Although there was no recognizable nationalist movement among the indigenous population until 1908, Dutch authorities feared that nationalist sentiments would spread with the growth of ethnically mixed associations, known as kongsi.

In 1911 some Javanese members of the Kong Sing association in Surakarta broke away and clashed with the ethnic Chinese.

This incident led to the creation of Sarekat Islam, the first organized popular nationalist movement in the Indies. Indigenous groups saw the Chinese nationalist sentiment as “haughty”, leading to mutual antagonism.[42]

 

The anti-Chinese sentiment spread throughout Java in 1918 and led to mass violence orchestrated by members of Sarekat Islam on the ethnic Chinese in Kudus.[43] Following this incident the left-wing Chinese nationalist daily Sin Po called on both sides to work together to improve living conditions because it considered most ethnic Chinese, like most of the indigenous population, to be poor.[44]

 

 

Early draft of the Indonesia Raya, later adopted as a national anthem, in a 1928 weekly edition of the Sin Po newspaper[45]

Sin Po first went into print in 1910 and began gaining momentum as the leading advocate of Chinese political nationalism in 1917. The ethnic Chinese who followed its stream of thought refused any involvement with local institutions and would only participate in politics relating to mainland China.[46]

A second stream was later formed by wealthy ethnic Chinese who received an education at Dutch-run schools. This Dutch-oriented group wished for increased participation in local politics, Dutch education for the ethnic Chinese, and the furthering of ethnic Chinese economic standing within the colonial economy. Championed by the Volksraad‘s sole ethnic Chinese representative Kan Hok Hoei, this movement gained momentum and reached its peak with the Chung Hwa Congress of 1927 and the 1928 formation of the Chung Hwa Hui party, which elected Kan as its president. The editor-in-chief of the Madjallah Panorama news magazine criticized Sin Po for misguiding the ethnic Chinese by pressuring them into a Chinese-nationalist stance.[47]

In 1932 pro-Indonesian counterparts founded the Partai Tionghoa Indonesia to support absorption of the ethnic Chinese into the Javanese population and support the call for self-government of Indonesia. Members of this group were primarily peranakan.[48] This division resurfaced at the end of the period of Japanese occupation (1942–1945).[49] Under the occupation ethnic Chinese communities were attacked by Japanese forces, in part owing to suspicions that they contained sympathizers of the Kuomintang as a consequence of the Second Sino-Japanese War. When the Dutch returned, following the end of World War II, the chaos caused by advancing forces and retreating revolutionaries also saw radical Muslim groups attack ethnic Chinese communities.[43]

Although revolutionary leaders were sympathetic toward the ethnic Chinese, they were unable to stop the sporadic violence. Those who were affected fled from the rural areas to Dutch-controlled cities, a move many Indonesians saw as proof of pro-Dutch sentiments.[50] There was evidence, however, that Chinese Indonesians were represented and participated in independence efforts. Four members of the Committee for the Investigation of the Preparation for Indonesian Independence (Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, BPUPKI) and one member on the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, PPKI) had Chinese names

 

Tionhoa hwe  koan school

 

 

INDONESIAN PERANAKANS: TIONGHUA CINA PERANAKAN INDONESIA

 

Indonesian traditions and beliefs have exerted a strong influence over those ethnic Chinese migrants who have resided in the country for generations.

Most came to Indonesia during the 12th & 15th centuries thereby making Peranakan settlement & history in Indonesia older than that of Malaya’s.

The long-resident Peranakan, or Straits Chinese, who have settled mostly in Java and other outer islands such as the Riau islands, West Kalimantan and Sumatra, are the earliest examples of assimilation in Indonesian society.

The Peranakans are descendents of Chinese merchants, males who came unaccompanied to the East Indies for the lucrative spice trade.

Many of these immigrants married the local Indonesian women and their descendents are today known as the Peranakan, meaning local born. Peranakan Culture in Indonesia was just as similar and identical to that of Singapore and Malaysian Peranakan Culture in more ways than one.

 

Photo above:

Old Photos of Indonesian Peranakans & an old Peranakan book in Dutch (right).

 

 

After the late 19th century, the invention of the steamship facilitated the flow of Chinese migrants to Indonesia, who this time came accompanied by their wives and families.

Unlike the Peranakans, these Pure Chinese, or Totoks as they were known, had Chinese families and retained the use of the Chinese language, dress and customs.

They kept their mainland Chinese culture for generations and saw to the establishment of Chinese schools, newspapers and most eminently, Chinese business networks.

 

Historians today have largely attributed the prosperous economic activity among the Chinese as the reason for the Dutch colonial policy that segregated the Totoks and Peranakans from the rest of the Indonesian community.

This led to no small measure of misunderstanding and jealousy among the two groups.

The Peranakan Chinese population in Indonesia numbers at 6 million people out of a total Chinese population of 9 million while the Totok or Pure Chinese Community numbers at around 3 million or so.

Making them the largest Peranakan Chinese community in the entire world. Singapore and Malaysia however only have a miniscule 500,000 Peranakan Chinese each.

This explains why the overwhelming majority Indonesian Chinese only converse to each other in local Indonesian dialects and Bahasa Indonesia and not in Mandarin.

The Dutch imposed a policy of seperation that gave powers and trading priveleges to the Peranakan & Totok Communities.

As a result they were known as Chukongs or Kapitan Cina and controlled vast areas of land, plantation, coal and gold mines, diamond & tin mines and the like. Therefore the wealth and prestige of the Peranakan Chinese in Indonesia was similar to that of those in the Straits Settements

 

Above: Indonesian Nonyas dressed in the sarung kebaya for important events and functions. Peranakan Culture in Indonesia has largely died outdue to the numerous and anti Chinese policies that were so prevalent in the past. However in spite of these issues Peranakan Culture in the form of Food and Language has survived till this very day. Ayam Buah Keluak, Kueh Lapis and Kueh Bengka Ambon are just some of the cultural contributions that the Indonesian Peranakans have given to the rest of the Peranakan Communities in Malaya. The lovely sarung kebaya itself as we know it originated in Indonesia itself not in the Straits Settlements as it was invented by the Indonesian Chinese Peranakans themselves.

 

 

PERANAKAN CHINESE POLITICS IN INDONESIA

Indies-Chinese nationalism in the early 20th century was shaped by the transformation of the Chinese community in the Dutch East Indies.

The Chinese community in this period was characterised by the division between the Totok and the Peranakan communities, and by the growing influence of the Totok community.

Skinner views the distinction between the Totok and the Peranakan communities as cultural: the Totok community was characterised by its pure Chinese culture, while the peranakan community was characterised by its cross Chinese-Javanese culture. The construction of a united Chinese community could have been achieved if a single community of Totoks and Peranakans had been constructed. I shall now proceed to explain why this was not achieved.

The expansion of the Totok community at the beginning of the 20th century was a consequence of the inability of the Peranakan community to completely assimilate the new Chinese migrants who had arrived from China to take advantage of the economic development of the Dutch East Indies.

This massive migration of labourers can be identified as belonging to the Huagong pattern. From the 1900s this migration started to include women, and this gave the male migrants the freedom to choose not to settle with peranakan or indigenous women; this weakened one route of assimilation into the peranakan community.

The large proportion of Hakka and Cantonese dialect groups among the migrants also weakened assimilation since the Peranakan community was distinctly Hokkien.

 

Above: Indonesian Nonyas dressed in the sarung kebaya for important events and functions. In 1909 the Qing government issued the Nationality Law which declared all overseas Chinese to be Chinese nationals, this raised Huaqiao consciousness as it gave a legal basis for China-orientation. This consciousness prevented assimilation into the Peranakan community as the new migrants were motivated to maintain and propagate their pure Chinese culture. Indeed, the Totok community actively sought to re-sinicize the peranakan community, as seen in the efforts of institutions such as the Totok press and Totok-dominated Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK) schools to revive Peranakan interest in Chinese culture and to establish a China-oriented world-view.

Just as the Peranakan community failed to assimilate the Huagong migrants, contributing to the rise of the Totok community, the Totok community failed in its goal of re-sinicizing the Peranakan community. One fundamental reason was that the peranakans perceived China to be an alien land. This was due to the vast difference between peranakan and Chinese culture, and the fact that most peranakans perceived the Dutch East Indies to be their homeland. In the late 1910s a group of peranakan leaders migrated to China; all but one found China to be an alien place to live. Dutch efforts to prevent the re-sinification of the Peranakans also contributed to the continuance of the Indies Dutch-orientation of the Peranakan community.

 

Photo Above: Books on emborideing Nonya Kebaya & Indonesian Peranakan History. The fact that unhappiness with Dutch policy was a central motivation behind the apparent unity between the Peranakan and the Totok communities can be seen in the Dutch Nationality Law (DNL) issue. Apart from dismantling unpopular policies, the Dutch sought to maintain the Indies-orientation of the peranakan Chinese through the establishment of Dutch-Chinese schools, the first of which was established in 1908. These schools were a reaction to the THHK schools, and they were popular with the peranakan community. The Dutch-Chinese schools eventually grew to be more popular than the THHK schools with the Peranakan community, as the latter were seen to be suitable only for those living in China. By the late 1930s, it was clear that the THHK schools serviced the Totok community, while the Dutch-Chinese schools serviced the Peranakan community. [15] The China-oriented nationalist attempt to re-sinicize the Peranakan community through education had failed.

 

Photo above: Indonesian Peranakan Festivasl held yearly at Tangerang and Jakarta with Dondnag Sayang troupe. The failure of the attempt to unify the Chinese community under the China-oriented nationalist movement is most clearly demonstrated by the establishment of the all-peranakan Chung Hua Hui (CHH) in 1927, which was the first of the major all-peranakan organisations.

This marked the peranakan rejection of China-oriented nationalism and the totok-dominated pan-Chinese organisations.

But as Skinner points out, this disunity was already evident in the 1917 Semarang conference.

Suryadinata notes that among the participants of this conference can be identified a small group of Peranakan leaders such as Kan Hok Hoei (H. H. Kan) who did not seek protection from China and who sought collaboration with the Dutch in order to protect their interests. H. H. Kan would eventually help establish the CHH, which was an Indies-oriented organisation. It sought to promote the interests of the Indies-Chinese community through collaboration with the Dutch, as manifested in its participation in the Volksraad. In contrast, the China-oriented nationalist movement rejected involvement in local politics, as seen in the Semarang conference’s declaration that the Indies Chinese should not participate in the Volksraad. The CHH failed to unify the peranakan community, much less the Indies-Chinese community.

 

Above Photo: Shows one of the panels at the Peranakan Festival in Jakarta describing the Sarung Kebaya called Kebaya Encim in Indonesia used by the Nonyas and old Bibiks there. In response to what was seen as the CHH’s pro-Dutch position, a group of Indonesian-oriented Peranakans established the Partai Tionghoa Indonesia (PTI) in 1932. The PTI, seeking political assimilation of the Chinese in the indigenous Indonesian society, was anti-colonial and supported the Indonesian nationalist movement. The establishment of the PTI marked the internal division in the Indies-oriented peranakan community between the pro-Dutch and Indonesian-oriented groups. Like the CHH, the PTI was unable to unite the peranakan community, much less the Indies-Chinese community. Lacking the support of Peranakan big business that the CHH enjoyed, the PTI was politically weaker than the CHH.

In the early 20th century the Indies-Chinese community hence was divided into three groups. The first was the China-oriented group, mainly consisting of the totok community. The second was the Indies-oriented Peranakan pro-Dutch CHH. The third was the Indonesian-oriented Peranakan PTI. This division was manifested in the geographical dispersal of these groups’ centres of power. The China-oriented group was based in Batavia, which was the gateway into the Dutch East Indies for new Chinese migrants. The CHH was based in Semarang, which possessed an old and established Peranakan community and which was also a centre for Peranakan big business. The PTI was based in Surabaya, which was a centre for contact between Indonesian nationalists and Peranakans.

 

Above Photo: Peranakan Cultural Exhibitions & Festivals being held in different parts of Indonesia. The inability of each of these three groups to establish hegemony over the others led to the disunity of the Indies-Chinese community. The China-oriented nationalists failed to reconstruct the Indies-orientation of the Peranakans, largely due to Dutch efforts to prevent the peranakans from becoming China-orientated. The Indies-orientated pro-Dutch CHH was rejected by the anti-colonial Peranakan group. The Indonesian-oriented PTI was politically weak and could not gain political strength beyond East Java. The Chinese community in the Dutch East Indies hence was characterised by disunity prior to the Second World War. After Independence from Holland, anti Chinese Demonstrations, massacres, killings and riots obliterated Peranakan Chinese Associations, Culture and Position. Anti Chinese policies and outright discrimination further worsened Peranakan Chinese influence as many Peranakans immigrated to Holland, Australia and other western countries. This immigration is continuing at quite a considerable scale till this very day.

The situation today however is vastly different & has greatly improved as more Indonesian Nonyas are using the kebaya their grandmothers used to use and having yearly Peranakan Festivals on a simlar scale to that of their Malaysian, Thai and Singapore Peranakans cousins. There has been a revival of Peranakan culture in the last 10 decades in Indonesia ever since Chinese New Year has been declared part of a National Holiday. There has been the numerous openings of Indonesian Peranakan restaurants, cultural & antique shops, musuems, festivals, exhibitions and special events held to showcase and promote Peranakan culture all over the Indonesian islands

 

MAP

 

 

 

Padang Chinese community formed the organization, with the goal of serving the needs of members in the social and cultural fields.

 

Old West Sumatra Map

Look more

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan Cina or Capitan China was originally a Portuguese title for the representative of a Chinese enclave.[1][2] The 15th century rulers of Southeast Asia, such as Melaka (modern day Malacca) and Banten (or Bantam), chose to deal with a single individual from each ethnic group under their rule.[3][4] This administrative method of indirect rule was later adopted by the Portuguese when they took over Melaka in the 16th century, as well as the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies, and the English in British Malaya.[3]

 

Kapitan can Surabaya 1880

Throughout Southeast Asia, Batavia (now Jakarta) arguably boasts the longest continuous history of the institution of Kapitan Cina: see the official website of the Koang Koan Archives at Leiden University. In 1619, the Dutch appointed Souw Beng Kong, formerly Kapitan Cina of Bantam, as the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia. Through Kapitein Beng Kong, then, the Batavian Captaincy succeeded the much-earlier institution of Kapitan Cina of Bantam. Batavia also produced probably Asia’s only female Kapitan Cina, the so-called Nyai Bali, who was appointed officially by the VOC to her post in 1649: see Yuan Bingling, “The Last Resort” in Blussé, Leonard & Chen, Menghong, “The Archives of the Kongkoan of Batavia” (Den Haag, 2003), pp. 30-31). The Batavian Captaincy ended in 1945 with the death of Khouw Kim An, the last Majoor der Chinezen of Batavia, possibly also the last such intermediary rulers in Southeast Asia. The issue of a Luitenant, Kapitein or Majoor der Chinesen are entitled, by Peranakan custom, to the hereditary dignity of Sia.

With the end of the colonial period, the title became purely an honorary one.[3]

Masa-masa awal

 

 

Seorang pria Tionghoa berkuncir (toucang) di jalanan Batavia pertengahan tahun 1910-an.

Orang dari Tiongkok daratan telah ribuan tahun mengunjungi dan mendiami kepulauan Nusantara.

Beberapa catatan tertua ditulis oleh para agamawan, seperti Fa Hien pada abad ke-4 dan I Ching pada abad ke-7. Fa Hien melaporkan suatu kerajaan di Jawa (“To lo mo”) dan I Ching ingin datang ke India untuk mempelajari agama Buddha dan singgah dulu di Nusantara untuk belajar bahasa Sansekerta dahulu. Di Jawa ia berguru pada seseorang bernama Jñânabhadra.

Dengan berkembangnya kerajaan-kerajaan di Nusantara, para imigran Tiongkok pun mulai berdatangan, terutama untuk kepentingan perdagangan. Pada prasasti-prasasti dari Jawa orang Cina disebut-sebut sebagai warga asing yang menetap di samping nama-nama sukubangsa dari Nusantara, daratan Asia Tenggara dan anakbenua India. Dalam suatu prasasti perunggu bertahun 860 dari Jawa Timur disebut suatu istilah, Juru Cina, yang berkait dengan jabatan pengurus orang-orang Tionghoa yang tinggal di sana. Beberapa motif relief di Candi Sewu diduga juga mendapat pengaruh dari motif-motif kain sutera Tiongkok.[8]

Catatan Ma Huan, ketika turut serta dalam ekspedisi Cheng Ho, menyebut secara jelas bahwa pedagang Cina muslim menghuni ibukota dan kota-kota bandar Majapahit (abad ke-15) dan membentuk satu dari tiga komponen penduduk kerajaan itu.[9] Ekspedisi Cheng Ho juga meninggalkan jejak di Semarang, ketika orang keduanya, Wang Jinghong, sakit dan memaksa rombongan melepas sauh di Simongan (sekarang bagian dari Kota Semarang). Wang kemudian menetap karena tidak mampu mengikuti ekspedisi selanjutnya. Ia dan pengikutnya menjadi salah satu cikal-bakal warga Tionghoa Semarang. Wang mengabadikan Cheng Ho menjadi sebuah patung (disebut “Mbah Ledakar Juragan Dampo Awang Sam Po Kong”), serta membangun kelenteng Sam Po Kong atau Gedung Batu.[10] Di komplek ini Wang juga dikuburkan dan dijuluki “Mbah Jurumudi Dampo Awang”.[11]

Sejumlah sejarawan juga menunjukkan bahwa Raden Patah, pendiri Kesultanan Demak, memiliki darah Tiongkok selain keturunan Majapahit. Beberapa wali penyebar agama Islam di Jawa juga memiliki darah Tiongkok, meskipun mereka memeluk Islam dan tidak lagi secara aktif mempraktekkan kultur Tionghoa.

Kitab Sunda Tina Layang Parahyang menyebutkan kedatangan rombongan Tionghoa ke muara Ci Sadane (sekarang Teluknaga) pada tahun 1407, di masa daerah itu masih di bawah kekuasaan Kerajaan Sunda (Pajajaran). Pemimpinnya adalah Halung dan mereka terdampar sebelum mencapai tujuan di Kalapa.

 

 

Ilustrasi pedagang Tionghoa di Banten

Era kolonial

Di masa kolonial, Belanda pernah mengangkat beberapa pemimpin komunitas dengan gelar Kapiten Cina, yang diwajibkan setia dan menjadi penghubung antara pemerintah dengan komunitas Tionghoa. Beberapa di antara mereka ternyata juga telah berjasa bagi masyarakat umum, misalnya So Beng Kong dan Phoa Beng Gan yang membangun kanal di Batavia[rujukan?]. Di Yogyakarta, Kapiten Tan Djin Sing sempat menjadi Bupati Yogyakarta.[12]

 

Pembantaian orang Tionghoa tanggal 9 Oktober 1740 di Batavia

Sebetulnya terdapat juga kelompok Tionghoa yang pernah berjuang melawan Belanda, baik sendiri maupun bersama etnis lain. Bersama etnis Jawa, kelompok Tionghoa berperang melawan VOC tahun 1740-1743.[rujukan?] Di Kalimantan Barat, komunitas Tionghoa yang tergabung dalam “Republik” Lanfong[rujukan?] berperang dengan pasukan Belanda pada abad XIX.

Dalam perjalanan sejarah pra kemerdekaan, beberapa kali etnis Tionghoa menjadi sasaran pembunuhan massal atau penjarahan, seperti pembantaian di Batavia 1740 dan pembantaian masa perang Jawa 1825-1830. Pembantaian di Batavia tersebut [13][14][4] melahirkan gerakan perlawanan dari etnis Tionghoa yang bergerak di beberapa kota di Jawa Tengah yang dibantu pula oleh etnis Jawa. Pada gilirannya ini mengakibatkan pecahnya kerajaan Mataram. Orang Tionghoa tidak lagi diperbolehkan bermukim di sembarang tempat. Aturan Wijkenstelsel ini menciptakan pemukiman etnis Tionghoa atau pecinan di sejumlah kota besar di Hindia Belanda.

 

 

Daerah Pecinan di Banjarmasin.

 

 

Kelenteng Tua Pek Kong di Ketapang.

Pendidikan

Kebangkitan nasionalisme di Hindia Belanda tidak terlepas dari perkembangan yang terjadi pada komunitas Tionghoa. Tanggal 17 Maret 1900 terbentuk di Batavia Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK) yang mendirikan sekolah-sekolah, seperti di kota Garut dirintis dan didirikan pada tahun 1907 oleh seorang pengusaha hasil bumi saat itu bernama Lauw O Teng beserta kedua anak lelakinya bernama Lauw Tek Hay dan Lauw Tek Siang,dengan maksud agar orang Tionghoa bisa pintar, (kemudian jumlahnya mencapai 54 buah sekolah dan di tahun 1908 dan mencapai 450 sekolah tahun 1934). Inisiatif ini diikuti oleh etnis lain, seperti keturunan Arab yang mendirikan Djamiat-ul Chair meniru model THHK. Pada gilirannya hal ini menyadarkan priyayi Jawa tentang pentingnya pendidikan bagi generasi muda sehingga dibentuklah Budi Utomo.

Perekonomian

Target pemerintah kolonial untuk mencegah interaksi pribumi dengan etnis Tionghoa melalui aturan passenstelsel dan Wijkenstelsel itu ternyata menciptakan konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi orang Tionghoa di perkotaan. Ketika perekonomian dunia beralih ke sektor industri, orang-orang Tionghoa paling siap berusaha dengan spesialisasi usaha makanan-minuman, jamu, peralatan rumah tangga, bahan bangunan, pemintalan, batik, kretek dan transportasi. Tahun 1909 di Buitenzorg (Bogor) Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah didirikan oleh RA Tirtoadisuryo mengikuti model Siang Hwee (kamar dagang orang Tionghoa) yang dibentuk tahun 1906 di Batavia. Bahkan pembentukan Sarekat Islam (SI) di Surakarta tidak terlepas dari pengaruh asosiasi yang lebih dulu dibuat oleh warga Tionghoa. Pendiri SI, Haji Samanhudi, pada mulanya adalah anggota Kong Sing, organisasi paguyuban tolong-menolong orang Tionghoa di Surakarta. Samanhudi juga kemudian membentuk Rekso Rumekso yaitu Kong Sing-nya orang Jawa.

Pergerakan

Pemerintah kolonial Belanda makin kuatir karena Sun Yat Sen memproklamasikan Republik Cina, Januari 1912. Organisasi Tionghoa yang pada mulanya berkecimpung dalam bidang sosial-budaya mulai mengarah kepada politik. Tujuannya menghapuskan perlakukan diskriminatif terhadap orang-orang Tionghoa di Hindia Belanda dalam bidang pendidikan, hukum/peradilan, status sipil, beban pajak, hambatan bergerak dan bertempat tinggal.

Dalam rangka pelaksanaan Politik Etis, pemerintah kolonial berusaha memajukan pendidikan, namun warga Tionghoa tidak diikutkan dalam program tersebut. Padahal orang Tionghoa membayar pajak ganda (pajak penghasilan dan pajak kekayaan). Pajak penghasilan diwajibkan kepada warga pribumi yang bukan petani. Pajak kekayaan (rumah, kuda, kereta, kendaraan bermotor dan peralatan rumah tangga) dikenakan hanya bagi Orang Eropa dan Timur Asing (termasuk orang etnis Tionghoa). Hambatan untuk bergerak dikenakan bagi warga Tionghoa dengan adanya passenstelsel.

Pada waktu terjadinya Sumpah Pemuda, ada beberapa nama dari kelompok Tionghoa sempat hadir, antara lain Kwee Tiam Hong dan tiga pemuda Tionghoa lainnya. Sin Po sebagai koran Melayu Tionghoa juga sangat banyak memberikan sumbangan dalam menyebarkan informasi yang bersifat nasionalis. Pada 1920-an itu, harian Sin Po memelopori penggunaan kata Indonesia bumiputera sebagai pengganti kata Belanda inlander di semua penerbitannya. Langkah ini kemudian diikuti oleh banyak harian lain. Sebagai balas budi, semua pers lokal kemudian mengganti kata “Tjina” dengan kata Tionghoa. Pada 1931 Liem Koen Hian mendirikan PTI, Partai Tionghoa Indonesia (dan bukan Partai Tjina Indonesia).

 

   
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Driwancybermuseum Galery(continiu)

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Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

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The Chronology y Chinese Overseas In DEI History Collections

1840

In 1840

 

 

Lie Ma Say with his wife were ordered by the Qing Dinasty Fujian government to visit Priaman City west Sumatra as the Trade Mission officer.Li Ma say started from Amoy(no Xiamen) by ship to Indonesia.

Hadirnya Pasar

Perkembangan kota me­nga­­kibatkan beberapa pe­dagang Tionghoa yang ada di Padang mendirikan sebuah Pasar di Kampung Tionghoa dekat Kelenteng di atas tanah milik Kapten Tionghoa, Lie Maa Saay dan dikelola Poa Leng. “Sekarang pasar itu terkenal dengan nama Pasar Tanah Kongsi,” kata Erniwati.

Pasar Tanah Kongsi ini berdekatan dengan Pasar Mudik yang berdekatan de­ngan pasar yang dibangun orang Minangkabau.

1855

Chinese Captau   Li say was the first Tionghoa padang captain ,

Info from Lie swan hauw

Lie Saaij or Lie Ma Saaij must be spelled in Dutch colonial spelling, as this was his name as entered in official legal documents.
\Furthermore he was not the first chinese captain ( 1855)


Before Lie Say there were among others Lie Piet as captain of the chinese with Lie Kee as lieutenant. ( ±1855 )

1856

 

Chinese man

1856

 

 

 

 

Chinese tionghoa batavia(two pictures)

 

Kapitan (lieutenant Rank) Batavia in 1856

 

 

 

Chines ejava tyrader in 1856

 

Chinese women and kid of Java in 1856

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese java family in 1856

 

 

 

 

Chinese Java in 1856(four pictures)

1857

 

Vrouw van de kapitein der Chinezen te Batavia en een meisje

In 1858,

the Tionghoa People(Chinese overseas) in Priaman west Sumatra : 216,consist 101 man,34 women and 81 children.

1858

in Padang City only 1564 people

consist 677 man,264 women and 605 children

(source verslag Sumatra’s Westkust,1858 no 122/6,page 101)
1859

 

CHEONG FATT TZE 張弼士

 

Cheong Fatt Tze as he is known today was born in 1840 in Dapu, Guangdong. He was a Hakka, with birth name Chang Chin Hsun, and when he lived in Batavia and Penang, he was then known by his Hokkien name, Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name, Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history.

 

Cheong Fatt Tze was born to a very poor family in China, at the age of 17 years, he left his native and lived in several places under the Dutch East Indies empire.

He did some odd jobs before landed at Batavia

and worked at a provision shop. As time passed, he married his employer’s daughter, Choo Neo (b. 1867). It was through the marriage, he was given financial support by his father-in-law to commence business on his own account and used Thio Tiauw Siat as his signature.

His name Thio Tiauw Siat was spelled in a Dutch way, and was used in the Dutch and British colonies throughout his entire business life. However, he was commonly known in China as Chang Chin Hsun.

 

In 1859,

he secured a government contract in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Batavia.

Through these contracts, he was then a well-known figure in the Dutch East Indies, and from Batavia he moved to Aceh when he was 35 years old, where he secured another contract in in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Aceh.

Because of his articulate social life with the Dutch elites, he successful obtained the Opium, Liquor and Pawnbroker Farm in Aceh and by 1877, his farming interest had extended to half of the northern region of Sumatra, with vast interest in Government Farms in Edi, Temiang, Deli and Bengkalis, and in 1893 expanded to Rhio and Indragiri.

1859

 

Cheong Fatt Tze(Thio Tiauw Siat.)

Cheong Fatt Tze as he is known today was born in 1840 in Dapu, Guangdong. He was a Hakka, with birth name Chang Chin Hsun, and when he lived in Batavia and Penang, he was then known by his Hokkien name,

 

Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name, Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history.

Cheong Fatt Tze was born to a very poor family in China, at the age of 17 years, he left his native and lived in several places under the Dutch East Indies empire.

He did some odd jobs before landed at Batavia

and worked at a provision shop. As time passed, he married his employer’s daughter, Choo Neo (b. 1867). It was through the marriage, he was given financial support by his father-in-law to commence business on his own account and used Thio Tiauw Siat as his signature.

His name Thio Tiauw Siat was spelled in a Dutch way, and was used in the Dutch and British colonies throughout his entire business life. However, he was commonly known in China as Chang Chin Hsun.

 

In 1859,

he secured a government contract in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Batavia.

Through these contracts, he was then a well-known figure in the Dutch East Indies, and from Batavia he moved to Aceh when he was 35 years old, where he secured another contract in in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Aceh.

Because of his articulate social life with the Dutch elites, he successful obtained the Opium, Liquor and Pawnbroker Farm in Aceh and by 1877, his farming interest had extended to half of the northern region of Sumatra, with vast interest in Government Farms in Edi, Temiang, Deli and Bengkalis, and in 1893 expanded to Rhio and Indragiri.

1867

 

 

 

The Riau linnga Sultan soelaiman take picture in Batavia 1867(two Pictures)

 

1870

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chinse bride Batavia(three pictures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Batavia key repaireman in 1870

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Batavia linen cloth trader in 1870(two pictures)

 

 

 

Pernnakan tionghoa women  Batavia in 1870

 

 

in 1875,

 

Cheong Fat Tze commenced business in Penang in partnership with

Lee Ah Ghee (Captain of Batavia)

and Wong Boon Sin, under the name Chop Thio Joo Hoe at 15 Pitt Street.

And ten years later he managed to obtain the Penang Pawnbroker Farm and became the Chinese Consul-General in Singapore, where another three years later he secured the Opium and Liquor Farm of Penang and Singapore.

The onerous duties of this responsible Chinese diplomat position he fulfilled for five years and in return for his services was created a Mandarin of the Highest Order (First Rank Officer).

 

 

1876

 

 

Chineseman kwee khe foan

 

Two chineseman

Chinese Captain Lie Say

Lie Ma Say

 

 

 

Seorang Mayor Tionghoa Lie Say

yang diangkat oleh Belanda sampai mendatangkan pekerja-pekerja dari Cina untuk kembali membangun rumah suci itu. “Orang Islam kemana pergi juga mencari masjid, kan?” ujar Erniwati.

 

Teori lain mengatakan Tionghoa Padang berasal dari Pariaman. Ernawati, yang menulis buku Asap Hio di Ranah Minang, Komunitas Tionghoa di Sumatera Barat, memperkirakan Orang Cina sudah berada di Pariaman pada abad 13. Saat Aceh masuk ke Pariaman.

 

Tidak mengherankan sebenarnya. Pariaman adalah surga bagi kaum pedagang di zaman itu. Pariaman menjadi pusat dagang di pesisir. Tak heran, pada 1630, Christine Dobbin, penulis buku Gejolak ekonomi dan Kebangkitan Islam dan Gerakan Paderi, Minangkabau 1784-1847, memperkirakan perkampungan Cina sudah ada di Pariaman.

Sayang, sebuah peristiwa mengenaskan menjadi pemicu hengkangnya orang Cina dari Pariaman. Pada masa pendudukan Jepang, seorang Cina membawa dua anak gadisnya ke kantor Jepang.

Penglihatan itu ditanggap lain oleh para pemuda yang kebetulan melihatnya. Bisik-bisik pengkhianat merebak segera. Dua anak gadis itu langsung di bawa ke pantai dan dibelek dengan kangso (alat yang terbuat dari kaleng alumunium).

 

Menurut Erniwati, serangan itu dilakukan tanpa perencanaan. Makanya, alat yang disiapkan bukan senjata tajam biasanya untuk membunuh. “Lagi pula, itu hukuman bagi pengkhianat. Tidak orang Cina saja yang merasakan hukuman itu, pemuka masyarakat yang juga ikut menjadi mata-mata Jepang, mendapat hukuman yang sama.,” ujar sarjana S-2 jurusan Sejarah UNP ini.

Ketakutan merayapi masyarakat Cina. Berangsur-angsur mereka mulai meninggalkan Pariaman.

Sampai 1965 beberapa orang Cina masih berdiam di sana. Tapi, memasuki 1967 agak sulit menemukan kaum bermata sipit di Pariaman. “Karena kejadian PKI atau PRRI,” terang Erniawati. Perlahan orang Cina berangur pindah ke Padang. Tepatnya, di kawasan pondok saat ini.

Namun, alasan ekonomi bisa juga dijadikan dasar. Pariaman tidak lagi dianggap ladang yang subur bagi perdagangan mendekati abad ke 19. Sehingga tidak saja pedagang Cina yang meninggalkan, tapi juga pedagang dari daerah lain.

READ MORE INFORMATION

Dr Iwan note

Saya memperoleh informasi dari putranya Lie Tjoe yang grand-grand  son(cicit) dari Lie Ma Say,

 

 

Lie Ma Say dating dari Tiongkok masa dinasti Qing pada akhir abad ke-19 sekitar tahun 1830-1840 besama istri sebagai Utusan dagang Kerajaan Qing di Pariaman,kemudian ia pindah ke Padang Panjang dan Batusangkar disini ia menikah lagi dan memiliki  putra yaitu Lie Tong  Soan  yang memiliki dua putra Li Sam dan Lie Lin. Lie sam memiliki putra Lie Djoe Tong  yang  memiliki beberapa putra putri yaitu Lie Tjoe Yang,isterinya Tjan Tjeng hay(kakak ibu mertua saya),dan teman saya pastor Lie Tjoe san(Sandarma Akhbar SH).

Menurut kakak saya Dr Edhie Johan utama, suami adik kakek saya Ie Po Tjoa Bun Tak menikah dengan putranya mayor pariaman (mungkin lie lin) bernama Lie Seng Hok(mereka tidak memiliki anak,meangkat anak saudara Ipo Tjoa  Bun Tak Kang Sung Him yang isterinya adik Tjoa Gin toen yang paling tua  ,

 

 

saudaranya Kang kim Bwee(no1) .kim lian.tjabo kang dan kang sim poe,  Kang Kim Mua(no 3) yaitu ibunya drg Lie Tjoe Heng-isterinya Ben Pangabean bernama Kang kim hwa,serta isteri adik ayah saya Djintjek Gho Ie keng yang bernama Lie Kim giok-ibunya Go siei Hong,G.S.lan ,Gho soei ing.bersaudara Sembilan orang.(Dr iwan note)

In 1879,

 

Cheong Fat Tze purchased a steamer, the Raja Kongsi Aceh, which plied between Penang and Aceh.

 

 

 

1870

 

Tionghoa klenteneng temple at Padang in 1870

 

Tionghoa merried women in 1870

 

 

in 1875,

 

Cheong Fat Tze  commenced business in Penang in partnership with Lee Ah Ghee (Captain of Batavia) and Wong Boon Sin, under the name Chop Thio Joo Hoe at 15 Pitt Street.

 

 

 

DEI Indonesian Tionghoa women in 1875(three pictures)

 

In 1879,

 

Cheong Fat Tze purchased a steamer, the Raja Kongsi Aceh, which plied between Penang and Aceh.

1880

According to the magazine in 1880, the city of Pariaman were the ship port, like  the Port of Bengkulu and Sibolga sebaigaiman

(Said Zakaria,1930,Handwritten Document Book)

 

Chinese Batavia kid during tjap Go Meh in 1880

 

 

 

Klenteng padang In 1880

 

 

Chinese prostitute at Laboehan deli in 1880

 

Kapitan cina Laboehan deli 1880

 

1880

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kelenteng(wihara) Padang CHINESE TEMPLE  1880

 

 

Klenteng Padang 1880. Beside this Klenteng(Tionghoa temple)

This building maybe beside the Tionghoa Kelenteng which before the Major Tionghoa Lie say house(Dr Iwan)

And in the front the small street

 

pasar borong

 

 

Mak Pak soen,OPIUM TRADER  pADANG 1880

 

 

Tionghoa gambling in 19th century

 

1885

 

Cheong Fat Tze managed to obtain the Penang Pawnbroker Farm and became the Chinese Consul-General in Singapore,

In 1886,

 

Cheong Fat Tze established the Ban Joo Hin in Penang, and took great interest in steamship, tin mining, coconut, sago, fruit and pepper plantations, all distributed over Province Wellesley, Perak and Selangor.

During his stay in Singapore

when he was the Chinese Consul, his business was left to his attorneys and agents who were Cheah Chen Eok and Lee Ah Kam, with headquarters at Penang.

It was not known why Cheong Fatt Tze drastically shifted his interest from the Dutch colonies to the British ones.

He also owned a settlement called Karatan near Batavia, the place with a population of 8,000 with the length about 10 miles and width about 8 miles. This place was planted with paddy and fish was amongst the products. In partnership with a Dutch company, he owned various farms in Tjebaraosa, Tjelengsa, Klapa Moengal, Kongbong and Boyoung.

The total area of all these districts was 60 miles in length and 305 miles in width and had over 100,000 populations. Where the principal produce was rice, birds’ nests and coffee.

 

 

 

In 1886,

 

Cheong Fat Tze established the Ban Joo Hin in Penang, and took great interest in steamship, tin mining, coconut, sago, fruit and pepper plantations, all distributed over Province Wellesley, Perak and Selangor.

During his stay in Singapore

when he was the Chinese Consul, his business was left to his attorneys and agents who were Cheah Chen Eok and Lee Ah Kam, with headquarters at Penang.

It was not known why Cheong Fatt Tze drastically shifted his interest from the Dutch colonies to the British ones.

He also owned a settlement called Karatan near Batavia, the place with a population of 8,000 with the length about 10 miles and width about 8 miles.

This place was planted with paddy and fish was amongst the products.

In partnership with a Dutch company, he owned various farms in Tjebaraosa, Tjelengsa, Klapa Moengal, Kongbong and Boyoung.

The total area of all these districts was 60 miles in length and 305 miles in width and had over 100,000 populations. Where the principal produce was rice, birds’ nests and coffee.

 

 

 

1888

 

Cheong Fat Tze secured the Opium and Liquor Farm of Penang and Singapore.

The onerous duties of this responsible Chinese diplomat position he fulfilled for five years and in return for his services was created a Mandarin of the Highest Order (First Rank Officer).

1888

 

Emma Haven in 1888 (now teluk Bayur)

 

1888

 

 

Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, op 40-jarige leeftijd and wife oei tin nio

1890

 

Chineseman 1890

 

1890

 

Mr Cheong Fat Tze  From penang The Sek Tong Cheah Si She Tek tong datang ke Padang mendirikan Ho Tek Tong tahun 1890.

Banyak penduduk Tionghoa Padang berasal dari Penang seperti nenek isteri  Dr Iwan  Khoe Kim Lian(saudara ayah Ibu Lena Khoe) lahir di Penang dan keluarga ibu Dr Iwan  ada yang masih berada di Penang,dulunya anaknya jadi Kepala Polisi Kota Penang dan salah seorang anaknya mendapat bea siswa ke Australia.(Dr Iwan)

Lim A King yang mempelopori perhimpunan baru ini dengan nama Heng Beng Tong pada tahun 1890. Ia lalu menjadi toako pertama HBT.

Pada tahun 1895 organisasi ini disahkan secara hukum dengan AD/ART yang resmi dengan masa bakti pengurus tahun 1895-1901.

Info dari Tnbeng penasehat HBT 2006 kepad Lisasuroso

 

 

 

Cheong Fat Tze

The Founer Of HTT Padang City

Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name,

Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history

 

1890

Until 1890,because quite a lot of difficulties in taking care of the needs of ethnic Chinese, formed a new association or joint venture. Organization formed

Heng  Beng  Tong (HBT).

Old HBT picture not yet found

 

HBT now

The two organizations have different procedures and features of the relations among its members.

Each member of the HBT, for example, regardless of religion, are required to perform prayers Kwan Tee Koen and ancestral spirits by lifting incense.

 

While HTT members must meet a summons and is responsible for the implementation of the cemetery.

Although in some areas of Indonesia such as Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and others, there is a foundation or organization of ethnic Chinese, but Chinese organizations that exist in West Sumatra to say unique, because there are only born and West Sumatra alone and not in other areas.

In these organizations also embraced the membership of all the tribes and clans of existing ethnic Chinese.

 

Another plus is that they are able to maintain the original Chinese culture from generation to generation like a funeral that is still practiced in ancient China. Cemetery organization is even listed as the organization’s first funeral is present in the archipelago.

The formation of this cemetery organization need not be separated from Chinese ethnic Padang worked together when they wanted to bury the corpses.

They must carry the coffins of a hollowed piece of wood logs up the mountain that overlooks the sea. The process of carrying crates weighing up to hundreds of pounds is to be done with the stretcher. Without cooperation, the family would be impossible to do it alone

What is interesting is that although they managed to maintain their cultural identity, very few of the residents of Padang Chinese who can speak Mandarin.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1893

 

 

Installatie van Tjong Yong Hian als kapitein en Tjong A Fie als luitenant der Chinezen te Medan

Who were them with Kapitan Tjong Yong HIan ?

 

 

 

 

Kaptan cina Medan guard in 1893

 

 

 

 

 

In May 1893,

 

Cheong Fat Tse became the Honorary Vice-Consul of China in Penang.

Followed by his business success in the Dutch colonies,

1890

 

 

Mr lCheong Fat Tze From penang The Sek Tong Cheah Si She Tek tong datang ke Padang mendirikan Ho Tek Tong tahun 1890.

Banyak penduduk Tionghoa Padang berasal dari Penang seperti nenek isteri saya Khoe Kim Lian(saudara ayah Ibu Lena Khoe) lahir di Penang dan keluarga ibu saya ada yang masih berada di Penang anak saudar kakek saya Chua Gim Goe ,named Chuan Ban Boe ,dulunya anaknya jadi Kepala Polisi Kota Penang sekitar tahun 1970 name Robert Ma dan salah seorang anaknya mendapat bea siswa ke Australia.

 

 

 

1892

 

Het sorteren van tabaksbladeren door Chinezen op tabaksonderneming Tandem op Noord-Sumatra

reisfoto
Bootreis van Govert J. van Tets in 1892-1893

 

 

Kpitan cina di aceh with

Koloniale geschiedenis. Indië, Atjeh- oorlog aan het einde van de 19de eeuw. De onderwerping van Panglima Polim. Generaal Van Heutsz spreekt de hoofden toe. Indië

1900

 

 

Kapitein der Chinezen Tjong Yong Hian met zijn vrouw en acht kinderen te Medan

 

Chines women 1900

 

Sekolah Tionghoa Hwee koan di Padang  1900

 

 

 

1901

 

Kapitein der Chinezen met zijn gevolg in Maleisië

 

 

 

 

1903

 

Kapitan cina Bangka lim Woe Sieng

 1905

 

 

 

De Kapitein der Chinezen Tjong A Fie met familie voor zijn woning te Medan 1905

Gerobak ditarik kuda 1917 adalah nara sumber dengan Sapu digunakan untuk membersihkan kota.
1923 Renovasi Balai Kota.
1923 Zhenlian-si (Guangze-zunwang, Yii-dadi) didirikan oleh orang-orang Chaozhou di toko-toko Durian.
1924-1945 Aturan Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah
1928 Bermotor kendaraan nara sumber yang digunakan untuk menggantikan kuda mobil untuk membersihkan kota.
1929 Kantor Perusahaan Dagang Belanda (sekarang Bank Exim) telah selesai (digunakan oleh Gunseikanbu Selama pendudukan Jepang).
1936-ting Guanyin (Guanyin) dibangun oleh Hakka perempuan di Medan (Jl. Lahat 54)
1936 Baolian-tang (Guanyin) didirikan oleh perempuan Chaozhou di Medan (Jl. Sun Yat Sen)
Akhir 1942 pemerintahan Belanda. Penduduk = 80.000.
2000 populasi Field = 1.898.013
 
. Cf: Deli Maatschappij – Wikipedia
Deli Maatschappij NV de bedrijf van een adalah Nederlands koloniale oorsprong. Het bedrijf pintu adalah pada tahun 1869 Nienhuys opgericht Yakub als een tabakscultuurmaatschappij Met voor het concessie Sultanaat Deli di Sumatera, Nederlands-Indie. Di Deli Maatschappij voor de 50% geparticipeerd werd pintu de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij. Dalam de eeuw negentiende exploiteerde Deli Maatschappij de 120 000 hektar. De activiteiten vormden Maatschappij voor een van de een impuls sterke groei van de stad Medan. Het toenmalige hoofdkantoor Deli Maatschappij van de di Medan Paleis van het tegenwoordig van de Gouverneur Sumatera.

Terjemahan: Deli Maatschappij NV adalah sebuah perusahaan asal Belanda kolonial. Perusahaan ini didirikan pada tahun 1869 oleh budaya tembakau Nienhuys Yakub sebagai perusahaan dengan konsesi untuk Kesultanan Deli di Sumatera, Hindia Belanda. Di Deli Company ada partisipasi 50% dari Masyarakat Perdagangan Belanda. Pada Abad Kesembilan Belas Deli Company dieksploitasi 120.000 hektar. Kegiatan perusahaan membentuk suatu dorongan untuk pertumbuhan yang kuat dari kota Medan. Markas mantan Deli Company di Medan saat ini istana Gubernur Sumatera. [Lihat foto di bawah ini di sebelah kiri]

English Version

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE HISTORY OF TJONG A FIE

History of The Tjong A Fie Mansion

A prominent home located in the heart of Medan City at Kesawan Square, this beautiful mansion is full of characters and cultures behind its history in Medan.

The History of Tjong A Fie

Tjong Fung Nam, born from Hakka family and more popularly known as Tjong A Fie is born on 1860 in the village of Sungkow, Moyan or Meixien.  He was raised from a simple home, with his elder brother Tjong Yong Hian.  Both have to give up schooling from a young age to help their father in his shop.  Even with limited education, Tjong A Fie quickly learned the business and trading skills and soon pursued his dreams to become independent and successful, hence leaving his village in search for a better life.

 

Tjong A fie

In 1880, after sailing for months, he finally arrived at the port of Deli (Medan).  At that time his brother Tjong Yong Hian had already been living in Sumatra for 5 years and had became a respected merchant in Sumatra.  However, the independent Tjong A Fie wanted to find his own living and went about finding his own work.  Tjong A Fie started to learn and develop business skills from working for Tjong Sui Fo. He developed his social skills interacting with people of all races, Chinese, Melayu, Arab, India, including Dutch.  He began by learning the language Bahasa Melayu which became the national language used in Medan Deli.

 

The Entertaining Hall

Tjong A Fie grew and became a well respected person in Medan Sumatra, where he stayed away from gambling, alcohol and prostitution in the developing town of Medan.  With his strong sense of leadership and fairness, he became the mediator for the Chinese. The Dutch also seek his help when their plantations have problems with labor issues.  His ability to solve these issues earned him to become the Chinese lieutenant. With his outstanding performance, he was elected to become a Captain (Kapiten).

 

The various rooms

Tjong A Fie was known as a respected businessman who has good social networks and has build good relation with the Sultan Deli, Makmoen Al Rasjid Perkasa Alamsjah and Tuanku Raja Moeda.  As they became good friends, Tjong A Fie became his trusted person and helped dealt with many business matters.

Tjong A Fie also became the first Chinese to own a tobacco plantation. He also developed and expanded to tea plantation in Bandar Baroe and large coconut/palm oil plantations.

Along with his elder brother Tjong Yong Hian, Tjong A Fie joint partner with Tio Tiaw Siat also known as Chang Pi Shih, his uncle as well as consulate of China in Singapore and set up a railway company known as The Chow-Chow & Swatow Railyway Co.Ltd. in China

 

The Bedroom

Tjong A Fie, a very active social contributor, donated much of his wealth building many facilities for the welfare of the poor regardless of race, cultural beliefs or nationality including many places of worships such as Chinese & Hindu temple, Mosques and Churches.

As a well respected person in Medan who owns many plantations, palm oil and sugar factories, banks and railway companies, he employed more than 10.000 workers. As recommended by Sultan Deli, Tjong A Fie was appointed member of gemeenteraad (city council) and cultuurraad (cultural council)

4 February 1921, Tjong A Fie passed away from apopleksia or bleeding in the brain, in his home at Jalan Kesawan, Medan.  It shook the city Medan, thousands flock to pay respect from all over including Sumatera Timur, Aceh, Padang, Penang, Malaysia, Singapore and Java. He became a legend known by many in Medan till today.

Four months before his death, Tjong A Fie wrote his will in the presence of notary Dirk Johan Facquin den Grave.

Side  car: this odd name is probably a miss-spelling of Fouquain de Grave–as for instance shown in Pucca’s Blog: Memories of a Nonya Notaris Fouquain de Grave–but either way I would not want to pronounce that eminent name with an American accent.

Written in his will, he wanted all his wealth to be managed by Yayasan Toen Moek Tong which was established in Medan and Sungkow at the time of his death. The Yayasan based in Medan has been given 5 missions. Three of them are to provide financial help to young talented people that wished to complete their education, without no cultural or racial choice. Yayasan will also help the disabled who are no longer able to work including the blind or those with fatal illness.  Thirdly, the Yayasan will also help victims of natural disaster of any race or nationality.

1873-1924 The rule of Sultan Ma’mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah, “the Builder”.
1878 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Tanjung Mulia (between Titipapan & Labuhan)
1880s Guandi-miao (Guandi, Caishen, Dabogong) was erected by Guangdong people in Medan (Jl. Irian Barat 2).
1880s Guanyin-gong (Shakyamuni, Guanyin, Dizang-wang) was erected by Xinghua people in Medan (Jl. Yos Sudarso 46).
1885 The first newspaper “Deli Courant” was published.

 

Side Note: in checking the web for “Deli courant” I came across many fastfood outlets, or deli’s, where they serve ”delicatessen” (Dutch for delicacies) but also a reference to Sutan Sharir–an important early Indonesian statesman–one of that country’s founding fathers in fact, who had roots in Padang and Medan. He had also been a study friend of my Opa Otto at Leiden University, where they both studied law. On the way back to the Indies, Sharir made the long ocean trip as the pro forma ‘babysitter’ of my uncle Ernst (aka Oom Kiddie) since Opa Otto was still on Government pay and entitled to one ‘servant’. He opted to help out his friend Sharir instead.

 

Sjahrir: politics and exile in Indonesia – Google Books Result by Rudolf Mrázek – 1994 – Biography & Autobiography – 526 pages
128 In Gemeente Medan 1909-1934 (Medan: Deli Courant, 1934),  which mentions that Deli was a bit like the East Indies wild west: if you had committed murder in Batavia, you’d still be welcome in Medan–and every Dutch loafer was a potential grand seigneur in Deli. I mentioned Sharir before in my journal entry

 

Now we can continue with the timeline:

1886 Medan became the capital of northern Sumatra.
1886 “Witte Societeit” (“a rather grand club”) was erected next to the post office. [see photo hereunder]

 

1888 Sultan of Deli (Sultan Ma’mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah) moved from Labuhan Deli [series of pitcures below]

 

 

 

to the Maimoon Palace in Medan. [following two photographs of exterior and interior:]

 

 

1890 Guandi-gong (Guandi) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pertemburan 81 – near Pulo Brayan)
1891 Shoushan-gong (Guanyin) was erected by Fujianese in Labuhan Deli
1895 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Titipapan.
1898 Hotel De Boer was constructed.
1898-1939 Publication of “De Sumatra Post” by Joseph Hallermann, a German.
1900 Tjong A Fie mansion was built.
1906 Tianhou-gong (Mazu temple) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pandu Baru 2)
1907 Sultan Mosque was built [see pictures below]

 

 

1908 City Hall (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam)
1909-1911 Construction of post office (Snuyf, architect – head of Ned.Ind.PWD)
1910 Medan was a small city. Population = 17,500.
1910 Javasche Bank (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam) [see pictures below]

 

 

 

 

1913 Tjong A Fie donated the city hall’s clock tower.
1917 Horse drawn carts with brooms were used for town cleaning.
1923 Renovation of City Hall.
1923 Zhenlian-si (Guangze-zunwang, Yuhuang-dadi) was erected by Chaozhou people in Kedai Durian.
1924-1945 The rule of Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah
1928 Motorized vehicles were used to replace the horse drawn cars for town cleaning.
1929 Office of Netherlands Trading Company (now Bank Exim) was completed (used by Gunseikanbu during the Japanese occupation).
1936 Guanyin-ting (Guanyin) was erected by Hakka women in Medan (Jl. Lahat 54)
1936 Baolian-tang (Guanyin) was erected by Chaozhou women in Medan (Jl. Sun Yat Sen)
1942 End of Dutch rule. Population = 80,000.
2000 Medan’s population = 1,898,013

 

Cf.: Deli Maatschappij – Wikipedia

De N.V. Deli Maatschappij is een Nederlands bedrijf van koloniale oorsprong. Het bedrijf is in 1869 opgericht door Jacob Nienhuys als tabakscultuurmaatschappij met een concessie voor het Sultanaat Deli in Sumatra, Nederlands-Indië. In de Deli Maatschappij werd voor 50 % geparticipeerd door de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij. In de negentiende eeuw exploiteerde de Deli Maatschappij 120.000 hectare. De activiteiten van de maatschappij vormden een impuls voor een sterke groei van de stad Medan. Het toenmalige hoofdkantoor van de Deli Maatschappij in Medan is tegenwoordig het paleis van de Gouverneur van Sumatra.

Translation: The NV Deli Maatschappij is a Dutch company of colonial origin. The company was founded in 1869 by Jacob Nienhuys as a tabacco culture company with a concession for the Sultanate Deli in Sumatra, Netherlands East Indies. In the Deli Company there was a 50% participation of the Netherlands Trading Society. In the nineteenth century the Deli Company exploited 120,000 hectares. The activities of the company formed an impulse for the strong growth of the city of Medan. The onetime headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan is today the palace of the Governor of Sumatra. [See photo below on the left]

 

1908

 

 

Zittend 1e rij v.l.n.r.: dhr. Haase, controleur Coert, dhr. v.d. Hout, dhr. de Vogel, resident de Vogel, assistent-resident Priester, Chef van McNeill & Co. D.M. Campbell, dhr. Cremer. 2e rij v.l.n.r.: assistent-resident Mc.Gillavry, lid van het kraton van Jogjakarta, een jurylid, kapitein der Chinezen, regent, officier van justitie Bouwma

1910

 

Tjong Jong Hian, kapitein der Chinezen te Medan

1911

 

Taocang etnis tionghoa sampai tahun 1911

 

In 1912,

 the Board of Trustees chaired by Cheah Choo Yew successfully acquired the Cheah Sek Tong Family Cemetery and thenceforth the Sek Tong Cheah clansmen have their own land to rest after their passing away.

1913

 

 

 

Tionghoa mortem Upacara traditional Pengoeboeran

 

 

Pemakaman Orang tionghoa di Padang tempo doeloe(mungkin ini Ang Eng Hoat? Keluarha Ang Tjeng Liang harap komentar

 

Dr Iwan ever look the Tionghoa Burial ceremony during his grandpa pass away in 1957.

 

The coffin were get the very big hard wood with the many flower and the coffin bring by hand from his house at Belantung now A Yani street, with parade to the mountain hill about 5 km , there were two type of music one Gambang  and other marching band.

 When the coffin shut by bigger nail the older son Dr Iwan father must hit by martel,the sound very dramatic , all the family get the mourning gown from merkan linen   and when praying all the son must under the praying table,

During praying the HTT kongsi gave medal to the Grandpa with read the letter called Tjay Boen, and many friend gave the mourning  plaque called Liang tek Tjay made by black or white linen

Dr Iwan younger uncle Gho Ie Tong(ntjek Baba) bring the dust of praying hio walking very long,

every bridge His Father must asking his father in Law  Thoa Gin Toen as Tjengke Meong to back home with kneel in the ground road.

 

Batavia Chinese camp in 1913

1918

 

 

Uitreiking van een onderscheiding aan de kapitein der Chinezen, Tan Djoe An, bij zijn aftreden door de resident te Modjokerto

  • E.Q. Lie, I live in Mojokerto and I’m interesting in research of Chineese in Mojokerto. Could you tell me about the Capitain in Mojokerto?

Tan Djoe An: geboren 1857, handelaar in o.a. djatihout en jeruk, eigenaar van de grootste toko van Modjokerto, Luitenant der Chinezen van Modjokerto vanaf 1897,

Kapitein vanaf 1912. Trad in 1917 terug wegens afnemende gezondheid, kreeg wegens verdiensten de Kleine Gouden Ster (zie foto). Plaats van uitreiking was Tan Djoe An’s huis aan de Jl. Kediri, Mojokerto (tegenwoordig Jl. Majapahit 139, de voorgevel bestaat nog steeds, zij het weggestopt achter een toko en de deuren zijn dichtgemetseld).

Tan Djoe An is de Chinees met de onderscheiding. Naast hem Resident Van Aalst van Soerabaja, daar weer naast Assistent-Resident Kern van Modjokerto.

 Op de begane grond Ong Tiang Sing, neef en opvolger van Tan Djoe An. Rechts de Chinese elite van Modjokerto. Het groepje op de onderste trede zijn familieleden van de Kapitein, waaronder minstens 2 zonen.

De corpulente man is vermoedelijk Tan Oen Liang, de laatste luitenant der Chinezen van Modjokerto.

Tan Djoe An overleed omstreeks 1919, 1920

1930

 

 

 

Huwelijk van de dochter van de Kapitein der Chinezen Jap Soen Tjai te Medan 1930

 

 

 

Kapitan Cina medan Jap’s daughter

 

Kapitan cina medan Jap relatives

 

 

 

1933

 

 

 

 

Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat;

De gemeenteraadsleden van Bindjai met enkele dames

 

 

 

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

 

J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappi

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Batavia street house( Batavia China Towan)

1941

Kapitein der Chinesen  Redisdentie west Sumatra 1941

Kapten etnis Tionghoa Padang :

 Liem Tjhoen Goan (sejak  1 April 1937)                

 Letnan etnis Tionghoa Pariaman:

 Ghan Ho Ie (sejak  19 sept.1906)              

Letnan etnis  Tionghoa Bukittinggi(Fort de Kock) dan Padang Panjang   :

Tjoa sin Soe (sejak 4 Maret 1929)    Letnan etnisTionghoa Payakumbuh :

Tjoa Seng Lian (sejak 18 maret 1939),                                                                                                                   putranya Tjoa Tjoan Soei menikah dengan adik mertua Dr iwan Oei Tiong Hien, Oei Soei                                                                                                                                                                                                  Heng dan putranya Ien.

( Sumber regeering alamanac 1941)

 

 

Orang Tionghoa Pejabat Hindia Belanda tahun 1941(sumber Reegering Almanac 1941)

Batavia

Afdelling Financiele ,Schatkistambtenaar de klasse K.T.Liem

 Dienst Der Oost-Aziatische Zaken

Hooftranslateur voor de Japansche S.Cho(Tsang Tsui Shih) sejak 1 januari 1939

Regenstschap Kediri

Hoofdcommies : Tan tek beng ,10 mei 1940

Major,Kapitein , Letnan der Chinesen

Regenstschap Batavia

Chineesche Raad

Voorsitter Khouw Kim An (Majoor de Chinesen 3 februari 1937)

Sekretaris Tan Boen Sing,11 April 1922,

 Leden

Lie Tjian Tjoen 17 Agustus 1029(kapitein de chinesen)                                                                                         Lie Boen Sin,27 sept 1929(lieutenant)

Niet ambtelijke Leden

Ong Kek Tjiaoe,21 april 1931                                                                                                                           Dr Tjiong Boen Kie, 9 maret 1940

 

Gouvernment Sumatra

Residentie Atjeh

Afdeelling Noordkust van Atjeh (Sigli)

Onderafdeelling Sigli

Luitenant der Chineezen Tjong Tjhi Tjhaij, 31 des. 1926

Onderafdeelling Lho’Seumawe

Luitenant der Chineezen Tan Joe Sin, 19 oct.1922

Onderafdeelling Bireuen

Luitenant der Chineezen Wong Tjiauw ,26 sept 1913

Afdeelling Oostdkust van Atjeh met Alaslanden Gajoloeas en Serbodjadi (Langsa)

Onderafdeelling Idi

Luitenant der Chineezen Chioe Sim Aann, 20 Jan 1918

Onderafdeelling Langsa

Luitenant der Chineezen Tjoeng Ted Joeng, 21 Maret 1918

Onderafdeelling Tamiang(Koealasimpang)

Luitenant der Chineezen Moe Tin Siong

 

 

Residentie Oostkust van Sumatra

Afdeelling Deli en Serdang (Medan)

Onderafdeelling Beneden Deli(Medan)

Major  der Chineezen Khoe Tjin Tek

Luitenant der Chineezen medan Oei han Tiong                                                                                                      Luitenant der Chineezen Laboeandeli : Hsu Hua Chang                                                                                             Luitenant der Chineezen Belawan : Oey Chin Kiat.

Dear Dr. Iwan,

I read your blog on history of Padang , Sumatra and enjoyed the nostalgia…

Perhaps with luck, u may know something of other historical TiongHua communities in Sumatra- am interested to know more about Khoo Cheow Teong who was a active trader from Tanjong Balai, Asahan( east coast, North Sumatra ) in 1900s.

He had two sons; Khoo Sian Wei and Sian Ewe, the former stayed back in Asahan whilst the father and second son, Sian Ewe lived a active biz n social life in Penang. I am a descendant but have no contact or knowledge of their family or biz in Asahan. Now am trying to catchup and wonder if you can kindly share what u may know or refer me to sources ( clan associations? Newspaper reports? Museum? Archives? English, Jawi or Dutch language?? Etc)  and people who may know the Khoo family.

 

Thanks for yr help, rgds robertY

 

Sent from my iPad

Afdeelling Simaeloengoen en De Karolanden(Pematangsiantar)

Onderafdeelling Simaeloengoen (Pematangsiantar)

Luitenant der Chineezen :  Ang Cheng

Residentie Tapanoeli

Afdeelling Sibolga

Luitenant der Chineezen : Lim Hoh Eng

Afdeelling Nias Goenoeng Sitoli

Onderafdeelling Nias en omligende eilanden(Goenoeng Sitoli)

Luitenant der Chineezen :    Lim Eng The

Onderafdeelling Batoe-eilande(Poelau Tello)

Luitenant der Chineezen :     Go Tiauw Hie, 16 juni 1932

 

 

 

Residentie Riouw en Onderhooringheden

Onderafdeelling Selat Pandjang

Luitenant der Chineezen : Kan Tjong Ho ,1 oct 1934

Onderafdeelling Bagan Siapi-api

Luitenant der Chineezen : LOe Tjin Poh

Afdelling Tandjoengpinang

Kapiten de chineesen te Tandjong Pinang : Oei Pit Ship,8 Sept .1930                                                                  Luitenant der chineesen voor Zuid Bintan : Tan Foo Kong,18 Okt.1915                                                            Luitenant der Chineesen voor  Noord-Bintan : Tan Swie Kie,19 juli 1916                                                       Luitenant der Chineesen te Pl,Boeloeh : Tan Joe She,1 aug 1930

Onderafdelling Karimoen (Tandjoengbalai)

Luitenant der Chineesen te                                                                                                                                Tandjoengbalai Oei Kim Hoe,29 Maret 1935                                                                                                          Tandjoeng batoe Wong Seap Par, 27 April 1929

Onderafdelling Linga(Dao Singkep)

Luitenant der Chineesen te                                                                                                                                          Penoeba : Lie Eng Goan,20 dec 1938                                                                                                               Dabo(singkep): Tjoa meng Koei, 15 Sept.1938

Onderafdelling Poelau Toedjoeh(Terempa)

Luitenant der Chinesen terempa : Tjioe Tiong Thin ,Feb 1938

Afdelling Inderagiri (Rengat)

Luitenant der Chineesen Go Koen Sia ,16 jan.1936

(Dr iwan pernah kerumah nya tahun 1985, dan bertemu putranya, dan membeli beberapa koleksi almarhum seperti lukisan Tiongkok,dan medali yang diperolehnya dari gubernur jendral dan juga ada postal history masa revolusi berupa dokumen dengan metera pendudukan jepang)

 

Onderafdelling Inderagirische Benelanden (Tembilahan)

Luitenant der Chineesen tembilahan Lauw Tio Sia,1 jan.1936

 

 Residentie west Sumatra 1941

Kapten etnis Tionghoa Padang :

 Liem Tjhoen Goan (sejak  1 April 1937)                

 Letnan etnis Tionghoa Pariaman:

 Ghan Ho Ie (sejak  19 sept.1906)              

Letnan etnis  Tionghoa Bukittinggi(Fort de Kock) dan Padang Panjang   :

Tjoa sin Soe (sejak 4 Maret 1929)                                                                                                      Letnan etnisTionghoa Payakumbuh :

Tjoa Seng Lian (sejak 18 maret 1939),                                                                                                                   putranya Tjoa Tjoan Soei menikah dengan adik mertua Dr iwan Oei Tiong Hien, Oei Soei                                                                                                                                                                                                  Heng dan putranya Ien.

Residentie Palembang

Onderafdeling Hoofplaats Palembang  en Banjoeasinstreken(Palembang)

Kapiten der Chineesen Kwee Gan Keng, 9 Jan.1934

Residentie Bangka en Billiton

(hofdplaats Pangkalpinang)

Onderafdelling Midden-Bangka(Pangkalpinang)

Kapitein der Chinesen  Bong Joeng Kin ,24 dec 1932 Luitenant der Chinesen Se Siong Men, 24 Dec 1932

Afdelling Biliton(Tandjoengpandan)

Kapitein titulair de chineesen :Phong Jong Fong, 25 Maret 1938

Residentie Westerafdeelling van Borneo(hoofdplaats Pontianak)

Afdeeling Pontianak

Onderafdeelling Pontianak

Kapitein der chineezen Kwee Eng Hoe

Onderafdeelling Singkawang

Kapitein der Chineezen te

 Singkawang :  Theng Soen Teng                                                                                                                  Pemangkat : Lie Kian Nam                                                                                                                              Montrado : Eo Djong Khim

Onderafdeelling Bengkajang

Kapitein der Chineezen Lim A Lak

Onderafdeelling Sambas

Kapitan der Chineezen Tjen Fai Tjong

Onderafdeelling Mempawah

Kapitan der Chineezen Tjang Fen Sen

 

Residentie Zuider en Oosterafdelling van Borneo

Afdelling Bandjarmasin

Kapitein der chineesen  Tjoe Tay An , 5 April 1918

Onderafdellig Martapoera

Kapitein titulair der Chinesen Oey Tay Poen, 24 Agustus 1923

Afdelling Samarinda

Luitenant der Chineesen  voor  de onderafdelling Koetai en Boven Mahakam (standplaats Samarinda) : Ngo Keng Tjoen, 6 sept 1918

Onderafdelling Oost-Koetai

Luitenant der Chineesen te Sanga-sanga Dalam : Tan Keng Ban (voor het onderdistrict sanga-sanga) 21 maret 1928

Onderafdelling Balikpapan

Luitenant der Chineesen Voor het onderdistrict Balikpapan : Wong Thay Hin, 28 Agustus 1933

Afdeelling Boeloengan BN Beroe(Tarakan)

Onderafdeeling Beraoe(Tandjoeng Redeb)

Luitenant der Chineezen  Lim Kim Fen, 3 Juli 1940

Residentie Manado

Berau

Conniezeen redacteur : E.K.Njo,12 sept 1935

Afdeelling Dongala

Luitenant der Chineezen  Tjoa Tiong Hean, 30 Jan 1930

Residentie Timor en Onderhoorigheden

Onderafdeelling Koepang

Kapitein der chineezen  Lie San Njan, 15 feb 1925

Hoof de Chineezen Tjioe Tek Giok,29 april 1925- Tjioe Soen Seng(Babaoe Koepang)-Tjong Soei Tap(Tjamplong Koepang), Tjoeng KIe Seng(Naiklioe-Koepang).

 

 

Onderafdeelling Roti(Baa)

Hoof de Chineezen Djong Kiet Hien,29 Agustus 1940

Onderafdeelling Zuid-midden Timor(Soe)

Hoof de Chineezen Ta A Hin(Niki-niki), Tan Kion Tjeang(Kapan), Sea I Hoat(SoE)

Onderafdeelling Nord-midden Timor(Kofannanoe)

Hoof de Chineezen Tan Foe Djoen

Onderafdeelling Beloe(Atamboea)

Hoof de Chineezen Laij Ko Hie(atamboea)

 

Afdeelling Alor ( Kalabahi)

Hoof de Chineezen Ong Gwan Tjin alias Ong Kie Seng,27 April 1938

Onderafdeelling Ende

Hoof de Chineezen  Lie Siang tek, 12 Juni 1939

Onderafdeelling Maoemere(maoemere)

Hoof de Chineezen  Ong Ka Tjao, 12 Juni 1929

Onderafdeelling Mangarai (Roeteng)

Hoof de Chineezen  Pius The Kie Teng, 14 Maret 1938

Afdeelling Soembawa en Soemba(Raba)

Onderafdeelling Bima(Raba)

Hoof de Chineezen  Oei Si Koan, 28 Nov  1936

Onderafdeelling Soembawa(soembawabesar)

Hoof de Chineezen  Oei Si Moe alias Oei Hok Goei(soembawa besar),

Wong Jat Hwa(Taliwang)

Onderafdeelling Oost Soemba (Waingapoe)

Hoof de Chineezen  Lie Thiauw La,15 Juni 1938

Gouvernment Soerakarta

Afdeelling Soerakarta

Kapitein  der Chineezen soerakarta  Ing Siang Tan

Luitent der chineezen sragen Liem Poo Djong

( Sumber regeering alamanac 1941)

 

 

Chinese in semarang 1941

The end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2013

 

 

 

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Driwancybermuseum Galery(continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

 

THE  CHINESE OVERSEAS KAPITAN HISTORY COLLCTIONS

IN INDOENSIA AND MALAYA

PART TWO

DUTCH EAST INDIE

 

Chong Yeau Tian leader of the Chinese in Medan 1911

CREATED By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

 

The Chinese Overseas Kapitan

Part two

 Dutch East Indie Colony

 

Khoo Chew Tong KAPITAN CINA tanjung Balai Asahan

 

Created By

Dr4 Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

INTRODUCTIONS

//

[edit] History

[edit] Pre-colonial interaction

There was little direct Chinese involvement in what is now Indonesia before the fifteenth century. Trade between China and the Indonesian archipelago was in the hands of Indonesians, rather than Chinese.[disputed] The standard word for a Chinese trading vessel, junk, is derived from the Javanese word jong, which described large teak vessels that trekked north from Southeast Asia to southern China.[disputed] Chinese sources, however, are useful external sources of information on early Indonesia, including the records of a few emissaries such as Fa Hien, a Buddhist monk who passed the region in the fifth century on his way to India. Kingdoms of Indonesia and China had some relationships that thrived during the Tang dynasty.

Ironically, though most of the present Chinese Indonesians are not Muslims, some of the earliest Islamic evangelists in Java (Wali Songo, or the Nine Ambassadors) were of Chinese ancestry. At least four of those nine were original Chinese or Chinese descendants: Sunan Ampel, Sunan Bonang (son of Ampel and a Chinese woman), Sunan Kalijaga, and Sunan Gunungjati.[5] <This shouldn’t actually be ironic since those Islamic evangelists are actually Hui Chinese, a Chinese ethnic group who are Muslim. In contrast, most of the present Chinese Indonesians are mainly not Hui Chinese. Rather, they are mostly Han Chinese, another Chinese ethnic group which is the majority ethnic group in mainland China, coming from Fujian, Guangdong, etc.> One theory suggests that Chinese traders were among the first to bring Islam to Indonesia, including those who came to Semarang under the leadership of Admiral Zheng He, or Sam Po Kong, in the fifteenth century. Zheng He himself was a Muslim from the Hui minority ethnic group in China. Other theories based on documented accounts of Indian Gujarati traders and merchants, long familiar with Java, suggest they introduced Sufism there and the Malay Peninsula.[citation needed]

Since the voyages of Zheng He, many Chinese considered the region as an attractive trading partner.

[edit] Dutch colonial era

[edit] Favored position under the Dutch

 

 

Portrait of the Chinese kapitein of Rembang, Central Java (ca. 1913)

The largest waves of Chinese migration happened during early to middle Dutch colonial era (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries) seeking to find new opportunities of trade.

Race relations between the Chinese Indonesians and native Indonesians (pribumi) have always been problematic, and remain so up to the present. Some commentators trace this to the Dutch era when colonial policy favored the ethnic Chinese, and in so doing established the economic dominance of the Chinese over the region.[citation needed]

The caste system established by the Dutch also made it disadvantageous for ethnic Chinese to assimilate into the native population. Assimilation would mean being placed in the lowest estate together with the natives. Ethnic Chinese, together with Arabs and other “foreign orientals” were members of the second estate. The first estate was reserved for Europeans.[6]

As such, the Dutch were among the early practitioners of a classic colonial strategy practiced in many other times and places by displacing and destroying native systems of authority through favoring specific ethnic or religious minorities. They become props of colonial rule and a buffer between itself and the majority indigenous population. (France and Britain would eventually use the local Christian and Jewish communities in the Arab world in the same way.)

Having the favor of the Dutch and being considered by “intelligent, diligent, and capable of overseeing Dutch plantations”, many ethnic Chinese supported colonial rule[citation needed]. Indeed, in the early years of the Dutch East Indies, ethnic Chinese actively helped strengthen Dutch domination in the region. Souw Beng Kong, the Kapitan Cina (“Captain of the Chinese”) of Banten, for example, organized a large-scale immigration of Chinese under his rule to Batavia in the seventeenth century. This significantly destabilized the regional economy and facilitated Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Banten.

As a reward, Souw was made the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia in 1619. His successors and later, the Majoors der Chinezen, were given landed fiefdoms and the Dutch-invented hereditary title of Sia by the colonial government.

Among them, these aristocratic Peranakan families controlled a great deal of Java’s land and wealth, confiscated by the Dutch from the native (pribumi) aristocracy. Through the officership system they governed the Peranakan and ethnic Chinese populations of Batavia. The system was later extended to other centers of Dutch power in Java and the rest of the archipelago.[7] Deprived of land, the native aristocracy lacked the economic resources (income via agricultural, livestock and timber products, alluvial and subterranean mineral resources, most particularly gold and gemstones) vital to fund their kingdoms, princedoms and dukedoms. Essentially bankrupted by theft of their land and forced transition to Chinese ownership, the aristocracy was hamstrung to raise military force against the usurpers.

Both the Dutch and the Chinese participated in the trade of thousands of Javanese slaves. Javanese considered problematic were shipped off to Chinese plantations in Sumatra.[citation needed]

[edit] Massacre of 1740

Main article: 1740 Batavia massacre

In their position, the Chinese often did not receive friendly attitudes from the Dutch. In the early decades of the eighteenth century, tensions began to build. In some ways, it resulted from the fact that having settled in and around Batavia ever since its foundation, the Chinese had come to be a major element in its economic life.

Chinese workers were greatly involved in building Batavia and cultivating the adjacent agricultural areas. And Chinese traders, who were arriving in growing numbers, made the Dutch East India Company (VOC) increasingly dependent on them.

The VOC came to make most of its profits from trade among different Asian destinations rather than back to the Netherlands themselves – and it was naturally the Chinese traders residing in Batavia who had the best contacts in China.

Dutch and Chinese needed each other – which in theory should have ensured a good relationship. But an element among the Dutch colonists came to increasingly resent the situation of the Chinese being their effective social equals and economic rivals. The Chinese traders, like the Dutch ones, were tax-payers – which was an economic burden but also conferred considerable privileges (a phenomenon comparable to the later resentment of French settlers in Algeria to local Christians and Jews being legally their equals).

What set off a cataclysm of hatred and bloodshed was not only cliquish Chinese trading but the other major branch of their economic activity on Java: agricultural work carried out by poor Chinese coolies who were imported and employed by rich Chinese entrepreneurs. Such coolies were, for example, the dominant part of the labor force employed in the sugar plantations at the Ommelanden of Batavia, a major field of economic activity.

The importation of ever more coolies caused an enormous increase in the Chinese population in the VOC-ruled area of Batavia and its environs, and they came to constitute nearly half of the total population just before 1740. Already in 1690, the colonial authorities had imposed severe limitations on further immigration from China. This did not have, however, the effect of stopping the importation of more coolies. Rather, they continued to be imported through the payment of bribes to the authorities, and were all the more dependent on their employers (usually Chinese themselves) and susceptible to lucrative exploitation.

From about 1720 the sugar market went through a deepening crisis, with the markets in Europe becoming saturated, and the plantations of Java facing sharp competition from cheaper Brazilian sugar. Many of the sugar planters went bankrupt, and the authorities took no step to alleviate the situation of the workers thrown out of their jobs – with the result being bands of unemployed, hungry and desperate coolies turning to brigandage.

Belatedly, at July, 1740 the colonial authorities, c.q. Adriaan Valckenier and Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff decreed that all the coolies of the Ommelanden were to be transferred to Dutch-run plantations at Galle in Southern Ceylon. That might or might not have been the true intention, but rumors rife among the coolies were that the Dutch actually intended to throw them overboard once out of sight of the shore. Instead of boarding the ships, the coolies burst into an all-out revolt, with roaming bands robbing and killing in the countryside and some even attempting to attack Batavia itself.

There is no evidence that the better off Chinese living inside the walled area of Batavia, some five thousand in number, were planning to join the rebellious coolies outside. However, many of the Dutch inhabitants did have such suspicions. On October 9, 1740, the order was issued to search the houses of all the Chinese residents in Batavia. This soon degenerated into an all-out, three-day long massacre – with Chinese being massacred in their homes, and earlier captured Chinese being killed out of hand in prisons and hospitals.

A preacher fanned the flames from the pulpit, declaring that the killing of Chinese was “God’s Will”, and the colonial government itself reportedly posted a bounty for decapitated Chinese heads. The number of victims in these three days is variously estimated at between five thousand and ten thousand. The name Kali Angke (traditional Chinese: ; literally, “Red River”) is said to date from that time, recalling the blood flowing into the river.[8][9]

Afterwards, the “restoration of order” was proclaimed, with surviving Chinese henceforth ghettoized in specific quarters of Batavia and other Dutch-ruled cities. The Chinese area of Batavia was designated Glodok, where many Chinese still live in present-day Jakarta.

Following the massacre, the Dutch Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier was arrested and required to account for himself to the Heeren XVII (“Seventeen Lords”, the VOC directors in Amsterdam). He died in prison, however, and the charges against him were declared “annulled by death”.

The affair continued to crop up in later periods, especially in times of tension.[10]

 

Graf van de kapitein der Chinezen So Bing Kong (Bencon) te Batavia, vermoedelijk op Goenoeng Karang, een oude Chinese begraafplaats aan de Jacatraweg 1916

 

Situation now

Due to Coolaberation between Driwancybermuseum and Zheng He Museum Penang, I have made a special reasearche about the Famous  Chinese overseas In Malaya during British Colony  and Indonesia during Dutch East Indie

 

Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, 1888-11-23

Oei Tan Nio, echtgenote van de kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, op 27-jarige leeftijd

 

Oei Tjan Nio in bruidskleding, echtgenote van Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta

After work Hard and spend much time and loan, The research were finish and this info will show in Zheng He Museum Penang lead by Robert Yeap.

I also found some informations related to that famous man.like kapitan Cina in stratits settlement penang,Malacca,Singapore ,Kuching Sarawak  and also from federated Malayan like Kuala Lumpur etc,also from Indonesia(Dutch East Indie that time) like Deli medan,tanjung balai ashan ,padang city, Batavia(Jakarta),surabyaa .

 

Kapitan cina rembang 1885

Due to many realted informations,this book will be divided by two part,part one Malaya area and part two Indonesia (Dutch East Indie Area)

 

Kapitan Cina Surabaya and Mrs  1880

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan(mayor rank) Cina Surabaya Han Tjong Khing  1924

 

 

When and why the Kapitan Cina organization starting?

 

Kapitan cina(leuteant rank) Laboehan deli 1880

 I have a very best information from web blog Chinese overseas in British Colony and Kapitan cina Batavia, but some of informations cannot read all because qere protacted with the PDF and other computer technology which made only by very high technology a part of information can read, but I think enough and good informations were extist,this some of the info below.

[edit] Continued Immigration and division into three sub-communities

 

 

Chinese family portrait (ca. 1870)

Even such bloody events did not put an end to the continued Chinese emigration to the Indies, where economic opportunities not available in China itself outweighed the dangers of discrimination or persecution.

Earlier Chinese immigrants had much closer ties toward mainland China. This was manifested in their strong desire to return home and consideration of the Indies as yet another temporary settlement.

Attitudes started changing from the middle eighteenth century when the Qing emperor of the time, Qian Long, considered these expatriates to be “turncoats” and thereby a threat to China. Still, while Emperor Qian Long adopted a general “closed-door policy”, there was no evidence that Chinese expatriates were banned from returning to their original homeland.

Many of them, however, found the Indies an increasingly attractive abode. The hostile and oppressive Manchu government of the Qing dynasty brought even more migrants from China. Lured by comfortable lives, some of them no longer associated themselves with mainland China. They were called Cina Babas or Peranakans. Some Cina Babas intermarried with indigenous Indonesian (pribumis), often the slave-girl of a coollie.

Most, however, identified themselves as Dutchmen, embraced Christianity, generally enjoyed higher education and social status, and mimicking Western lifestyles considered themselves the more refined. They got to be called Qiao Sheng (literally, “foreign-born”). Beginning in the late Nineteenth Century, most of the Dutch-invented aristocratic “Sia” families underwent rapid westernization. By the early decades of the twentieth century, many of them—especially those domiciled around Batavia—had become “more Dutch than the Dutch themselves”. The Sias were consequently some of the strongest proponents of colonial rule.

Those who still maintained ties toward China, whose main belief was Confucianism, considered Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs unfilial, all the more so because Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs typically shunned Chinese tradition. The ones who still maintained “purity” were called Cina Totoks.

These three groups of Chinese Indonesians had starkly different nationalistic views and tendencies. At the time

  • Qiao Shengs were more inclined toward the Dutch;
  • Cina Totoks were more inclined toward mainland China;

and

  • Cina Babas were more toward the indigenous population of the Indies.

[edit] Changing Dutch policies and decline of the Sia aristocracy

 

Chinese paifang in Bandung on the occasion of the marriage of Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard in 1937

By the 1920s and 1930s, the long standing hold over the economy of the old Sia families, Qiao Sheng par excellence, was systematically destroyed by the very Dutch colonial government they supported . Following Queen Wilhelmina‘s speech to the Estates General (the Dutch Parliament) in which she insisted that a “moral debt” was owed to the people of the East Indies, the colonial government implemented its so-called “social policy”. This was aimed at ending feudalism in Java and breaking up the large estates of the Peranakan pretender aristocracy.

It was the Chinese Sias, more than the native aristocracy, who suffered from this measure. The native aristocracy did not own much land, due to the fact that the Dutch had generations prior forcibly confiscated and split the former Kingdom of Majapahit into four. The Dutch, to remedy the unfavourabale and indeed racist treatment of the natives, initiated a program of civil service employment for suitably pliable upper middle-class semi-aristocratic families, known as priyayi.

Dutch compulsory acquisition of Peranakan fiefdoms destroyed many of the older Chinese landowning families. While some successfully managed to get into business, most former Sias—their title becoming obsolete by the 1940s—were swamped in economic power by Totok Chinese. This latter group remains, even today, the most powerful economic group in Indonesia.[11]

Concomittant with the decline of the feudal-type Sias, Chinese Indonesians underwent a process of modernization and of building up Western-type political and social institutions. Chinese Indonesians built the first of their schools in Surabaya in the 1920s—one of the first non-Western schools in Java—and by the 1960s, many Chinese schools had been established in the major cities. The first Chinese newspapers were also printed during this era, and several Chinese political parties were established. These parties ranged from those who saw themselves as part of the Indonesian nationalist movement, and those who felt that Chinese Indonesians were still Chinese citizens – a question that was left unresolved for many decades.[citation needed]

[edit] Nationalism and revolution (1900–1945)

[edit] Reflections of Chinese mainland politics

Later waves of migrants still maintained ties to China, mainly by supporting Chinese nationalistic movements to overthrow the Qing dynasty. Although the support was mainly monetary, some Chinese Indonesians were actively involved in the inside politics, especially so during the Sun Yat Sen era. Cina Totoks were particularly active.

Although the Chinese Communists were largely unsupported at first, from the 1930s on the Communists’ effort to drive the Japanese occupants out of China gained the support of many Cina Totoks and even some Qiao Shengs. Thus, Indonesian Chinese manifestations of support towards mainland China became divided into two camps, parallel with the civil war sides in China itself: Nationalistic (Kuomintang or Guómíndǎng) and Communistic (Gòngchǎndǎng).

[edit] Sympathy for Indonesian nationalism

At the turn of the 20th century, however, Cina Babass were increasingly assimilated into Indonesian culture. Younger generations of Cina Totoks still tried to maintain ties with China.

Although the Dutch had given the Chinese Indonesians a special status, they were becoming increasingly oppressive and discriminative against all Chinese Indonesians. So, all three groups – Qiao Shengs, Cina Babas, and Cina Totoks – were more and more cooperative toward the Indonesian national movement, especially in providing monetary support.

This comment is disputed as much documentary evidence amply illustrates overwhelming Chinese support for Dutch paramilitary attempts to crush the Independence movement thereby incurring long-standing enmity of the Indonesian native.

More and more Chinese Indonesians were involved in Indonesian politics. Cina Totoks typically set up specific Chinese political parties which aimed at an Indonesia-China alliance and established newspapers. Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs typically joined nationalist parties jointly with pribumis. Some of them, serving as officers in the Dutch Army and later the Japanese one, but never used their positions to help the national movement.

 

 

On 10 November 1928, the Chinese weekly Sin Po published what is now known as Indonesia Raya, Indonesia’s national anthem.

They were also among the pioneers of Indonesian newspapers. In their fledgling publishing companies, they published their own political ideas along with contributions from other Indonesian writers. In November 1928, the Chinese weekly Sin Po (traditional Chinese: 新報; pinyin: xīn bào) was the first paper to openly publish the text of the national anthem Indonesia Raya. On occasion, those involved in such activities ran a concrete risk of imprisonment or even of their lives, as the Dutch colonial authorities banned nationalistic publications and activities.

Chinese Indonesians were active in supporting the independence movement during the 1940s Japanese occupation, when all but the Overseas Chinese Association (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Huáqiáo Zhōnghuì) were banned by the Japanese military authorities. Some notable pro-independence activists were Siauw Giok Tjhan and Liem Koen Hian, but the latter died as a People’s Republic of China citizen (Kusuma,2004:27). Yap Tjwan Bing, a member of Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, became a US citizen in the 1960s.

 

 

 

Kapitan cina medan Tjong A Fie 1906

 

Kapitan Cina Medan Tjonng A Fie with family 1900

 

Huwelijk van de dochter van de Kapitein der Chinezen Jap Soen Tjai te Medan

The Chinese Consulate

The formation of Chinese consulate in Singapore in 1877 , an Penang in 1890, also in Padang West Sumatra and Payakumbuh West Sumatra (years still not known) respectively was primanly to serve as communicate between the Chinese Gouvernment  and the Chinese overseas . Apart from that it was also the Chinese tentative to gain support and loyality from her wealthy  Overseas member.

 

Tjong Jong Hian, kapitein der Chinezen te Medan 1910

 

 

The house of Kapitan cina medan Tjong Jong Hian 1900

The office of the Vice-consult functions in various aspects and capacities .The diplomatic rule of the Chinese Vice-Consul was based in demography and geography of British Malaya and Duitcg East Indie For istance

 

1893

Installatie van Tjong Yong Hian als kapitein en Tjong A Fie als luitenant der Chinezen te Medan

The Penang Brand engaged with the Chinese Affairs in Penang <Perak,Sealngor, Kedah and Perlis.Whereass the Singapore branch comcerned in the areas such as Johor, Malacca, Negri Sembilan , Kelantan and Trengannu

 

Kapitan Cina Tanjungpura Medan Hho Tsai Toan in 1890

 

The prime role of the Vice-Consul was also concerned in protecting the Chinese and their business interest however in the ealy 1900’s other Chinese organizations  such as the Chinese Advisory board (1890) ,Chinese chamber of Commerce Po Leung Kok(1886) as well as other Chinese clan association had surged in all mayor owns in British Malaya thus the importance of the Vice consult had apparentely ceased.

 

Vrouw van de kapitein der Chinezen te Batavia en een meisje 1867

In 1891 ,the vice consult of Singapore was promote to the rank of Consult gereal in south East asia and in 1933 the chinedse consult was established in Kuala lumpur and the Chinese Affairs in the Federataed of Malaya.

Source

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan Cina Langkat  Tjoeng Njan Khin with government in Binjei

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan*mayor rank) cina Aceh Lie A sie

Op de rug gezien v.l.n.r.: majoor K. van der Maaten, sultan Mohammad Dawot Sjah, Toeankoe Ibrahim (zoon van de sultan) en assistent-resident W.J.F. Vermeulen; V.l.n.r. tegenover majoor K. van der Maaten: luitenant-generaal J.B. van Heutsz (gedeeltelijk), assistent-resident A.C. Veenhuizen, luitenant-kolonel G.C.E. van Daalen (gedeeltelijk), onbekend, controleur C. Schultz, Toeankoe Pangeran Oesén, Toeankoe Machmoet, onbekend, majoor titulair der Chinezen Lie A Sie

 

Kapitan(leuteannt rank) can meando 1873

 

The same situation same in Dutch East Indie(Indonesia now) but the rank different,there were Mayor Cina, Kapitan Cina and Leutenant Cina depend on the demography and geography of dutch east indie from government, Residentie,subresidentie(Assisten-resident area) and more small area.

 

Kapitan Cina Medan 1900 Oen Goan The

 

In Padang there were two Chinese vice-consut at Pariaman name Lir Ma Say, he ever send money to Dutch east ndie government to help the Krakato eruption victim in 19th century but later closed because move to Padang city there were vicde consut Gho Goan Tee and Lie Ma say became the first Mayor Cina, and then Gho Goa tee,then Ang Eng Lay, then Lie Oen Kiong,then the son of Gho Goan Tee(Gho sun Tong) his brother Gho Sun hin merried my Aunt Kang Kim Lian they lived at Singapore. My grandgrandpa Chua Chay Hiok(Tjoa Tjay Hiok) became the vice Consult in Payakumbuh west Sumatra upland ,later my uncle TJOa seng Lian became the Kapitan cina at Payakumbuh he ever send money to help republic of China during sun Yat sen(Kuomintang) to build the railways ,

 

Opening van de eerste jaarmarkt te Semarang 1908

At Batavia(now Jakarta) the first Kapitan was So ban Kong,he strated from Bantam ,then moved to Batavia during VOC first built this city in 16th century, then the Khouw faili were the next kapitan cina Batavia. I was found the best book about a dutch man travelling in ndonesia in late 19th century,in that rare book I found the pictures of the first kaiptan cina Padang city profile Lie Ma say, and other 19th century book about tarvellin in Java also I found the profil of Surabaya kapitan Cina.

In  The 1941 Dutch East Indie Almanac book  were list all the kapitan cina from all part of Indonesia,and from the Book of Dutch and colony ‘s employe 1939, I found the kapitan cina and famous Chinese overseas in Dutch East indie complete with profile picture and short life histories .

 

 

De gemeenteraadsleden van Bindjai met enkele dame

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

Indonesian National Revolution

During the Indonesian National Revolution following World War II, many Chinese Indonesians supported the Independence movement. BPUPKI’s (Body for Investigating Preparation Attempts of Indonesia’s Independence) membership included six ethnic Chinese members who contributed to the drafting of the Indonesian Constitution in 1945.[citation needed] The formation of all-Chinese Indonesian units in the Revolution was discussed,[12] similar to the formation of the all-Japanese American Nisei units in World War II. This suggestion was ultimately rejected, and the ethnic Chinese were advised to instead join their local pro-Independence groups. Due to the lack of such clearly-defined ethnic unit, the precise number of Chinese Indonesians who took part in the Indonesian National Revolution, and their percentage of the Chinese Indonesian community as a whole, remains disputed. It is a sensitive issue due to it sometimes being linked to the post-war status of Chinese Indonesians and their equal status (or lack of one) in the Indonesia created by that war.

In 1946, the Consul General of the Republic of China, Chiang Chia Tung, expressed in Malang the ROC’s support for Indonesia’s independence

 

 

 

 

Root of Tionghoa


The word has been used in a letter Tionghwa loyal to the Nippon army .
Chinese or tionghwa , is a term that is made by people of Chinese descent in Indonesia , which is derived from the Chinese word zhonghua . Zhonghua pronounced in Hokkien dialect of Chinese .

 

 

Chinese overseas at Baroes Tapanoeli in 1910

Discourse Tsung Hwa at least been started since 1880, which is the desire of the people in China to be free from the power of the royal dynasty and establish a more democratic and stronger . This discourse to be heard by people of Chinese origin living in the Dutch East Indies when it was called the Chinese People .

 

 

Chinese overseas Tin Worker  at Bangka 1920

A group of people from China whose children were born in the Dutch East Indies , felt the need to learn the culture and language . In 1900 , they founded the school in the Dutch East Indies , under the auspices of an entity called ” Tjung Hwei Hwa Kwan ” , which is when the pronunciation becomes Tiong Hoa Hwe Indonesianized Kwan ( THHK ) . THHK along the way not only provide Chinese language and culture education , but also foster a sense of unity among the Chinese in the Netherlands Indies , along with changes in the term ” China ” to ” Chinese ” in the Dutch East Indies .


 

Uitreiking van een onderscheiding aan de kapitein der Chinezen, Tan Djoe An, bij zijn aftreden door de resident te Modjokerto in 1918

 

Population in Indonesia

 

 

 

Kapitan cina Ambarawa Kwee An Kie 1875


Based Volkstelling ( census ) in the Dutch East Indies , Indonesian – Chinese population reached 1.233 million ( 2.03 % ) of the population of Indonesia in 1930. [ 5 ] There is no official data on the number of Chinese population in Indonesia issued by the government since Indonesian independence . But the American anthropologist , G.W. Skinner , in his research has estimated the Chinese population in Indonesia reached 2.505 million ( 2.5% ) in 1961 . [ 6 ]

 

Chenese overseas in DEI in 1876

 

In the population census in 2000 , when for the first time census respondents were asked about their ethnic origin , only 1 % of the total Indonesian population claiming to be Chinese . A rough estimate of the number of trust – Indonesian ethnic Chinese today is located in between the range of 4 % – 5 % of the total population of Indonesia . [ 7 ]
Region of origin in China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Installatie van de majoor der Chinezen door resident W.J.M. Michielsen, vermoedelijk dhr. Pjang a Yong te Medan in 1893

 

 

Aanwezige bestuursambtenaren onder andere: resident van de Oostkust van Sumatra W.J.M. Michielsen, assistent-resident J.C. van Hasselt en secretaris J.A. van Rijn van Alkemade


Map the distribution of ancestral tribal homelands Chinese – Indonesian
The height of the coastal trade interaction southeastern China , causing a lot of people who also feel the need to go out cruising for trade . The main aim when it was Southeast Asia . Because the cruise is highly dependent on monsoons , then each year the traders will live in areas of Southeast Asia who visited them . And so on there are traders who decided to settle down and marry local women , there are also traders who returned to China to continue to trade .

 


V.l.n.r. op de 1e rij: Daliloeddin, Moorianto Koesoemo Oetojo, Soenito, Soedjarwo Tjondronegoro, onbekende, Abdoerachman, onbekende, Djalal Moechsin, onbekende, Adnin; op de 2e rij: Zain Sjarif, Annie de Ridder, Reny [Irene Yvonne] Poetiray, Rasono Woerjaningrat, mevr. Alings, mevr. Abdoerachman, Margriet Tuera (vertegenwoordigster Kaoem Iboe Indonesia), dochter van mevr. Alings; op de 3e rij: Sidartawan, Joesoef Moedadalam, mevr. Poernomo, Soenardi, onbekende, mevr. Soenardi, 2 Chinezen, 2 onbekenden, Evie [Georgine Eveline] Poetiray, 4 onbekenden, Hartono; op de 4e rij: Soegeng Notohadinegoro, Hadiono Koesoemo Oetojo, Madeleine Hubrecht, Soehoenan Hamzah, Soeripno, Ati Nataatmadja (dochter van regent Tjiandjoer); 2 onbekenden, Trees Nataatmadja (dochter regent Tjiandjoer), Koessardjono

 

Chinese people in Indonesia , mostly originating from southeast China . They include the tribes :
 Hakka
§
§ Hainan
 Hokkien
§
 Cantonese
§
§ Hokchia
 Tiochiu
§
The area of origin is concentrated in the coastal southeast is understandable , because of the Tang Dynasty from port cities in coastal southeastern China indeed has become a bustling trading port . Quanzhou been noted as the largest airport and the busiest port in the world in those days . [ Citation needed ]

Undo edits

 

Title Chinese optocht te Sitoebondo ter gelegenheid van het vijfentwintigjarig regeringsjubileum van koningin Wilhelmina in 1923 Op de banier staan in Chinese karakters drie plaatsnamen uit de Fujian provincie in China: “Zhou, Xinghua en Fuqing”. Waarschijnlijk de plaatsen waar deze overzeesche Chinezen vandaan komen.Is this translation better than the original?

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The first recorded movement of people from China into Maritime Southeast Asia was the arrival of Mongol forces under Kublai Khan that culminated in the invasion of Java in 1293.

 The Mongols introduced Chinese technologies to the island, including shipbuilding and coinage. Their intervention hastened the decline of the classical kingdoms such as Singhasari and precipitated the rise of the Majapahit empire.[16]

 

Chinezen dragen een balk voor de bouw van een boortoren te Pangkalanbrandan in 1929

Album, Foto-boek I, was bestemd voor de moeder van E.P.L. de Hoog. Zie ook albums 1041, 1042 en 1043.

Some Chinese and Portuguese sources indicate that Chinese traders were the first to arrive on Ternate and Tidore in the Maluku Islands to buy cloves, but they were later driven out by Javanese traders as Majapahit expanded.[17]

 

 

 Khoe Hock Cho (rechts in het midden) op de dag van zijn benoeming tot luitenant der Chinezen te Tandjoengbalai en P. Scheffer, assistent-resident van Asahan, vóór de Chineesche Hollandsche School te Tandjoengbalai

 

Kapitan (lieutenant rank) Cina Tanjungbalai Asahan  khoe Hock cho 1927

Chinese Muslim traders from the eastern coast of China arrived at the coastal towns of Indonesia and Malaysia in the early 15th century. They were led by the mariner Zheng He, who commanded several expeditions to southeastern Asia between 1405 and 1430. In the book The Overall Survey of the Ocean’s Shores (瀛涯勝覽), his translator Ma Huan documented the activities of the Chinese Muslims in the archipelago and the legacy left by Zheng He and his men.[18] These traders settled along the northern coast of Java, but there is no documentation of their settlements beyond the 16th century. The Chinese Muslims were likely to have been absorbed into the majority Muslim population.[19] Between 1450 and 1520, the Ming Dynasty‘s interest in southeastern Asia reached a low point and trade, both legal and illegal, rarely reached the archipelago.[20] The Portuguese made no mention of any resident Chinese minority population when they arrived in Indonesia in the early 16th century.[21] Trade from the north was re-established when China legalized private trade in 1567 through licensing 50 junks a year. Several years later silver began flowing into the region, from Japan, Mexico, and Europe, and trade flourished once again. Distinct Chinese colonies emerged in hundreds of ports throughout southeastern Asia, including the pepper port of Banten.[20]

Chinese traders boycotted Portuguese Malacca after it fell to the Portuguese in the 1511 Capture of Malacca.[22] The Chinese engaged in business with Malays and Javanese instead of the Portuguese.[23] Some Chinese in Java assisted in Muslim attempts to reconquer the city using ships. The Javanese–Chinese participation in retaking Malacca was recorded in “The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon”.[22]

 

 

Chinese ethnic in the 1930s .

Removal of traders from the north to the south occurs on a large scale . Chinese emperor then, Tsi Thi Huang , memakarsai displacement.

In the book Lord of the Rims ( from Coastal Taipan ) written by Sterling Seagrave , mentioned four reasons Emperor who managed to unite the Chinese mainland in that incident .
 First , Tsi fear with his biological father bribes science , Prime Minister Lu Pei Wei , go spread the merchant who is a supporter of his father . As said the book , Tsi is the son of an affair between the Prime Minister Lu Pei Wei with concubines . Lu put a mistress who was pregnant concubines .

 

 

Groepsfoto van het personeel van Regionale Werk Plaats van de Nederlandsche Nieuw Guinea Petroleum Maatschappij genomen voor het vertrek van E.P.L. de Hoog van Babo in West-Nieuw-Guinea

Groepsfoto van het personeel van Regionale Werk Plaats van de Nederlandsche Nieuw Guinea Petroleum Maatschappij genomen voor het vertrek van E.P.L. de Hoog van Babo in West-Nieuw-Guinea

When 10 -year -old Tsi he was appointed emperor . Lu became Prime Minister for 10 years . And the only prime minister of gologan merchants during Chinese history .

The second reason , North China famous for its agriculture . So it is a cleansing action against the traders .

 

Hoogwaardigheidsbekleders bij Sjarif Kasim Abdul Djalil Saifoedin (3e v.r.), sultan van Siak in 1905 V.l.n.r.: [...] (luitenant der Chinezen), luitenant Koentze, [...] (vermoedelijk de broer van de sultan), sultan Sjarif Kasim Abdul Djalil Saifoedin, [...] (vermoedelijk bestuursambtenaar) en luitenant De Graaf


Later , the emperor wanted to develop the Chinese population in the South .
The final reason relates to the orthodox view of Confucianism which was looked down on the merchants , the merchants put under farmers : with logic , most farmers still produce rice , while the merchants did not return any results .
The Emperor ordered the transfer of the merchants ( and their friends ) on a large scale to the southern regions ( Fu Jian , Kwang – Tong ) .

The is then spread throughout the world , estimated at 55 million people . Four percent of the total number of inhabitants of the land which is also known as the Chinese .

However , the deployment of a third invasion of China into the world community . The first wave is done by Zheng He ( Cheng Ho ) about six hundred
years ago ( National Geographic ) . Admiral is only known Muslim , took his army south regions trace . History textbooks mention he had stopped in Java and made ​​a covenant with the king and locals.

The second deployment occurred when struck Chinese opium war in 1840 . Ruling Qing Dynasty tried to stop the opium . But , as the British saw great potential in this trade , they instead send warships as an answer . China defeated and ditandanganilah opium trade agreements allow Britain handed Hong Kong and in the lap of the Queen of England .

Many Chinese people who escaped from the state of chaos that hit the country . They spread to southern Asia , including Southeast Asia .
This is the beginning of the theory of Chinese people entering the area of ​​West Sumatra .


 

Sudarma , elders there to justify it . ” I was born in Padang . ‘s Been half a century in Padang . Grandfather I have parents , who called kongconya already in Padang . Parents My mother got it from the original Chinese . So the age of 12 years he joined his parents in Indonesia . Actually, the objective is not to Indonesia . goal was probably to the Philippines . attacked But since the storm, stranded in Bagan Si Api Api . Nah , keep walking , eventually arrived at Padang , Padang settled in , “he says .

Could be , parents Sudarma a resident who came in the second wave . The truth of the fact it can be strengthened with age See Hin Kiong Temple is located in Kampung China .
Dick Halim ( 80 ) , the Chinese elders estimate pagoda built before 1860. It could be because , according to records Erniawati , Padang State University lecturer and researcher at the Chinese community Minang , the pagoda was burned in

1861 .

Chinese Captain Lie Say
Lie Ma Say 

Major Chinese Lie Say
who was appointed by the Dutch to bring in workers from China to rebuild the shrine . “Muslims are also looking mosque where to go , right? ” Said Erniwati .

Another theory is derived from the Chinese Padang Pariaman . Ernawati , who wrote the book Smoke Hio in Minang , Chinese Community in West Sumatra , estimates The Chinese already in Pariaman in the 13th century . When entered into Pariaman Aceh .

Not surprising actually . Pariaman is a haven for the merchants in those days . Pariaman a trading center on the coast . Not surprisingly , in 1630 , Christine Dobbin , author of the economic turmoil and the Rise of Islam and the Padri Movement , 1784-1847 Minangkabau , Chinese quarter estimates already exist in Pariaman .

Unfortunately, a tragic event to trigger the departure of the Chinese from Pariaman . During the Japanese occupation , the Chinese brought her two daughters to the Japan office .
 The other vision ditanggap by young men who happened to see him . Traitor whispers erupted immediately . Two girls was immediately taken to the beach and dibelek with kangso ( a tool made from aluminum cans ) .

According Erniwati , the attack was carried out without a plan. Hence , the tool is not sharp weapons are usually prepared to kill . “Besides , the punishment for traitors . Not only the Chinese people feel the punishment , community leaders who also became a Japanese spy , got the same sentence . , “Said the bachelor 2 UNP ‘s History majors .

Fear crept Chinese society . Gradually they began to leave Pariaman .
By 1965 some Chinese people still dwell there . However , entering the 1967 is rather difficult to find the slant-eyed in Pariaman . ” Because of what happened PKI or PRRI , ” said Erniawati . Slowly the Chinese berangur moved to Padang . Precisely , in the cottage at the moment.

However , the reason could also be the basis of the economy . Pariaman no longer considered fertile ground for 19th century trade approach . So it is not just Chinese traders who left , but also traders from other regions .

 

READ MORE INFORMATION
Dr Iwan note
I get information from the grand son Tjoe Lie – grand son ( great grandson ) of Ma Lie Say ,
Lie Ma Say dating from China’s Qing dynasty in the late 19th century, around the years 1830 to 1840 with or near the wife as a trade envoy Qing Empire in Pariaman , then he moved to Padang Panjang and Batusanggkar here he married again and had a son that is

Namely Soan Lie Tong Li who has two sons Sam and Lie Lin . Lie Lie son sam has Djoe Tong who has several sons and daughters of the Lie Tjoe Yang , his wife Tjan Tjeng hay ( my wife’s mother ‘s brother ) , and my pastor friend Lie Tjoe san ( Sandarma Akhbar SH ) .
According to my brother Dr. Johan Main Edhie , my sister’s husband’s grandfather Ie Po Tak Bun Tjoa major pariaman married to his son ( probably lie lin ) called Lie Hok Seng ( they do not have children , your child meangkat Ipo Tjoa Kang Sung Tak Bun Him whose wife sister Tjoa toen oldest Gin ,
 

Kang brother kim Bwee ( no1 ) . lian.tjabo kim kang kang and sim poe , Kang Kim Mua ( No. 3 ) , namely his mother drg Tjoe Lie Heng – wife named Ben Pangabean kim hwa Kang , as well as my father’s wife ‘s sister Djintjek keng Ie the GHO Lie Kim named her jade – Go siei Hong , GSlan , GHO Soei ing.bersaudara Nine . ( Dr iwan note )

Ethical Trade Platform Minang – China Relations


It is estimated , there were 12 thousand Chinese people lived in Padang. Hundreds of clan or tribe inhabiting .
However , only eight tribes who have a home meeting . GHO is the eighth tribe , Lie – Kwee , Tan , Ong , Tjoa – Kwa , Lim Hwang and Kho . Kho clan is a clan who built the house last meetings. ” Marga another few in number . So do not build a house meeting , “said Rush of Family Hanura Lie – Kwee . Lie- Kwee currently has 600 members . All were over 17 years old .
( At least the genus Auyong , is the founder of the famous daily KOMPAS Auyong Peng Koen was born in Payakumbuh – known as PKOyong – Dr Iwan note )

As the name implies , the meeting house was used to organize events involving one family. For example, the Lunar ( Chinese New Year ) , Cap Go Meh ( 15th day of the Chinese New Year celebration ) , Kio , Sipasan or Pek Chun ( the feast that commemorates the height of summer ) . In fact , the 140 th anniversary , the family plans to invite Lie – Kwee – Kwee Lie entire tribe residing in Indonesia . ” But , it’s three years away , ” said Lie Kian Guan secretary secretary Lie – Kwee family set .
Kinship is to be number one for the Chinese . And as ” indigenous ” people of Central Asia ( Japan and Korea ) , they are maintaining the dignity of the family . If embarrassing , suicide or disposed of the family is an appropriate punishment . ” On the field , for example, many families are no longer recognized , to the extent that made ​​the ad in the paper , because it tarnished the family disgrace , ” said Hanura .

They had great respect for ancestors . This is a fundamental attitude to the Chinese . ” It’s influenced by the teachings of Tao Confunsius and attached to each of the Chinese , ” said Erniwati .

One more is the attitude of the Chinese authorities often approach . In the Dutch period they were considered second-class citizens . While indigenous third grade . So also in Japanese and Sukarno era . They get an opportunity that many people are not even natives though .

Only in the Suharto era , tap the Chinese trade a little freedom is restricted in the public eye . Therefore , some Chinese people become successful entrepreneurs such as Sui Liong Liem ( Salim ) , the owner of Bank BCA . ( Dr Iwan note : Sofyan Wanandi – Liem Bian from Padang koen one successful Chinese entrepreneurs )

At the time of Sukarno’s Dutch and they are placed with a single purpose , the economy . Dutch resettle them along the Dutch region , such as in the area to be monitored Kampuang Cino in overseeing their trade . Soekarno Likewise , those in the ‘ hand over ‘ in one place and only allowed to trade .

This , according to Hanura , there are pros and cons . On the one hand they fulfilled economically , but on the other hand they can not contribute in other areas . ” How many civil servants who are of Chinese descent ,” he asked .

Jealousy had mastered the natives saw their success in trade . No wonder , when there are riots , the Chinese became targets as the events of 1998. ” Though not all Chinese people rich . Look at Tanah Kongsi market , ” said Hanura .
However , in the crunch Padang Minang ethnic Chinese and does not occur or is not as big as other cities . According Erniwati , the unique relationship between the two.
As a fellow tribe strong trade and has a strong culture and religion , should conflicts often occur . ” It seems , ethical trade makes both respect each other , ” said Erniwati .

Ethical trade makes both tribes are in a position of a friend . It looks like the two have shared trade area . Trade dominated the national level as well as the Minang people to the international area , the Chinese had been the ruler .

99 % Could not Chinese
Loose from the Soeharto era , the Chinese became more freely . Government pressure is much reduced . The Chinese are more liberated in performing worship and culture . No wonder the Chinese New Year or Cap Go Meh feels more festive than year to year . ” The most exciting event was Sipasan . Cap Go Meh At this time the show will take place most festive Sipasan because Sipasan long , “said Xin Xui who trade in front of the HBT .

Even so , alkulturasi quietly been taking place. China long before people breathe easier.

‘ The proof , 99 % of Chinese people who live here can no longer be Chinese , ” said Hanura . Distance away from ancestral lands , as well as limited memory makes Chinese culture slowly began to be forgotten . Many residents in Padang ‘s Chinatown was shocked when Erniwati mention Chinese traditions that had never been heard . Language that emerged was impressed funny . Tanah Kongsi market may witness alkulturasi languages. If you were there , Malay – Chinese sounds here and there . Pigi where lu ( going ) , Telok kecik papaw ( urinating large eggs , kind of expression ) , it would ndak o ( he will not) , for example .
To attenuate the distance , ceremonies , religious warnings sought to be implemented as it should . Although it only to write Chinese characters without understanding its meaning. ” Ndak ambo know , do , ” said Hanura when asked the purpose of the text contained in lanterns .

When interviewed Hanura palanquin procession is preparing event on Thursday ( 5/2 ) ago . A mystical events like dabuih at Coastal . The goal of the ancestors . Kio houses paraded to the other clans . ” To friendship , ” said Arif Rusli Rusdi , Jiko ( representative ) of the Lie and Kwee family .

Additionally , Sipasan be unique in Kampung Chinese art . In fact according to Hanura , art is not found in other Chinatowns in Indonesian .

During Mother’s Day , the Chinese community held a unique competition . Race wearing marapulai Minangkabau. Variations also vary . There Sawahlunto wedding dress , Bukittinggi , Payakumbuh , “said Hanura who happens to get a wedding dress from Padang .

From there he also learned that culturally there is a very obvious similarities between the Minang culture with Chinese . ” Especially the wedding dress . And Telong said in a poem has similarities with Tenglong ( lanterns ) . “
Erniwati similarities justify it even called this a bit sensitive to the Minang .

Another visible change is the Chinese people are now no longer closed to accept members from outside the ethnic . In fact , many players brown -skinned dragon or lion . ” There’s even a Muslim , ” said Hanura .
 

No wonder that there was a lion dance show , not all players yellow . Belo eyes also appeared as the head emerged from behind the lion dance .
Can not be touched when “spring ” this will end . Erniwati convinced that the Chinese community in Padang will not get political interference and excessive pressure from the Minangkabau ethnic . ( Yusrizal KW / Andika Destika Khagen / S.Metron M / Esha Tough Son / Gus RY ) from Padang Ekpres Daily Newspaper

 

I hope this informations about Chiense overseas history especially vice consuslt cina and kapitan Cina with related collections will made the next generation now how their relatives grand-grandpa became very success live in Indonesia and Malaysia (that time straits,federated Malaya and dutch east Indie)

I will put some info from this book in Mr Robert Yeap ‘s Zheng he museum Penang which we are coabolrations with mutual benefit, and if someone want to get the full information can buy the complete CD-ROM straight to me via my email address

iwansywandy@gmail.com

Jkarta November 2013

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE HISTORY OF CHINESE OVERSEAS IN INDONESIA DURING DUTCH EAST INDIE

Chinese immigrants to the Indonesian archipelago almost entirely originated from ethnic Han groups of what are now the Fujian and Guangdong provinces in southern China, known for their regional diversity.[78]

The Han Chinese form the largest ethnic group in the world with large numbers living in Southeast Asia.[79] Nearly all Chinese Indonesians are either patrilineal descendants of these early immigrants, or new immigrants born in mainland China.[80]

 

 

The tin mines of Bangka Island almost entirely employed Chinese workers.

Top of Form

Tambang timah Pulau Bangka hampir seluruhnya mempekerjakan pekerja Cina.

Sebagai kelompok pertama dari orang-orang Cina untuk menetap dalam jumlah besar, Hokkien selatan Fujian menjadi kelompok imigran yang dominan hingga pertengahan abad ke-19.
Maritim-pedagang budaya mereka berasal dari pekerjaan perdagangan mereka sementara di Indonesia. Keturunan dari Hokkiens adalah kelompok dominan di Indonesia Timur, Tengah, dan Jawa Timur, dan pantai barat Sumatera.
Tiociu, tetangga selatan Hokkien, ditemukan di seluruh pantai timur Sumatera, di Kepulauan Riau, dan di bagian barat Kalimantan. Mereka lebih disukai sebagai buruh perkebunan di Sumatera, tetapi telah menjadi pedagang di daerah mana Hokkien yang tidak terwakili. [81]
The Hakka, tidak seperti Hokkien dan Teochew, berasal dari daerah pedalaman pegunungan Guangdong dan tidak memiliki budaya maritim. [81] Karena medan yang tidak produktif daerah rumah mereka, Hakka beremigrasi karena kebutuhan ekonomi dalam beberapa gelombang dari 1850-1930 dan yang termiskin dari kelompok imigran Cina. Meskipun mereka pada awalnya dihuni pusat pertambangan barat Kalimantan dan Pulau Bangka, Hakkas menjadi tertarik pada pertumbuhan yang cepat dari Batavia dan Jawa Barat di akhir abad 19 [82].
Orang Kanton, seperti Hakka, yang terkenal di seluruh Asia Tenggara sebagai penambang. Migrasi mereka di abad ke-19 sebagian besar diarahkan pada tambang timah Bangka, di lepas pantai timur Sumatera. Terkemuka tradisional sebagai pengrajin terampil, Kanton manfaat dari kontak dekat dengan orang Eropa di Guangdong dan Hong Kong dengan belajar tentang keberhasilan mesin dan industri. Mereka bermigrasi ke Jawa sekitar waktu yang sama seperti Hakka, tapi untuk alasan yang berbeda. Di kota-kota di Indonesia mereka menjadi pengrajin, pekerja mesin, dan pemilik bisnis kecil seperti restoran dan hotel-menjaga layanan. The Kanton yang merata di seluruh kepulauan dan nomor jauh lebih sedikit daripada Hokkien atau Hakka. Akibatnya peran mereka sangat penting sekunder dalam masyarakat Tionghoa [82].

As the first group of Chinese people to settle in large numbers, the Hokkien of southern Fujian became the dominant immigrant group until the middle of the 19th century.

Their maritime-mercantile culture comes from their trade occupations whilst in Indonesia. Descendants of Hokkiens are the dominant group in eastern Indonesia, Central and East Java, and the western coast of Sumatra.

Teochews, southern neighbors of the Hokkien, are found throughout the eastern coast of Sumatra, in the Riau Archipelago, and in western Borneo. They were preferred as plantation laborers in Sumatra but have become traders in regions where the Hokkien are not well represented.[81]

The Hakka, unlike the Hokkien and the Teochew, originate from the mountainous inland regions of Guangdong and do not have a maritime culture.[81] Due to the unproductive terrain of their home region, the Hakka emigrated out of economic necessity in several waves from 1850 to 1930 and were the poorest of the Chinese immigrant groups. Although they initially populated the mining centers of western Borneo and Bangka Island, Hakkas became attracted to the rapid growth of Batavia and West Java in the late 19th century.[82]

Cantonese people, like the Hakka, were well known throughout Southeast Asia as mineworkers. Their migration in the 19th century was largely directed toward the tin mines of Bangka, off the east coast of Sumatra. Notable traditionally as skilled artisans, the Cantonese benefited from close contact with Europeans in Guangdong and Hong Kong by learning about machinery and industrial success. They migrated to Java about the same time as the Hakka, but for different reasons. In Indonesia’s cities they became artisans, machine workers, and owners of small businesses such as restaurants and hotel-keeping services. The Cantonese are evenly dispersed throughout the archipelago and number far less than the Hokkien or the Hakka. Consequently their roles are of secondary importance in the Chinese communities.[82]

 

By the time the Dutch arrived in the early 17th century,

major Chinese settlements existed along the north coast of Java. Most were traders and merchants, but they also practiced agriculture in inland areas.

The Dutch contracted many of these immigrants as skilled artisans in the construction of Batavia (Jakarta) on the northwestern coast of Java.[19]

A recently created harbor was selected as the new headquarters of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) in 1609 by Jan Pieterszoon Coen. It grew into a major hub for trade with China and India.

Batavia became home to the largest Chinese community in the archipelago and remains so in the 21st century.[24]

Coen and other early Governors-General promoted the entry of Chinese immigrants to new settlements “for the benefit of those places and for the purpose of gathering spices like cloves, nutmeg, and mace”.[25]

The port’s Chinese population of 300–400 in 1619 had grown to at least 10,000 by 1740.[26] The Dutch, however, introduced a racial classification system that separated residents of Chinese ancestry from those of other ancestry.[27]

Most of those who settled in the archipelago had already severed their ties with the mainland and welcomed favorable treatment and protection under the Dutch.[28]

Some became “revenue farmers”, middlemen within the corporate structure of the VOC, tasked with collecting export–import duties and managing the harvest of natural resources;[29] although this was highly profitable, it earned the enmity of the pribumi population. Others worked as opium farmers.[30]

Following the 1740 Batavia massacre and ensuing war, in which the Chinese rebelled against the Dutch,[31] the Dutch attempted to place a quota on the number of Chinese who could enter the Indies.

Amoy was designated as the only immigration port to the archipelago, and ships were limited to a specified number of crew and passengers depending on size. This quota was adjusted at times to meet demand for overseas workers, such as in July 1802 when sugar mills near Batavia were in need of workers.[32]

When the VOC was nationalized on 31 December 1799, many freedoms the Chinese experienced under the corporation were eliminated by the Dutch government.

Among them was the Chinese monopoly on the salt trade which had been granted by the VOC administration.[33]

An 1816 regulation introduced a requirement for the indigenous population and Chinese traveling within the territory to obtain a travel permit. Those who did not carry a permit faced arrest by security officers.

The Governor-General also introduced a resolution in 1825 which forbade “foreign Asians in Java such as Malays, Buginese and Chinese” from living within the same neighborhood as the native population.[34]

Following the costly Java War (1825–1830) the Dutch introduced a new agrarian and cultivation system that required farmers to “yield up a portion of their fields and cultivate crops suitable for the European market”. Compulsory cultivation restored the economy of the colony, but ended the system of revenue farms established under the VOC.[35]

 

 

The first Dutch Chinese Schools were established in 1892 following a split in curriculum from the native population.

The Chinese were perceived as temporary residents and encountered difficulties in obtaining land rights. Europeans were prioritized in the choice of plantation areas, while colonial officials believed the remaining plots must be protected and preserved for the indigenous population.

Short-term and renewable leases of varying lengths[b] were later introduced as a temporary measure, but many Chinese remained on these lands upon expiration of their contracts and became squatters.[36]

In the second half of the 19th century the colonial government began experimenting with the idea of an “Ethical Policy” to protect the indigenous population, casting the Chinese as the “foremost enemy of the state”. Under the new policy the administration increased restrictions on Chinese economic activities, which they believed exploited the native population.[37]

In western Borneo the Chinese established their first major mining settlement in 1760. Ousting Dutch settlers and the local Malay princes, they joined into a new republic known as Lanfang.

By 1819 they came into conflict with the new Dutch government and were seen as “incompatible” with its objectives, yet indispensable for the development of the region.[38] The Bangka–Belitung Islands also became examples of major settlements in rural areas.

In 1851 28 Chinese were recorded on the islands and by 1915 the population had risen to nearly 40,000 and fishing and tobacco industries had developed. Coolies brought into the region after the end of the 19th century were mostly hired from the Straits Settlements owing to recruiting obstacles that existed in China.[39]

CHINA: Through the Lens of John Thomson 1868-1872

An historic photographic exhibition including 150 images taken in China between 1868 and 1872. The exhibition includes a wide variety of images, themes and locations in China from Beijing to Fujian to Guangdong including landscapes, people, architecture, domestic and street scenes.  The show in Beijing is accompanied by several displays of original clothes from the era.

John Thomson (1837–1921) was born in Edinburgh two years before the invention of the daguerreotype was announced to the world in 1839.

This discovery was the beginning of photography. That same year Fox Talbot introduced the calotype process, and with this new medium David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, two remarkable Scottish photographers living in Edinburgh, produced nearly 3,000 images, including city views, landscapes and scenes of everyday life. Their work undoubtedly had a profound influence on Thomson.

 In the years leading up to Thomson becoming a professional photographer, the technology of photography also developed at an incredible speed. The invention of the wet-collodian process in 1850 is regarded as the watershed: it reduced the exposure time and the cost of making photographs; it also produced sharper images. The wet-collodian process quickly replaced daguerreotype and calotype.

As Thomson remarked: ‘the detail in wet-collodian negatives was of microscopic minuteness whilst presenting the finest gradation and printing quality which had never indeed been surpassed by any known method’. But this in itself added to his difficulties: it was necessary to make the negatives on glass plates that had to be coated with wet-collodian emulsion before the exposure was made, thus there was a large amount of cumbersome equipment that had to be carried from place to place.

Yet Thomson persevered. To endure hardship was part of his Victorian education. He showed enormous energy and stamina. Like many of his Victorian contemporaries, he was excited by the opening up of Africa and Asia to the West, and he shared in the enthusiasm for exploring exotic places. He believed that by using photography, ‘the explorer may add not only to the interest, but to the permanent value of his work’.  And ‘the camera should be a power in this age of instruction to instruct the age’.

In 1862, Thomson set out for Singapore, where he opened a studio and established himself as a professional portrait photographer. Meanwhile, he also became increasingly interested in the local culture and people. From Singapore he travelled into Malaya and Sumatra and took a number of photographs of local landscapes and people. In 1866, after moving to Bangkok, he made his first photographic expedition into Cambodia and Indo-China (Vietnam). His photographs of Cambodia and Siam (Thailand) established him as a serious travel photographer, and gained him membership of both the Ethnographic Society of London and the Royal Geographic Society.

During his second trip to Asia, Thomson based himself at the thriving British Crown Colony of Hong Kong in 1868. There he studied Chinese and Chinese culture while making a few short trips into Guangdong. Thomson’s major China expedition began in 1870. For two years he travelled extensively from Guangdong to Fujian, and then to eastern and northern China, including the imperial capital Beijing, before heading down to the River Yangtse, altogether covering nearly 5000 miles. In China, Thomson excelled as a photographer in quality, depth and breadth, and also in artistic sensibility. The experience he gained, and the techniques he developed, on the streets of Beijing laid the foundation for his Street Life in London, compiled five years later. This established him as the pioneer of photojournalism and one of the most influential photographers of his generation.

After returning to Britain, Thomson took up an active role informing the public about China. Besides giving illustrated presentations, he continuously published photographic and written works on China. He sensed that a profound transformation was taking place in the world, and ‘through the agency of steam and telegraphy, [China] is being brought day by day into closer relationship with ourselves … China cannot much longer lie undisturbed in statii quo.’  Undoubtedly his photographs contributed greatly to 19th-century Europe’s view of Asia and filled the visual gap between East and West. He became known as ‘China’ Thomson.

Yet what marked Thomson’s work out was not simply the massive amount of visual information he offered. His uniqueness was his zeal to present a faithful and precise, though not always agreeable, account of China and Chinese people. He wanted his audiences to witness China’s floods, famines, pestilences and civil wars; but even more so, he wanted share them the human aspect of life in China. He wanted his work to transcend that of the casual illustration of idiosyncratic types, to portray human beings as individuals full of peculiarities.

In 1920, Thomson decided to sell his 650 glass negatives, including those of China, to the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum, but died before the transaction could be completed. Eventually Henry Solomon Wellcome (1853–1936), the American-born pharmacist and philanthropist, bought the negatives from Thomson’s heirs.

Although Wellcome’s museum had a medical and historical theme, Wellcome was a cosmopolitan, and, in some aspects, compulsive collector. He also had an anthropological approach to history, and his ultimate aim was to create a Museum of Man, although this dream was never realised. After his death much of his collection, including Thomson’s negatives in three wooden crates, ended up in the Wellcome Library in London, where they remain today.

The 150 images included in this exhibition are all from the Wellcome Library’s collection. While a few images were reproduced in Thomson’s published works and shown in exhibitions, the great majority of his photographs have never been exhibited. Take, for example, the stereoscopes. Each of these negatives comprises two photographs taken from slightly different angles. Previously, due to the cost of photo-publishing, only one of the exposures was printed.

The images included for this exhibition have been chosen mainly for their locations, namely those of Beijing, Guangdong and Fujian.

The photographs Thomson took in Fujian and Guangdong are his strongest series of landscapes. But they also show his sensitivity.

The human aspect of his work was even more evident in his photos of the poor. In Guangdong and Fujian, he became increasingly concerned with the lives and conditions of ordinary Chinese.

As he travelled further, this concern developed. In the imperial capital of Beijing, Thomson not only displayed his talent as professional portrait photographer, his street scenes of Beijing showed that he was ahead of his time. These deeply moving images are sometimes compared to street photographs by the great 20th-century masters like Andre Kertesz, Henri Cartier-Bresson or Robert Doisneau. But more importantly, they will remain as incredibly valuable historical material for anyone wishing to understand 19th-century China and its people in their struggle to become modern.

Fujian Province, China

 

 

Provinsi Fujian adalah tanah nenek moyang saya yang meninggalkan tepi pantai provinsi ini pada abad ke-19 dan tenggelam akar di Nanyang – Laut Selatan. Atau dikenal sebagai Asia Tenggara. Mereka tinggal selama beberapa generasi di Malaysia sebelum ayah saya membuat jalan selatan ke dinamo pulau yang muncul dari Singapura yang meledak ekonomis tidak lama setelah ia tiba. Menjadi anak di luar negeri berkali-kali dihapus, saya tidak bisa memikirkan satu alasan mengapa saya harus jauh tertarik di Fujian, selain kepeduliannya motherlands yang memanggil semua yang meninggalkan pantainya dari ikan untuk unggas ke manusia. Melalui pembacaan latar belakang saya, saya ingin melukis pemandangan Anda dalam kata-kata. Mungkin suatu hari, aku akan bisa untuk mengisi stroke luas

(Kakek saya Gho kim Thian dating dari Cganzhou atau Tjiang tjioe Hokkien setelah pernah ikut ayahnya(ngkongtjo) ke Indonesia karena tidak mau menikah dengan wanita yang dipilih orang tuanya, Ia mengembara ke sumatera barat menuju kota Pajakumbuh, disana ia sebagai orang sinkek ditampung oleh ngkongtjo saya Tjoa Tjay hiok,ayah dari kakek saya Tjoa Gin Toen di Payakumbuh, dipekerjakan diperusahaan dagangnya,

Kmudian ia dijodohkan dengan anak saudaranya Tjoa giok Wan, dan ternyata putranya,ayah saya G.T.Bo(Djohan Oetama) kem menikah dengan putrid pamannya sendiri Anna Tjoa Giok Lan,

Ayah saya selalu memanggil mertuanya Ngkoe(paman).-

Tahun 2008 saya berkesempatan mengunjungi kampong halaman kakek saya versama isteri Lily ,yang berjarak 2 jam dengan Bus dari Xianmen dan perumahan seperti di kota Padang berada disamping suatu wihara yang sangat indah Kay yuan temple namanya,dengan suatu pagoda yang Indah,

saya heran mengapa kakek saya mau meninggalkan kota Changzhou yang begitu Indah,apakah mungkin karena pengaruh serangan Dai Nippon di Manchuria/ dan kemudian terjadi pembantaiaan di Nanking,mungkin saja, ngkongtjo saya pernah menyusul putranya Gho kim thian tetapi tidak bertemu muka hanya melambaikan tsnggan di pelabuhan Teluk Bayur saja,ini saat baru diketahui kakek saya sudah menikah dan tunagannya di tiongkok baru diputuskan.catatan dr Iwan)

Fujian province is the homeland of my ancestors who left the shores of this coastal province in the 19th century and sank roots in Nanyang – the South Seas. Otherwise known as South East Asia. They lived for generations in Malaysia before my father made his way south to the emerging island dynamo of Singapore which exploded economically not long after he arrived. Being an overseas son many times removed, I can’t think of a single reason why I should be remotely interested in Fujian, other than the stirrings of motherlands that call all who leave its shores from fish to fowl to mankind. Through my background readings, I’d like to paint you a landscape in words. Maybe one day, I’ll be able to fill in the broad strokes…


The Mountains of Fujian

Fujian is predominantly mountainous – walled in on the north, west and south sides. A truly spectacular sight. The precious arable flat land is rich but self limiting for a growing population.

There are over 1,000 islands off the Fujian coast which provides welcome fishing grounds for subsistence and over 600 species of fish.

The islands also provide the geographic shelter that created natural harbours for Fuzhou (Hokchew), Quanzhou (Chuanchew) and Xiamen (Amoy) to develop into trading ports

In fact, during the Tang dynasty of 608 – 907 AD – China’s Renaissance Period of culture, literature, trade and arts, Chuanchew was a mecca for Arab and European traders who called the city Zaytun.

At the height of such international travel and trade, Hokkiens began to follow the trading routes into South East Asia and setting up trading settlements.

Thus began the Fujian Exodus.

THE STORY OF THE FUJIAN EXODUS

The Fujian Exodus is a story of hope and inspiration.

Of pioneering and sacrifice.

It is a legacy that we can all be proud of.

 

 

 

 


Trade Winds Fan The Flames Of Fujian Migration


Manila
Dibutuhkan hanya tiga hari
dengan  sampah untuk mencapai Manila dari Fujian. Manila adalah pusat strategis perdagangan galleon di pusat Asia. Manila adalah depot perdagangan perak Meksiko pada rute ke China sebagai pembayaran atas sutra dan porselen.

Para Hokkiens baik siap untuk bertindak sebagai perantara di Manila untuk perdagangan ini dan segera membentuk sebuah komunitas yang masih berlangsung hingga hari ini.

 

Manila

It takes only three days for a junk to reach Manila from Fujian. Manila was a strategic hub of the galleon trade in the centre of Asia. Manila was a trade depot for Mexican silver on route to China as payment for silk and porcelain. The Hokkiens were well poised to act as intermediaries in Manila for this trade and soon formed a community that still thrives today.


Perdagangan Bebas di Singapura dan Malaya
Janji keberuntungan terbatas terletak di jantung perdagangan bebas Asia Tenggara – Singapura dan Malaysia – kemudian dikenal sebagai Settlements Selat Singapura, Penang dan Malaka.
Semua tiga kota adalah pelabuhan alam dan pelabuhan seperti Amoy dan Chuanchew. Hokkiens pergi dari pelabuhan ke pelabuhan dan membentuk masyarakat yang mengakar sampai hari ini.
Ke hari Penang, Malaka dan Singapura dan dialek Min’Nan masih Fraca lingua paling Cina di sana

Free Trade in Singapore and Malaya

The promise of limitless fortune lay in the free trade heartland of South East Asia – Singapore and Malaysia – then known as the Straits Settlements of Singapore, Penang and Malacca.

All three cities were natural ports and harbours like Amoy and Chuanchew. Hokkiens went from port to port and formed communities that are entrenched to this day.

Go to Penang, Malacca and Singapore today and the Min’Nan dialect is still the lingua fraca of most Chinese there.


Warisan Keberanian dan Ketahanan
Tan Kah Kee. Kekasih
Patriot Cina yang memimpin kampanye penggalangan dana dari Singapura untuk membantu anti-perang upaya China dalam Perang Dunia 2. Dia dihormati di Singapura Hokkien Huay Kuan, terbesar dialek bangsa asosiasi klan.
Jimei juga merupakan kota kelahiran Mr Tan Kah Kee-, pemimpin Cina terkenal di luar negeri yang mengabdikan homself sepenuhnya terhadap pendidikan cause.He mulai berbagai sekolah di kota, termasuk Sekolah Jimei normal, Jimei Navigasi Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Produk Technical Institute dan Pertanian Sekolah selain TK Jimei, Jimei Sekolah Dasar dan Sekolah Menengah Jimei.

Kediaman mantan Mr.Tan Kah-Kee terletak di Jalan Jiageng di kota Jimei.It masih menjaga penampilan lama untuk dikunjungi dan direnungkan. Mr.Tan Kah-kee tinggal hemat sepanjang hidupnya. Tidak ada yang dapat tetap bergeming ketika mereka melihat betapa sederhananya  pakaian yang mereka kebutuhan sehari-hari
Tan Kah Kee didirikan Amoy University di Xiamen dan membangun sebuah distrik sekolah untuk memajukan penyebab pendidikan di provinsi rumah kami. Pada kematiannya, ia diberi pemakaman kenegaraan oleh Beijing.

 

Legacies of Courage and Resilience

Tan Kah Kee. Beloved China Patriot who led the fund raising campaign from Singapore to aid China’s anti-war effort in World War 2. He honoured in Singapore’s Hokkien Huay Kuan, the nation’s largest dialect clan association.

Jimei is also the hometown of Mr. Tan Kah-Kee, a famous overseas Chinese leader who devoted homself wholly to the education cause.He had started various schools in the town, including Jimei Normal School,Jimei Navigation Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Products Technical Institute and Agriculture School besides Jimei Kindergarden, Jimei Primary School and Jimei Middle School.

 

The former residence of Mr.Tan Kah-Kee is situated on Jiageng Road in the town of Jimei.It is still keeping its old looks to be visited and pondered. Mr.Tan Kah-kee was living frugally all his life. No one can keep unmoved when they see how simple those daily necessities and clothings are.

Tan Kah Kee established Amoy University in Xiamen and built a school district to further the cause of education in our home province. At his death, he was given a state funeral by Beijing.

(Perlu dilakukan penelitian situasi di Padang sumatera barat yang situasi hamper sama ,walaupun tentunya agak berbeda akibat pengaruh situasi, seperti Kakek iibu saya ,ayak dari nenek saya Tan Kim soan yang bernama Tan giok lin dating dari Filipina bersama isteri yang juga dari Hokian,dan saat isterinya meninggal menikah dengan putrid Minangkabau Asli dan memeluk agama Isdlam, ia mendirikan Bioskop pertama di kota Padang bernama Scalabio,saat meninggal dengan penguburan menurut agama Islam dan dikuburkan dikuburan Islam Pasir Angek dipinggir pantai dekat kuburan keramat Kiai Islam,saat ini sudah dibongkar dan kuburannya dipindahkan ke tabing.catatan dr Iwan)

 

LOCAL BORN

Hokkiens as a rule, migrated without their women, to save them from a life of hardship worse than the one they leave behind. Consequently, marriages with local Malay women in Singapore, Malaya and the Philippines created a new line of Chinese descendants who never knew the motherland.

In the Philippines, they were known as the Chinese mestizos.

The most famous mestizo of all was none other than the national hero of the Philippines – Jose Rizal, a Philippines patriot who engineered a failed revolution against the Spanish colonialists and was martyred..(The dsam in Indonesia Dr Iwan Note)

 

 

Divided nationalism (1900–1949)[edit source | editbeta]

 

 

Chinese language school owned by the Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan in Sungailiat, Bangka

The Chinese revolutionary figure Sun Yat-sen visited southeast Asia in 1900,[40] and later that year the socio-religious organization Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan (中華 會館), also known as the Chinese Association, was founded. Their goal was to urge ethnic Chinese in the Indies to support the revolutionary movement in China.

 

Tionghoa Cianjur 1890

In its effort to build Chinese-speaking schools the association argued that the teaching of the English and Chinese languages should be prioritized over Dutch, to provide themselves with the means of taking, in the words of Phoa Keng Hek, “a two or three-day voyage (Java–Singapore) into a wider world where they can move freely” and overcome restrictions of their activities.[41]

Several years later the Dutch authorities abandoned its segregation policies, abolished travel permits for the ethnic Chinese, and allowed them to freely move throughout the colony.

The 1911 Xinhai Revolution and the 1912 founding of the Republic of China coincided with a growing Chinese-nationalist movement within the Indies.[40]

Although there was no recognizable nationalist movement among the indigenous population until 1908, Dutch authorities feared that nationalist sentiments would spread with the growth of ethnically mixed associations, known as kongsi.

In 1911 some Javanese members of the Kong Sing association in Surakarta broke away and clashed with the ethnic Chinese.

This incident led to the creation of Sarekat Islam, the first organized popular nationalist movement in the Indies. Indigenous groups saw the Chinese nationalist sentiment as “haughty”, leading to mutual antagonism.[42]

 

The anti-Chinese sentiment spread throughout Java in 1918 and led to mass violence orchestrated by members of Sarekat Islam on the ethnic Chinese in Kudus.[43] Following this incident the left-wing Chinese nationalist daily Sin Po called on both sides to work together to improve living conditions because it considered most ethnic Chinese, like most of the indigenous population, to be poor.[44]

 

 

Early draft of the Indonesia Raya, later adopted as a national anthem, in a 1928 weekly edition of the Sin Po newspaper[45]

Sin Po first went into print in 1910 and began gaining momentum as the leading advocate of Chinese political nationalism in 1917. The ethnic Chinese who followed its stream of thought refused any involvement with local institutions and would only participate in politics relating to mainland China.[46]

A second stream was later formed by wealthy ethnic Chinese who received an education at Dutch-run schools. This Dutch-oriented group wished for increased participation in local politics, Dutch education for the ethnic Chinese, and the furthering of ethnic Chinese economic standing within the colonial economy. Championed by the Volksraad‘s sole ethnic Chinese representative Kan Hok Hoei, this movement gained momentum and reached its peak with the Chung Hwa Congress of 1927 and the 1928 formation of the Chung Hwa Hui party, which elected Kan as its president. The editor-in-chief of the Madjallah Panorama news magazine criticized Sin Po for misguiding the ethnic Chinese by pressuring them into a Chinese-nationalist stance.[47]

In 1932 pro-Indonesian counterparts founded the Partai Tionghoa Indonesia to support absorption of the ethnic Chinese into the Javanese population and support the call for self-government of Indonesia. Members of this group were primarily peranakan.[48] This division resurfaced at the end of the period of Japanese occupation (1942–1945).[49] Under the occupation ethnic Chinese communities were attacked by Japanese forces, in part owing to suspicions that they contained sympathizers of the Kuomintang as a consequence of the Second Sino-Japanese War. When the Dutch returned, following the end of World War II, the chaos caused by advancing forces and retreating revolutionaries also saw radical Muslim groups attack ethnic Chinese communities.[43]

Although revolutionary leaders were sympathetic toward the ethnic Chinese, they were unable to stop the sporadic violence. Those who were affected fled from the rural areas to Dutch-controlled cities, a move many Indonesians saw as proof of pro-Dutch sentiments.[50] There was evidence, however, that Chinese Indonesians were represented and participated in independence efforts. Four members of the Committee for the Investigation of the Preparation for Indonesian Independence (Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, BPUPKI) and one member on the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, PPKI) had Chinese names

 

Tionhoa hwe  koan school

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