koleksi sejarah perang dunia kedua di Euro prolog 1939

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The Euro world War II History Collections

Part Prologue 1939

Created By Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-Rom edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright@2013

Prolog 1.939

 

Februari, 15th.1939

Kiessling & Schiefner Dresden

  pada 6 persen Hindenbverg kartupos stasioner dikirim dari Dresden 1939/02/15 kepada Mr L.Christ Neurenberg, dengan  gambar kembali promosi Hus un Kundhegerate Hotelbedarf Aufrag bulu Fa, L.Christ

 3 buah tempat pelayan nomor satu varietas vergoldest, emaeilliert dengan 01:30 sichcherheitsnadel gross hitungan 1-12.
Heil Hitler!
tangan tandatangan stempel  Kiessling & Sciefner cincang pada delcredere tanda Nord Sud eGmbH Dresden gottig nuf untuk delkrendere mentolerir Lieteranten pendapatan 20 RM dan 10 RM

Photo: look the closed up salut heil hitler and local revenue of germany nazi era 1939 pre WW III

tulisan Asli dalam bahasa Jerman

Je 3 terjebak kellner nummern Sorte 1 vergoldest, emaeilliert mit sichcherheitsnadel brutto 1,30 Zahl 1-12.

Heil Hitler!

handSign Kiessling & Sciefner cincang pada Delkredere Wertmarke Nord Sud EGMBH Dresden gottig nuf bulu delkrendere vertrage Lieteranten 10 und 20 RM

menarik

 

Hitler salut Heil Hitler! pada kartu ini

(Courtecy dr Iwan Suwandy, ditemukan di Kotakinibalu sabah (sebelum Yeseltown Kalimantan Utara)

 

 

Kartu Promosi lainnya yang sama pada hindenberg 3 postalsationer persen kirim ke drwsden

 
 

Prolog 1939

February,15th.1939

Kiessling &Schiefner Dresden

 on  6 cent Hindenbverg postal stationer card send from Desden 15.2.1939 to Mr L.Christ  Neurenberg, at back  promotional picture of Hus un Kundhegerate Hotelbedarf Aufrag fur  Fa, L.Christ

Place 3 pieces waiter number one varietal vergoldest, emaeilliert with 1:30 sichcherheitsnadel gross count 1-12.
Heil Hitler!
hand sign Kiessling & Sciefner chopped on delcredere token Nord Sud eGmbH Dresden gottig nuf for delkrendere tolerate Lieteranten revenue 20 RM and 10 RM

Original in germany

Je 3 stuck kellner  nummern sorte 1  vergoldest,emaeilliert mit sichcherheitsnadel  brutto 1.30 Zahl 1-12.

Heil Hitler !

handSign Kiessling & Sciefner chopped on  Delkredere Wertmarke Nord Sud E.G.M.B.H  Dresden gottig nuf fur  delkrendere vertrage Lieteranten 10 und 20 RM

Interesting

 

the Hitler salut Heil Hitler ! on this card

(Courtecy dr Iwan suwandy,found at Kotakinibalu sabah(before Yeseltown North Borneo)

 

 

Other same Promotional card on hindenberg 3 cent postalsationer send to dresden

1939

Photo: this is another germany Bhoeringer Promotional leaflet send to Indonesia in 1939 pre WWII

Langka CFBoeringer & Sohned GmbH, Mannheim-Waldhof promosi (reklame) Perlaten-Kalsium dalam folder klimakterium kartu mengirim dari CD Manheim 10.3.39 khusus cap pos Deutch nazi reich 5 persen menjadi Dr Thung Sin Nio (frist medis Cina docter luar negeri Universitas Indonesia ) Batavia-centrum (sekarang Jakarta Pusat)

(courtecy Dr Iwan ditemukan di Jakarta pada tahun 1994)

Perusahaan farmasi Boehringer Ingelheim didirikan pada tahun 1885 oleh

 

  Albert Boehringer (1861-1939)

di Ingelheim am Rhein.

  Dari awal di 1885 ketika bekerja hanya 28 orang di Nieder-Ingelheim, perusahaan ini telah menjadi perusahaan global.

Sebagai bagian dari kegiatan penelitian dan pengembangan untuk obat inovatif, perusahaan berfokus terutama pada wilayah terapi penyakit jantung, penyakit pernapasan, penyakit pada sistem saraf pusat, penyakit metabolik, penyakit virologi dan onkologi.

Boehringer Ingelheim adalah kelompok global perusahaan merangkul banyak budaya dan masyarakat yang beragam. Pelajari lebih lanjut tentang ikhtisar data keuangan, visi perusahaan, organisasi, Direksi Mengelola dan sejarah perusahaan serta keterlibatan kami untuk tujuan ilmiah, budaya dan lingkungan

 

March, 13th.1939

Ambisi Hitler 

 

Adolf Hitler menginginkan lebih banyak tanah, terutama di timur, untuk memperluas Jerman sesuai dengan kebijakan Nazi lebensraum. Hitler menggunakan keterbatasan keras yang ditetapkan melawan Jerman di Perjanjian Versailles sebagai alasan untuk hak Jerman untuk memperoleh tanah di mana berbahasa Jerman orang hidup. Jerman berhasil menggunakan alasan ini untuk membungkus dua seluruh negara tanpa memulai perang.

 
 
 

March,10th.1939

The rare C.F.Boeringer &Sohned G.m.b.H ,Mannheim-Waldhof  promotional(reclame)  Perlaten-Calcium  in Climacterium card folder send from CDs Manheim  10.3.39 special nazi postmark Deutch reich 5 cent to Dr Thung Sin Nio (the frist Chinese overseas medical docter  of Indonesia University)Batavia-centrum(now Central Jakarta)

(courtecy Dr Iwan found at Jakarta in 1994)

The pharmaceutical company Boehringer Ingelheim was founded in 1885 by

 

 Albert Boehringer (1861-1939)

in Ingelheim am Rhein.

 From its beginnings in 1885 when it employed just 28 people in Nieder-Ingelheim, the company has since become a global enterprise.

As part of research and development activities for innovative drugs, the company focuses primarily on the therapeutic areas of cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases, diseases of the central nervous system, metabolic diseases, virological diseases and oncology.

Boehringer Ingelheim is a global group of companies embracing many cultures and diverse societies. Learn more about the financial highlights, the corporate vision, the organisation, the Board of Managing Directors and the company’s history as well as our engagement for scientific, cultural and environmental purposes

 

March,13th.1939

Hitler’s Ambitions

 

Adolf Hitler wanted more land, especially in the east, to expand Germany according to the Nazi policy of lebensraum. Hitler used the harsh limitations that were set against Germany in the Versailles Treaty as a pretext for Germany’s right to acquire land where German-speaking people lived. Germany successfully used this reasoning to envelop two entire countries without starting a war.

 

 Invasi Polandia

 

Akhirnya menerima bahwa Jerman tidak bisa ditenangkan Inggris dan Perancis meningkatkan program persenjataan mereka dan memberikan jaminan ke Polandia, target berikutnya Hitler.

Setelah menandatangani pakta non-agresi dengan Soviet, Hitler menuntut konsesi teritorial dari Polandia. Ini ditolak dan Jerman menyerang pada tanggal 1 September 1939. Inggris dan Prancis menyatakan perang dua hari kemudian. Perang Dunia II telah dimulai.

Sebuah pistol anti-pesawat Inggris, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-47

 

 Persemakmuran berperang

 

Pada pecahnya perang pada tahun 1939 Angkatan Darat Inggris terdiri 50 divisi reguler dan Teritorial. Banyak dari tentara ditempatkan di seluruh dunia. Lebih dari 50.000 tentara yang berbasis di India dan garnisun timur dari Suez.

Pasukan Ekspedisi Inggris (BEF) yang dikirim ke Prancis pada tahun 1939 hanya terdiri dari sepuluh divisi. Gaya ini relatif kecil dibandingkan dengan kombatan lainnya. Tapi di samping Angkatan Darat mereka sendiri, Inggris bisa menarik divisi tambahan dari Australia, Kanada, Afrika Selatan, Afrika Barat, Afrika Timur dan Selandia Baru. Ada juga sekitar 200.000 orang tentara India ditempatkan di sub-benua India.

Jenderal Gamelin, Perancis Komandan-in-Chief, memeriksa pasukan Kanada di Aldershot, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-79

 

.

Tentara mengenakan battledress baru dan peralatan yang dikeluarkan untuk semua cabang Angkatan Darat pada tahun 1939.

NAM. 1975-03-63-1-75

 

 

 

Derrick bergabung dengan RAF awal tahun 1939

 

 dan dilatih sebagai Operator nirkabel (Passing keluar pada 06.05.40), kemudian pelatihan kembali sebagai Mechanic Operator nirkabel (Wom) (07.03.41) setelah ia diposting ke No.12 WI (Interception Wireless) Layar

Irlandia Utara di mana ia menempati sebuah pondok pertanian di perbatasan Irlandia Utara dan Eire untuk menjaga pengawasan yang mendengarkan, bersama dengan operator nirkabel RAF dan enam tentara untuk bertindak sebagai penjaga

 (Saya percaya ini menjadi bagian dari layanan “Y”, tapi tidak bisa mendapatkan konfirmasi dari itu), sementara di sini di Irlandia Utara, home base nya RAF Aldergrove, dan itu di salah satu kunjungan rutin untuk mengumpulkan gajinya dia mendengar bahwa karena pengenalan dari empat pembom mesin baru, serta untuk aksi musuh ada kekurangan Gunners Air dan mereka merekrut untuk penggantian, Derrick sukarela dan pada saat diselesaikannya pelatihan (20.07.41) ia akhirnya dipindahkan ke Pesisir Command.

March, 14, 1939

 

 Hitler menjelaskan bahwa ia bermaksud untuk memaksa

 

Pemerintah Cekoslowakia pusat untuk memberikan Slowakia kemerdekaannya, yang akan membuat “pantat” negara Ceko “bahkan lebih lengkap pada belas kasihan kita,” kata Hermann Goering.

Slovakia memang menyatakan “kemerdekaan” nya (pada kenyataannya, ketergantungan terhadap Jerman) pada tanggal 14 Maret 1939, dengan ancaman invasi squelching debat semua dalam provinsi Czech

March, 15th.1939

1.939 Nazi mengambil Cekoslowakia

Pada hari ini, pasukan Hitler menyerbu dan menduduki Cekoslovakia – bangsa dikorbankan di altar Pakta Munich, yang merupakan upaya sia-sia untuk mencegah tujuan kekaisaran Jerman.

Kemudian, pada tanggal 15 Maret 1939, selama pertemuan dengan Presiden Ceko Emil Hacha – seorang pria dianggap lemah, dan bahkan mungkin pikun – Hitler mengancam serangan bom terhadap Praha, ibukota Ceko, kecuali dia diperoleh dari bagian Hacha gratis untuk Jerman pasukan ke perbatasan Ceko.

Dia mendapatkannya. Pada hari yang sama, pasukan Jerman dituangkan ke Bohemia dan Moravia. Dua provinsi yang ditawarkan tidak melawan, dan mereka dengan cepat membuat protektorat Jerman. Menjelang sore, Hitler membuat entri kemenangan ke Praha.

Pakta Munich, yang menurut Perdana Menteri Inggris Neville Chamberlain telah membeli “perdamaian di zaman kita,” sebenarnya taktik negosiasi hanya oleh Hitler, hanya sementara menunda darah Fuhrer

 
 

 Invasion of Poland

 

Finally accepting that Germany could not be appeased Britain and France stepped up their rearmament programmes and gave guarantees to Poland, Hitler’s next target.

After signing a non-aggression pact with the Soviets, Hitler demanded territorial concessions from the Poles. These were refused and the Germans attacked on 1 September 1939. Britain and France declared war two days later. The Second World War had begun.

A British anti-aircraft gun, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-47

 

 Commonwealth at war

 

On the outbreak of war in 1939 the British Army comprised 50 regular and Territorial divisions. Many of these troops were stationed throughout the world. Over 50,000 soldiers were based in India and garrisons east of Suez.

The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) that was dispatched to France in 1939 consisted of only ten divisions. This force was relatively small compared with those of other combatants. But in addition to their own Army, the British could draw on additional divisions from Australia, Canada, South Africa, West Africa, East Africa and New Zealand. There were also around 200,000 men of the Indian Army stationed on the Indian sub-continent.

General Gamelin, the French Commander-in-Chief, inspects Canadian troops at Aldershot, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-79

 

.

Soldiers wearing the new battledress and equipment issued to all branches of the Army in 1939.

NAM. 1975-03-63-1-75

 

 

 

Derrick joined the RAF early in 1939

 

 and trained as a Wireless Operator (Passing out on 06.05.40), later retraining as a Wireless Operator Mechanic (Wom) (07.03.41) after which he was posted to No.12 WI (Wireless Interception) screen

Northern Ireland where he was to occupy a farm cottage on the border of Northern Ireland and Eire to maintain a listening watch, along with another RAF wireless operator and six soldiers to act as guards

 (I believe this to be part of the “Y” service but cannot get confirmation of it), whilst here in Northern Ireland, his home base was RAF Aldergrove, and it was on one of his regular visits to collect his pay he heard that due to the introduction of the new four engine bombers, as well as to enemy action there was a shortage of Air Gunners and they were recruiting for replacements, Derrick volunteered and on completion of his training (20.07.41) he was eventually transferred to Coastal Command.

March, 14, 1939

 

 Hitler menjelaskan bahwa ia bermaksud untuk memaksa

 

Pemerintah Cekoslowakia pusat untuk memberikan Slowakia kemerdekaannya, yang akan membuat “pantat” negara Ceko “bahkan lebih lengkap pada belas kasihan kita,” kata Hermann Goering.

Slovakia memang menyatakan “kemerdekaan” nya (pada kenyataannya, ketergantungan terhadap Jerman) pada tanggal 14 Maret 1939, dengan ancaman invasi squelching debat semua dalam provinsi Czech

March, 15th.1939

1.939 Nazi mengambil Cekoslowakia

Pada hari ini, pasukan Hitler menyerbu dan menduduki Cekoslovakia – bangsa dikorbankan di altar Pakta Munich, yang merupakan upaya sia-sia untuk mencegah tujuan kekaisaran Jerman.

Kemudian, pada tanggal 15 Maret 1939, selama pertemuan dengan Presiden Ceko Emil Hacha – seorang pria dianggap lemah, dan bahkan mungkin pikun – Hitler mengancam serangan bom terhadap Praha, ibukota Ceko, kecuali dia diperoleh dari bagian Hacha gratis untuk Jerman pasukan ke perbatasan Ceko.

Dia mendapatkannya. Pada hari yang sama, pasukan Jerman dituangkan ke Bohemia dan Moravia. Dua provinsi yang ditawarkan tidak melawan, dan mereka dengan cepat membuat protektorat Jerman. Menjelang sore, Hitler membuat entri kemenangan ke Praha.

Pakta Munich, yang menurut Perdana Menteri Inggris Neville Chamberlain telah membeli “perdamaian di zaman kita,” sebenarnya taktik negosiasi hanya oleh Hitler, hanya sementara menunda darah Fuhrer

 

July,14th.1939

 

 Photo: this is another Nazi Promotional postmark of Merz Jodo Muc,all collections look at with click hhtp//www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

The Fragment postal used cover with Promotion Machinal postmark  Merz  Jodo Muc  der sanitarer in der Westentasche  deutch reichpost 0.65 CDS Frankfurt(mann.) stadt des Deutchen Handwerks14.7.39 n red ink

 

Agustus 1939

 

Messerschmitt 110

The Messerschmitt 110 pada awalnya dirancang sebagai pesawat tempur bermesin kembar. The Messerschmitt 110 terbang pertama Mei 1936 dan pada bulan Agustus 1939, Luftwaffe memiliki 159 110Cs tersedia untuk serangan blitzkrieg di Polandia.
Me 110 terbukti pesawat berharga untuk Luftwaffe dalam kampanye Polandia Aa, ¬ “meskipun itu melawan pejuang kuno di Angkatan Udara Polandia.

Tentara Jerman yang menyeberang ke Polandia pada tanggal 1 September

 

 

 dengan itu memiliki lebih dari 200 Ju87s untuk dukungan, dan tahun antara Perang Saudara Spanyol dan invasi Polandia disediakan Richthofen sekarang Jenderal dengan waktu untuk bereksperimen dengan teknik-teknik baru untuk mengendalikan misi dukungan udara dekat.

Bernama “udara komandan untuk tujuan khusus,” adalah kontribusi utama untuk pengembangan CAS penciptaan empat Detasemen Khusus Air. Bepergian dengan komandan divisi tentara dan menggunakan mobil lapis baja, unit-unit ini dikirim ke Angkatan Darat Kesepuluh Jenderal von Reichenau untuk bereksperimen memanggil serangan udara presisi.

Bila tidak digunakan untuk pekerjaan dukungan langsung, stukas digunakan selama kampanye untuk menyerang jembatan, benteng, dan lainnya “keras” target. Beberapa pelajaran awal kerentanan operasi Stuka saja bisa telah diajarkan telah Polandia menggunakan perintah, terpadu koheren untuk angkatan udara mereka.

Mereka tidak. Bertentangan dengan sebagian besar laporan, Angkatan Udara Polandia TIDAK hancur di tanah di hari pertama, melainkan dikirim ke bidang penyebaran, di mana interaksi dengan unit udara yang lebih besar sulit di terbaik.

 

Angkatan Udara Polandia itu karena itu tidak dapat menghentikan serangan luas oleh stukas karena mereka dilindungi panggul tentara Jerman dan target jahanam di atau dekat garis depan. Sementara serangan terhadap Polandia sering dianggap sebagai Blitzkrieg nyata pertama,

itu adalah serangan yang jauh lebih tradisional. Poin resistensi yang cukup dilewati, perdagangan jarak untuk segalanya. Air listrik diawetkan sisi-sisi kemajuan Jerman dan membeku unit Polandia, yang biasanya menemukan diri mereka dikelilingi oleh tentara Jerman di saku besar.

Ketika Tentara Polandia akhirnya meluncurkan serangan balasan besar di sisi-sisi dari tentara Jerman yang bergerak cepat, mereka menjadi martir awal untuk efektivitas kekuatan udara. Pada tanggal 9 September, sekitar 170.000 pasukan Polandia berkumpul dan menyerang pasukan Jerman dekat Poznan. Serangan itu sekilas mirip itu akan berhasil, memotong Angkatan Darat ke-10 off dari jejak logistik.

Sayangnya untuk Polandia, tanggal 10 adalah unit dengan Detasemen Khusus von Richthofen Udara. Cepat, Polandia menyerang menemukan diri mereka di bawah layu menyelam-bom dari stukas dan pemberondongan konstan oleh Hs123 biplanes (Hs123 itu premier tanah Jerman itu strafer serangan untuk beberapa tahun pertama perang). Namun, itu bukan hanya bomber menyelam dan aset serangan darat dari Luftwaffe yang digunakan.

Setiap pesawat yang tersedia di teater itu dikirim untuk plug kesenjangan. Kuda, masih penting untuk pasukan darat Polandia dan Jerman, panik di bawah serangan udara; pasukan mereka melakukan sedikit lebih baik. Stukas telah dilengkapi dengan sirene pada sayap mereka, dan mesin Hs123 terdengar seperti senapan mesin itu sendiri keras di ketinggian rendah. Efek pada tentara Polandia segar, yang pernah berada di bawah serangan udara, adalah total. Itu adalah rute mengucapkan, dan 1.700 sorti kemudian, Luftwaffe telah efektif menghancurkan serangan balik Polandia.

 

Jendral Polandia  Kutrzeba menggambarkan adegan:

“Menjelang pukul sepuluh, serangan udara marah dibuat di penyeberangan sungai dekat Witkovice – yang untuk jumlah pesawat yang bergerak, kekerasan serangan mereka, dan berani akrobatik pilot mereka, pasti belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya Setiap saat,. setiap konsentrasi pasukan, setiap baris muka, berada di bawah pemboman dari udara penghancuran Itu hanya neraka di bumi.. The jembatan hancur, penyeberangan diblokir, dan kolom menunggu laki-laki hancur. “

Meskipun pertempuran untuk Polandia dengan mudah dimenangkan oleh Jerman, teori kekuatan udara seperti von Richthofen masih melihat banyak ruang untuk perbaikan. Berbagai isu yang timbul dari aplikasi yang sebenarnya dari teori Lampiran Udara Khusus. Perwira Angkatan Darat tidak merasa perlu untuk memanggil serangan udara sebanyak yang mereka bisa, dan ada yang tak terelakkan snafus frekuensi radio dan identifikasi sasaran.

Fakta bahwa kampanye Polandia benar-benar lebih merupakan pertempuran pengepungan daripada serangan armor benar terkonsentrasi juga sangat membebani. Sebagian besar bebas dari serangan terkonsentrasi, stukas digunakan untuk melindungi sisi-sisi unit Jerman dan menyerang sasaran titik.

 

Doktrin  Operasional
Banyak dari doktrin operasional didasarkan pada perencanaan strategis Perancis yang oleh akhir 1930-an itu tidak memadai untuk menangani Germanyââ, ¬ ™ s perang mekanik (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991).
Setiap tentara diberi jatah unit udara sendiri, biasanya terdiri dari dua skuadron dari P.7 pejuang atau p.12 pertahanan udara / pesawat serangan darat.
Selain satu skuadron pengintai terdiri dari delapan sampai sepuluh hal.23 Karas pembom ringan dan satu atau dua skuadron pengamatan terdiri atas Lotnictwo lampiran Wojskowe kepada tentara.

Sementara Polandia memiliki sekitar 300 pejuang (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) hanya 10% berada dalam kondisi tempur. Sisanya adalah baik dalam peran pelatihan atau menjalani perbaikan sebelum pecahnya perang.
Para pembom Karas berjumlah sekitar 240 dan tidak pernah benar-benar memenuhi perannya sebagai bomber ringan atau pesawat serangan darat.
Pembom hal.37 Los lebih maju dalam desain, tetapi hanya 75 yang tersedia untuk tugas tempur pada tahun 1939.

Perang di Udara
Banyak penulis (Davies, 1981, Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) telah berusaha untuk memperbaiki sejarah mitos seputar peran Wojskowe Lotnictwo. Angkatan Udara tidak hancur pada lapangan udara pada tanggal 1 September 1939.
Sebagian besar pesawat tersebar ke lapangan udara rahasia dan Luftwaffe terutama menembak-up dan membom airfileds kosong tertutup oleh kabut pagi. Pertahanan udara terkonsentrasi di sampul udara di atas Warsawa sebagai tujuan utama yang memungkinkan keunggulan Luftwaffe udara untuk mengganggu mobilisasi tentara.
Komando tertinggi militer meminta tingkat rendah serangan pada memajukan kolom Jerman yang terbukti sangat boros dalam pesawat. Sementara unit udara paling cepat mundur ke jantung Polandia, suku cadang dan bahan bakar menjadi masalah yang meningkat.
Komunikasi antara unit dan tentara rusak dan dalam beberapa kasus unit diminta untuk melaksanakan dukungan taktis melawan tentara yang bisa outgun mereka atau mengambil pada angkatan udara unggul.
Pilot dan tanah-kru berjuang heroik dengan sumber daya terbatas dan sering ditemukan Aa, ¬ Ëœfriendly-fireââ, ¬ ™ adalah sebagai mematikan seperti mengambil musuh (Zamoyski, 1995). Sebagai pesawat pindah dari lapangan terbang ke lapangan udara, kru darat berjuang untuk pertemuan dan cukup sering menjadi terpisah sampai tiga hari sebelum bergabung kembali skuadron mereka.
Ini pengalaman kebijakan taktis berbentuk yang dimasukkan untuk efek yang baik, tapi tidak dalam teater perang.

PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade” j=” PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade ” g=”PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade”><span> PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade </ span>

Di seterusnya September 3

semua unit yang mundur ke tenggara Polandia dalam rangka re-group. Semua personil dan cadangan yang sekarang dipanggil.
Pada 5 September, intervensi fisik oleh Inggris dan Prancis tidak terwujud dan Angkatan Udara telah kehilangan 30% dari pesawatnya. Zamoyski, (1995) menunjukkan bahwa 14 Badai dan 36 Fairey Pertempuran telah dimuat di atas kapal di Liverpool menuju Gdynia yang dialihkan ke pelabuhan Rumania dari Galti di Laut Hitam sekali permusuhan dimulai.
Pada tanggal 10 September

200 pilot dan staf teknis diperintahkan untuk Rumania untuk mengumpulkan mesin pengganti. Sayangnya, Rumania di bawah tekanan Jerman membatalkan aliansi dengan Polandia dan menjadi netral, sementara 6.000 personel Angkatan Udara berkumpul di perbatasan.
Kapal yang membawa kargo berharga berlalu Gibraltar Rumania netralitas diumumkan dan diketahui oleh Polandia, kapal itu sekali lagi kembali diarahkan.
Dari seterusnya 16 September

 memerangi korban ke pesawat dan personil meningkat dengan skuadron yang dimusnahkan atau hanya kehabisan bahan bakar dan suku cadang.
Pada 17 September

100 pesawat tempur dan 50 pesawat sipil terbang ke Rumania ke lapangan terbang di Galati. Para kru tiba-tiba menyadari perang usai dan bahwa Rumania, Inggris dan Perancis tidak mendukung mereka di saat mereka membutuhkan.
Kebanyakan penerbang cukup diperlakukan dengan baik. Polandia unit tentara mulai menyeberangi perbatasan Rumania tak lama kemudian.
Dalam Eastern Poland, tentara Polandia dan Angkatan Udara yang terlibat baik Jerman dan Soviet dan terus berjuang keras hingga tanggal 6 Oktober.

Setelah kejadian itu, ternyata sejumlah besar personil militer telah melarikan diri dan memulai kampanye mereka di pengasingan. Angkatan laut telah melarikan diri dan Polandââ, ¬ ™ s cadangan emas juga berkat

 

 perencanaan Jenderal Rayski.

900 personel Angkatan Udara telah membuat jalan mereka ke Hungaria dan sekitar 1.000 ke Amerika Baltik Latvia dan Lithunia. Lain 1.500 telah ditangkap oleh Soviet dan dikirim ke gulag Aa, ¬ “

banyak yang tidak bertahan hidup (Anders, 1949; Zamoyski, 1995).
Keamanan di kamp-kamp interniran miskin dan narapidana terlalu tertarik untuk sampai ke Prancis dan Inggris untuk melawan sementara di pengasingan. 90.000 personil militer Polandia itu harus sembunyi-sembunyi dihapus dari Balkan melalui jaringan bawah tanah.
Inggris adalah akut kekurangan penerbang terlatih yang diberi prioritas bersama-sama dengan unsur-unsur bahan Enigma decoding Zamoyski, 1995:39).

 

 

Pesawat kamuflase 1939 kampanye

 

Sejak 1937 Angkatan skema Polandia kamuflase Air standar pada semua pesawatnya. Ada empat skema dasar:
Atas permukaan sayap dan elevator dan pesawat di seluruh Khaki. Rendah sayap dan permukaan lift di Blue Light. Skema yang paling banyak digunakan.
Atas permukaan disamarkan dalam tiga warna: Olive Light, Dark Olive, Khaki. Rendah permukaan Sliver atau Blue Light untuk tempur. Warna berbulu atau pecah tepi.
Trainer pesawat dicat keseluruhan Khaki. Secara keseluruhan Sliver atau keseluruhan Gading Putih.
Laut pesawat dicat Green Light-Grey di atas dan perak pada permukaan bawah dan mengapung.
Umumnya semua pesawat yang diproduksi oleh PZL dan LWS membawa skema no. 1. Skema no. 2 adalah khas untuk Lublin R-XIII.

 
 
 

March ,14th, 1939

 

 Hitler made it clear that he intended to force

 

the central Czechoslovakian government to give Slovakia its independence, which would make the “rump” Czech state “even more completely at our mercy,” remarked Hermann Goering.

Slovakia indeed declared its “independence” (in fact, complete dependence on Germany) on March 14, 1939, with the threat of invasion squelching all debate within the Czech province

March ,15th.1939

1939 Nazis take Czechoslovakia


On this day, Hitler’s forces invade and occupy Czechoslovakia–a nation sacrificed on the altar of the Munich Pact, which was a vain attempt to prevent Germany’s imperial aims.


Then, on March 15, 1939, during a meeting with Czech President Emil Hacha–a man considered weak, and possibly even senile–Hitler threatened a bombing raid against Prague, the Czech capital, unless he obtained from Hacha free passage for German troops into Czech borders.

He got it. That same day, German troops poured into Bohemia and Moravia. The two provinces offered no resistance, and they were quickly made a protectorate of Germany. By evening, Hitler made a triumphant entry into Prague.

The Munich Pact, which according to British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain had purchased “peace in our time,” was actually a mere negotiating ploy by the Hitler, only temporarily delaying the Fuhrer’s blood

 

 

August 1939

 

Messerschmitt 110

The Messerschmitt 110 was originally designed as a twin engined fighter. The Messerschmitt 110 first flew in May 1936 and by August 1939, the Luftwaffe had 159 110Cs available for the blitzkrieg attack on Poland.
The Me 110 proved a valuable plane to the Luftwaffe in the Polish campaign — though it was up against old fashioned fighters in the Polish Air Force.

The German Army that crossed into Poland on September 1st

 

 

 had with it more than 200 Ju87s for support, and the years between the Spanish Civil War and the Poland invasion provided now-General Richthofen with time to experiment with new techniques for controlling close air support missions.


Named the “air commander for special purposes,” his main contribution to the development of CAS was the creation of four Special Air Detachments. Traveling with army division commanders and using armored cars, these units were sent to General von Reichenau’s Tenth Army to experiment calling in precision air strikes.

When not being used for direct support work, Stukas were used throughout the campaign to attack bridges, fortifications, and other “hard” targets. Some early lessons in the vulnerability of the Stuka operating alone could have been taught had the Poles used a unified, coherent command for their air force.

They did not. Contrary to most reports, the Polish Air Force was NOT destroyed on the ground in the first day, but rather sent to dispersal fields, where interaction with larger air units was difficult at best.

 

The Polish Air Force was therefore unable to stop the widespread attacks by the Stukas as they protected the German army’s flanks and blasted targets at or near front lines. While the attack on Poland is often considered the first real Blitzkrieg,

it was a far more traditional attack. Points of resistance were simply bypassed, trading distance for all else. Air power preserved the flanks of the German advances and froze Polish units, who usually found themselves surrounded by the German army in large pockets.

When the Polish Army finally launched a major counteroffensive on the flanks of the fast-moving German army, they became early martyrs to the effectiveness of airpower. On September 9, about 170,000 Polish forces gathered and attacked German forces near Poznan. The attack briefly looked like it would work, cutting the 10th Army off from its logistics trail.

Unfortunately for the Poles, the 10th was the unit with von Richthofen’s Special Air Detachments. Quickly, the attacking Poles found themselves under withering dive-bombing from Stukas and constant strafing by Hs123 biplanes (the Hs123 was the German’s premier ground attack strafer for the first several years of the war). However, it wasn’t just the dive bomber and ground attack assets of the Luftwaffe that were used.

Any available aircraft in the theater was sent to plug the gap. Horses, still crucial to both Polish and German ground forces, panicked under the air attacks; their troops did little better. Stukas had been fitted with sirens on their wings, and the Hs123′s engine sounded like a loud machine gun itself at low altitude. The effect on the fresh Polish troops, who had never come under air attack, was total. It was an utter route, and 1,700 sorties later, the Luftwaffe has effectively crushed the Polish counterattack.

 

Polish General Kutrzeba described the scene:

“Towards ten o’clock, a furious air assault was made on the river crossings near Witkovice – which for the number of aircraft engaged, the violence of their attack, and the acrobatic daring of their pilots, must have been unprecedented. Every moment, every troop concentration, every line of advance, came under pulverizing bombardment from the air. It was just hell on earth. The bridges were destroyed, the fords blocked, and the waiting columns of men decimated.”

Although the battle for Poland was handily won by the Germans, air power theorists such as von Richthofen still saw much room for improvement. A wide range of issues had arisen from the actual application of the theory of the Special Air Attachments. Army officers didn’t feel the need to call in air strikes as much as they could have, and there were the inevitable SNAFUs of radio frequencies and target identification.

The fact that the Polish campaign really was more a battle of encirclement rather than a true concentrated armor attack also weighed heavily. Largely free of concentrated attacks, the Stukas were used to protect the flanks of German units and strike point targets.

 

Operational Doctrine
Much of the operational doctrine was based upon French strategic planning which by the late 1930s was inadequate to deal with Germany’s mechanized war (Zaloga and Madej, 1991).
Each army was allotted its own air units, usually made up of two squadrons of P.7 fighters or P.12 air defence/ ground attack aircraft.
In addition one reconnaissance squadron made up of eight to ten P.23 Karas light bombers and one or two observation squadrons made up the Lotnictwo Wojskowe attachments to the army.

While Poland had some 300 fighters (Zaloga and Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) only 10% were in combat condition. The remainder were either in a training role or undergoing repair prior to the outbreak of war.
The Karas bombers numbered around 240 and never really fulfilled its role as a light bomber or ground attack aircraft.
The P.37 Los bomber was more advanced in design, but only 75 available for combat duty in 1939.

War in the Air
Numerous authors (Davies, 1981, Zaloga and Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) have attempted to correct historical myth surrounding the role of the Lotnictwo Wojskowe. The airforce was not destroyed on the airfields on the 1st September 1939.
Most aircraft were dispersed to secret airfields and the Luftwaffe primarily shot-up and bombed empty airfileds obscured by early morning mist. Air defences concentrated on air cover over Warsaw as the prime objective that enabled the Luftwaffe air superiority to disrupt mobilization of the army.
The military high command requested low-level raids on advancing German columns that proved to be very wasteful in planes. While most air units quickly retreated into the heartland of Poland, spares and fuel became an increasing problem.
Communication between units and the army broke down and in some cases units were requested to carry out tactical support against an army which could outgun them or take on a superior airforce.
Pilots and ground-crew fought heroically with limited resources and often found ‘friendly-fire’ was as lethal as taking on the enemy (Zamoyski, 1995). As planes moved from airfield to airfield, ground crews struggled to rendezvous and quite often became separated for up to three days before rejoining their squadrons.
These experiences shaped tactical policy which were put to good effect, but not in this theatre of the war.

<span>PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade</span>

On the 3rd September onwards

all units were to withdraw to southeastern Poland in order to re-group. All personnel and reservists had by now been called up.
By the 5th September, the physical intervention by Britain and France had not materialized and the airforce had lost 30% of its aircraft. Zamoyski, (1995) pointed out that 14 Hurricanes and 36 Fairey Battles having being loaded aboard ships in Liverpool bound for Gdynia were rerouted to the Rumanian port of Galti on the Black Sea once hostilities commenced.
On the 10th September

200 pilots and technical staff were ordered to Rumania to collect replacement machines. Unfortunately, Rumania under German pressure rescinded its alliance with Poland and became neutral while 6,000 airforce personnel massed on the border.
The ship carrying its valuable cargo had passed Gibraltar as Rumanian neutrality was announced and unknown to the Poles, the ship was once again re-routed.
From the 16th September onwards,

 combat casualties to aircraft and personnel escalated with squadrons being annihilated or simply running out of fuel and spares.
On the 17th September

100 war planes and 50 civilian aircraft flew into Rumania to an airfield at Galati. The crews suddenly realized the war was over and that Rumania, Britain and France had not supported them in their hour of need.
Most airmen were reasonably well treated. Polish army units began to cross the Rumanian border shortly afterwards.
In Eastern Poland, the Polish army and airforce were engaging both the German and Soviets and continued to fight hard until 6th October.

In the aftermath, it appeared significant numbers of military personnel had escaped and started their campaign in exile. The navy had escaped and Poland’s gold reserves too thanks to

 

 the planning of General Rayski.


900 airforce personnel had made their way to Hungary and approximately 1,000 to the Baltic States of Latvia and Lithunia. Another 1,500 had been captured by the Soviets and sent to the gulags —

many did not survive (Anders, 1949; Zamoyski, 1995).
Security at the internment camps was poor and the inmates too keen to get to France and Britain to fight while in exile. 90,000 Polish military personnel were to be clandestinely removed from the Balkans through an underground network.
Britain was acutely short of trained airmen who were given priority together with the elements of the Enigma decoding material Zamoyski, 1995:39).

 

 

Aircraft camouflage of 1939 campaign

 

Since 1937 Polish Air Force standardised camouflage schemes on all of its aircraft. There were four basic schemes:
Upper surfaces of wings and elevators and entire fuselage in Khaki. Lower wing and elevator surfaces in Light Blue. The most used scheme.
Upper surfaces camouflaged in three colors: Light Olive, Dark Olive, Khaki. Lower surfaces Sliver or Light Blue for fighter. Color edges feathered or splintered.
Trainer aircraft were painted overall Khaki. Overall Sliver or Overall Ivory White.
Sea aircraft were painted Light Green-Grey on the upper and Silver on the lower surfaces and floats.
Generally all aircraft produced by PZL and LWS carried scheme no. 1. Scheme no. 2 was typical for Lublin R-XIII.

 

Tentara Jerman yang menyerang  ke Polandia

pada tanggal 1 September

 

 

 dengan itu memiliki lebih dari 200 Ju87s untuk dukungan, dan tahun antara Perang Saudara Spanyol dan invasi Polandia disediakan Richthofen sekarang Jenderal dengan waktu untuk bereksperimen dengan teknik-teknik baru untuk mengendalikan misi dukungan udara dekat.

Bernama “udara komandan untuk tujuan khusus,” adalah kontribusi utama untuk pengembangan CAS penciptaan empat Detasemen Khusus Air. Bepergian dengan komandan divisi tentara dan menggunakan mobil lapis baja, unit-unit ini dikirim ke Angkatan Darat Kesepuluh Jenderal von Reichenau untuk bereksperimen memanggil serangan udara presisi.

Bila tidak digunakan untuk pekerjaan dukungan langsung, stukas digunakan selama kampanye untuk menyerang jembatan, benteng, dan lainnya “keras” target. Beberapa pelajaran awal kerentanan operasi Stuka saja bisa telah diajarkan telah Polandia menggunakan perintah, terpadu koheren untuk angkatan udara mereka.

Mereka tidak. Bertentangan dengan sebagian besar laporan, Angkatan Udara Polandia TIDAK hancur di tanah di hari pertama, melainkan dikirim ke bidang penyebaran, di mana interaksi dengan unit udara yang lebih besar sulit di terbaik.

 

Angkatan Udara Polandia itu karena itu tidak dapat menghentikan serangan luas oleh stukas karena mereka dilindungi panggul tentara Jerman dan target jahanam di atau dekat garis depan. Sementara serangan terhadap Polandia sering dianggap sebagai Blitzkrieg nyata pertama,

itu adalah serangan yang jauh lebih tradisional. Poin resistensi yang cukup dilewati, perdagangan jarak untuk segalanya. Air listrik diawetkan sisi-sisi kemajuan Jerman dan membeku unit Polandia, yang biasanya menemukan diri mereka dikelilingi oleh tentara Jerman di saku besar.

Ketika Tentara Polandia akhirnya meluncurkan serangan balasan besar di sisi-sisi dari tentara Jerman yang bergerak cepat, mereka menjadi martir awal untuk efektivitas kekuatan udara. Pada tanggal 9 September, sekitar 170.000 pasukan Polandia berkumpul dan menyerang pasukan Jerman dekat Poznan. Serangan itu sekilas mirip itu akan berhasil, memotong Angkatan Darat ke-10 off dari jejak logistik.

Sayangnya untuk Polandia, tanggal 10 adalah unit dengan Detasemen Khusus von Richthofen Udara. Cepat, Polandia menyerang menemukan diri mereka di bawah layu menyelam-bom dari stukas dan pemberondongan konstan oleh Hs123 biplanes (Hs123 itu premier tanah Jerman itu strafer serangan untuk beberapa tahun pertama perang). Namun, itu bukan hanya bomber menyelam dan aset serangan darat dari Luftwaffe yang digunakan.

Setiap pesawat yang tersedia di teater itu dikirim untuk plug kesenjangan. Kuda, masih penting untuk pasukan darat Polandia dan Jerman, panik di bawah serangan udara; pasukan mereka melakukan sedikit lebih baik. Stukas telah dilengkapi dengan sirene pada sayap mereka, dan mesin Hs123 terdengar seperti senapan mesin itu sendiri keras di ketinggian rendah. Efek pada tentara Polandia segar, yang pernah berada di bawah serangan udara, adalah total. Itu adalah rute mengucapkan, dan 1.700 sorti kemudian, Luftwaffe telah efektif menghancurkan serangan balik Polandia.

 

Polandia Umum Kutrzeba menggambarkan adegan:

“Menjelang pukul sepuluh, serangan udara marah dibuat di penyeberangan sungai dekat Witkovice – yang untuk jumlah pesawat yang bergerak, kekerasan serangan mereka, dan berani akrobatik pilot mereka, pasti belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya Setiap saat,. setiap konsentrasi pasukan, setiap baris muka, berada di bawah pemboman dari udara penghancuran Itu hanya neraka di bumi.. The jembatan hancur, penyeberangan diblokir, dan kolom menunggu laki-laki hancur. “

Meskipun pertempuran untuk Polandia dengan mudah dimenangkan oleh Jerman, teori kekuatan udara seperti von Richthofen masih melihat banyak ruang untuk perbaikan. Berbagai isu yang timbul dari aplikasi yang sebenarnya dari teori Lampiran Udara Khusus. Perwira Angkatan Darat tidak merasa perlu untuk memanggil serangan udara sebanyak yang mereka bisa, dan ada yang tak terelakkan snafus frekuensi radio dan identifikasi sasaran.

Fakta bahwa kampanye Polandia benar-benar lebih merupakan pertempuran pengepungan daripada serangan armor benar terkonsentrasi juga sangat membebani. Sebagian besar bebas dari serangan terkonsentrasi, stukas digunakan untuk melindungi sisi-sisi unit Jerman dan menyerang sasaran titik.

 

Operasional Ajaran
Banyak dari doktrin operasional didasarkan pada perencanaan strategis Perancis yang oleh akhir 1930-an itu tidak memadai untuk menangani Germanyââ, ¬ ™ s perang mekanik (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991).
Setiap tentara diberi jatah unit udara sendiri, biasanya terdiri dari dua skuadron dari P.7 pejuang atau p.12 pertahanan udara / pesawat serangan darat.
Selain satu skuadron pengintai terdiri dari delapan sampai sepuluh hal.23 Karas pembom ringan dan satu atau dua skuadron pengamatan terdiri atas Lotnictwo lampiran Wojskowe kepada tentara.

Sementara Polandia memiliki sekitar 300 pejuang (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) hanya 10% berada dalam kondisi tempur. Sisanya adalah baik dalam peran pelatihan atau menjalani perbaikan sebelum pecahnya perang.
Para pembom Karas berjumlah sekitar 240 dan tidak pernah benar-benar memenuhi perannya sebagai bomber ringan atau pesawat serangan darat.
Pembom hal.37 Los lebih maju dalam desain, tetapi hanya 75 yang tersedia untuk tugas tempur pada tahun 1939.

Perang di Udara
Banyak penulis (Davies, 1981, Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) telah berusaha untuk memperbaiki sejarah mitos seputar peran Wojskowe Lotnictwo. Angkatan Udara tidak hancur pada lapangan udara pada tanggal 1 September 1939.
Sebagian besar pesawat tersebar ke lapangan udara rahasia dan Luftwaffe terutama menembak-up dan membom airfileds kosong tertutup oleh kabut pagi. Pertahanan udara terkonsentrasi di sampul udara di atas Warsawa sebagai tujuan utama yang memungkinkan keunggulan Luftwaffe udara untuk mengganggu mobilisasi tentara.
Komando tertinggi militer meminta tingkat rendah serangan pada memajukan kolom Jerman yang terbukti sangat boros dalam pesawat. Sementara unit udara paling cepat mundur ke jantung Polandia, suku cadang dan bahan bakar menjadi masalah yang meningkat.
Komunikasi antara unit dan tentara rusak dan dalam beberapa kasus unit diminta untuk melaksanakan dukungan taktis melawan tentara yang bisa outgun mereka atau mengambil pada angkatan udara unggul.
Pilot dan tanah-kru berjuang heroik dengan sumber daya terbatas dan sering ditemukan Aa, ¬ Ëœfriendly-fireââ, ¬ ™ adalah sebagai mematikan seperti mengambil musuh (Zamoyski, 1995). Sebagai pesawat pindah dari lapangan terbang ke lapangan udara, kru darat berjuang untuk pertemuan dan cukup sering menjadi terpisah sampai tiga hari sebelum bergabung kembali skuadron mereka.
Ini pengalaman kebijakan taktis berbentuk yang dimasukkan untuk efek yang baik, tapi tidak dalam teater perang.

PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade” j=” PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade ” g=”PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade”><span> PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade </ span>

Di seterusnya September 3

semua unit yang mundur ke tenggara Polandia dalam rangka re-group. Semua personil dan cadangan yang sekarang dipanggil.
Pada 5 September, intervensi fisik oleh Inggris dan Prancis tidak terwujud dan Angkatan Udara telah kehilangan 30% dari pesawatnya. Zamoyski, (1995) menunjukkan bahwa 14 Badai dan 36 Fairey Pertempuran telah dimuat di atas kapal di Liverpool menuju Gdynia yang dialihkan ke pelabuhan Rumania dari Galti di Laut Hitam sekali permusuhan dimulai.
Pada tanggal 10 September

200 pilot dan staf teknis diperintahkan untuk Rumania untuk mengumpulkan mesin pengganti. Sayangnya, Rumania di bawah tekanan Jerman membatalkan aliansi dengan Polandia dan menjadi netral, sementara 6.000 personel Angkatan Udara berkumpul di perbatasan.
Kapal yang membawa kargo berharga berlalu Gibraltar Rumania netralitas diumumkan dan diketahui oleh Polandia, kapal itu sekali lagi kembali diarahkan.
Dari seterusnya 16 September

 memerangi korban ke pesawat dan personil meningkat dengan skuadron yang dimusnahkan atau hanya kehabisan bahan bakar dan suku cadang.
Pada 17 September

100 pesawat tempur dan 50 pesawat sipil terbang ke Rumania ke lapangan terbang di Galati. Para kru tiba-tiba menyadari perang usai dan bahwa Rumania, Inggris dan Perancis tidak mendukung mereka di saat mereka membutuhkan.
Kebanyakan penerbang cukup diperlakukan dengan baik. Polandia unit tentara mulai menyeberangi perbatasan Rumania tak lama kemudian.
Dalam Eastern Poland, tentara Polandia dan Angkatan Udara yang terlibat baik Jerman dan Soviet dan terus berjuang keras hingga tanggal 6 Oktober.

Setelah kejadian itu, ternyata sejumlah besar personil militer telah melarikan diri dan memulai kampanye mereka di pengasingan. Angkatan laut telah melarikan diri dan Polandââ, ¬ ™ s cadangan emas juga berkat

 

 perencanaan Jenderal Rayski.

900 personel Angkatan Udara telah membuat jalan mereka ke Hungaria dan sekitar 1.000 ke Amerika Baltik Latvia dan Lithunia. Lain 1.500 telah ditangkap oleh Soviet dan dikirim ke gulag Aa, ¬ “

banyak yang tidak bertahan hidup (Anders, 1949; Zamoyski, 1995).
Keamanan di kamp-kamp interniran miskin dan narapidana terlalu tertarik untuk sampai ke Prancis dan Inggris untuk melawan sementara di pengasingan. 90.000 personil militer Polandia itu harus sembunyi-sembunyi dihapus dari Balkan melalui jaringan bawah tanah.
Inggris adalah akut kekurangan penerbang terlatih yang diberi prioritas bersama-sama dengan unsur-unsur bahan Enigma decoding Zamoyski, 1995:39).

 
 

August,22th.1939

 

 

1939, Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression pact, stunning the world, given their diametrically opposed ideologies. But the dictators were, despite appearances, both playing to their own political needs.

After Nazi Germany’s invasion of Czechoslovakia, Britain had to decide to what extent it would intervene should Hitler continue German expansion. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, at first indifferent to Hitler’s capture of the Sudetenland, the German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, suddenly snapped to life when Poland became threatened. He made it plain that Britain would be obliged to come to the aid of Poland in the event of German invasion. But he wanted, and needed, an ally. The only power large enough to stop Hitler, and with a vested interest in doing so, was the Soviet Union. But Stalin was cool to Britain after its effort to create a political alliance with Britain and France against Germany had been rebuffed a year earlier. Plus, Poland’s leaders were less than thrilled with the prospect of Russia becoming its guardian; to them, it was simply occupation by another monstrous regime.

Hitler believed that Britain would never take him on alone, so he decided to swallow his fear and loathing of communism and cozy up to the Soviet dictator, thereby pulling the rug out from the British initiative. Both sides were extremely suspicious of the other, trying to discern ulterior motives. But Hitler was in a hurry; he knew if he was to invade Poland it had to be done quickly, before the West could create a unified front. Agreeing basically to carve up parts of Eastern Europe-and leave each other alone in the process-Hitler’s foreign minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, flew to Moscow and signed the non-aggression pact with his Soviet counterpart, V.M. Molotov (which is why the pact is often referred to as the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact). Supporters of bolshevism around the world had their heretofore romantic view of “international socialism” ruined; they were outraged that Stalin would enter into any kind of league with the fascist dictator

   

   

   

  On August 23, 1939,

     

 the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a non-aggression treaty which contained an additional secret protocol with maps, in which a demarcation line through Eastern Europe was drawn, dividing it into the German and Soviet interest zones. Bessarabia was among the regions assigned to Soviet sphere of interest by the Pact. Article III of its Secret Additional Protocol states:

With regard to Southeastern Europe attention is called by the Soviet side to its interest in Bessarabia. The German side declares its complete political disinterestedness in these areas

 

 August,27th.1939

‘Not Forgotten’, the 1939 IRA bomb attack – by Simon Shaw

John Corbett Arnott aged 15.
Elsie Ansell aged 21.
Rex Gentle aged 30.
Gwilym Rowlands aged 50.
James Clay aged 82.

On 12th January 1939 the Irish Republican Army, claiming to be the “Government of the Irish Republic”, issued an ultimatum to the British Government. It gave them four days to withdraw all British armed forces stationed in Ireland and declare that they would renounce all claims to interfere in Irish domestic policy. If they received no response, they said they would be compelled to intervene actively in the military and commercial life of Great Britain. Four days passed with no reply so a campaign known as the “S-Plan” was launched against Britain. This mainly involved bombing commercial premises, sabotaging electricity supplies, blowing up telephone kiosks, public lavatories, mail boxes and railway stations. Coventry was mentioned by name in the I.R.A. plans, which had singled out its electricity supply as a prime target. Civilians were not supposed to be targeted.

Remains of the bicycle in Little Park Street Police Museum, Coventry The remains of the bicycle, now in Coventry’s Police Museum, Little Park Street.
(Photograph by Simon Shaw with permission of West Midlands Police. Unauthorised reproduction may result in prosecution.)

Unless you have a reasonably good knowledge of local history the five names at the start of this article will probably not be familiar to you. They are the forgotten victims of the worst terrorist attack Coventry has ever suffered. On 25th August 1939 all of them had the misfortune to be in Broadgate. It was a busy Friday lunchtime. Elsie Ansell, a shop assistant at Millet’s in nearby Cross Cheaping, was on her lunch break and looking at jewellery in the H Samuel shop. She was due to be married a fortnight later. Gwilym Rowlands, known as Bill, was a road sweeper. He and his colleague (John Worth) were working outside Astley’s and Burton’s shops. John Arnott and Rex Gentle both worked at W H Smiths and were returning after their lunch break. Rex had changed his lunch hour so he could spend it with John. James Clay had left a meeting at a nearby cafe with a business friend earlier than usual due to not feeling well. This was the first time in six years the two friends had not left at the same time. Around 2:30 pm these people and many others were in the vicinity of Astley’s shop when the normal hustle and bustle of the city centre was shattered by an I.R.A. bomb.

Ironically, in the city that is regarded as its British birthplace, a bicycle played an instrumental part in the mass murder and carnage that shocked the nation.

Broadgate in 1939. A typical Broadgate day in 1939 – just as it would have appeared shortly before the tragic event of August the 25th.

On Tuesday 22nd August 1939 James McCormick (alias James Richards), the leader of the I.R.A. unit operating in Coventry, and another unknown I.R.A. man visited the shop of the Halford Cycle Company in Smithford Street, where McCormick purchased a Halford ‘Karriwell’ – a tradesman type cycle built for Halford by the Birmingham Bicycle Company which had a carrier basket to the front of the handlebars. He gave a false name and address – Mr Norman, 56 Grayswood Avenue, Allesley Old Road, Coventry – and paid a deposit of £5 – pledging to pay the remaining 19s 6d on collection, which would be either Friday or Saturday. On the morning of Thursday 24th August 1939 another unknown I.R.A. man began constructing the bomb at 25 Clara Street, Stoke, Coventry. The house was being rented from Loveitt & Sons by Joseph Hewitt who lived there with his wife Mary, their baby child Brigid Mary and his mother-in-law, Brigid O’Hara. After marrying his wife at St. Peter’s Cathedral, Belfast, in August 1935, Hewitt came to Coventry in 1936 to find work. His wife and mother-in-law soon followed. Their baby was born in Coventry in 1938. They moved to Clara Street from Meadow Street, Spon End in June 1939. James McCormick lodged with them. It was effectively a ‘safe-house’ for the I.R.A. where McCormick had constructed a concrete storage pit under the stairs a few weeks earlier to store explosives, but the Hewitt’s were not part of the organisation. That evening, at around 7:00 pm, a Transport Officer in the I.R.A. called Peter Barnes arrived at the house from London. He had travelled by train and brought with him potassium chlorate to be used as the explosive in the device. Barnes’ role in the I.R.A. was to ferry explosives from their main ammunition dumps in Liverpool and Glasgow to their operatives across the country. He left later in the evening and returned to London.

The unknown bomb maker completed his task the following morning. It was a 5lb device with an alarm clock used as the timer. The bicycle was collected from Halford’s by McCormick at 12:30 pm and left in the back lane (known as a jetty) at the rear of the house around 1:10 pm. By this stage the bomb had been parcelled up in a box that was wrapped in brown paper and tied with a string. The bomb maker placed it in the carrier basket and began his journey into town. Sometime between 1:30 and 1:45 pm the bicycle with its deadly cargo was left standing against the kerb outside Astley’s shop where it was to shortly explode with such devastating consequences.

Many victims of terrorism or political conflict are totally forgotten about once the initial outrage or shock has died down. Just a week or so after the Coventry bomb, Great Britain declared war on Germany, and a year or so later our city was to suffer carnage on a much greater scale with the blitz of 14th November 1940. Perhaps these events helped play a part in effectively ‘burying’ the tragedy that took place in August 1939?

* * * * *

Part of the carrier cycle lying in front of the damaged car Part of the carrier cycle lying in front of the damaged car.

An excellent book called “Lost Lives” was first published in 1999. It attempts to record all those who died in the Northern Ireland ‘Troubles’ from the 1960′s through to the ceasefires of the 1990′s and beyond. It is an incredibly poignant and moving book which had me in tears on several occasions. Below I give a few details of Coventry’s “Lost Lives” which were gleaned from contemporary newspaper reports and kindly provided by relatives:

Elsie Ansell, (also called Laura in Newspaper reports) from Clarendon Street, Earlsdon, died instantly. Her face was blown away and her body terribly mutilated. She could only be identified by her engagement ring and clothing. Instead of being married at St. Barbara’s Church to her fiancé Harry Davies her funeral service took place there instead on August 30th. On top of her coffin was a wreath of cream roses from Harry. The coffin bearers were from the nearby Albany Social Club. A crowd of 600 to 700 people were at London Road cemetery to see her laid to rest. She was buried in her wedding dress.

John Corbett Arnott, from Daimler Road in Radford, was the youngest victim of the atrocity. After leaving Radford School he went to work for W H Smith in town. With his curly hair and glasses he was a familiar face to many Coventrians through selling newspapers and magazines at the store. At first it was thought his body was actually that of a Mr Hollander of Coundon Road as young John had a bill in his pocket for this man which he was due to deliver. He was buried at London Road cemetery on August 29th with around 100 mourners in attendance. On August 30th the Midland Daily Telegraph published this letter from John’s mother:

Dear Mr Editor

Will you please print my thanks where you will, but I feel I would like to put into print my thoughts as well. The doctors and nurses tried to save my boy’s life but God said “No.”

The kind thoughts of the people go to help me bear my cross. We all have a cross to bear, and when I look at others plight, I feel my cross is only light.

To the kind nurses who took me to kiss him “Good-bye” thanks, and I’ll always remember the youngest nurse’s sweet face. God gave me these words in the loneliness of the night when his little sister was sleeping by my side. Once again thanks for all your kindness, I’ll never forget.

Rex Gentle Rex Gentle

Rex Gentle was born on 3rd April 1909 in Newtown, Montgomeryshire in Wales. He was an identical twin. He left Newtown, where he was engaged to May Hart, to do relief work at W. H. Smith. While in Coventry he lodged with the Arnott family in Daimler Road. Rex had only been in the city for a couple of weeks.

On the day of the explosion, his twin brother Jack was working in Newtown. In the afternoon he was sent home from work suffering from a severe headache. It is often said that when one identical twin suffers pain the other can feel it – Rex had indeed suffered severe head injuries.

After the explosion, word reached the Gentle family in Wales that Rex had been badly injured in an incident in Coventry. His parents could not travel so his twin brother Jack and his wife Rene made the unenviable journey to Coventry. On the train, Jack turned to his wife and told her that he knew his brother, who he was very close to, was dead – again, when he said this it turned out to be almost to the minute that Rex did pass away. When the couple arrived in Coventry a trial blackout was in operation in preparation for the probable forthcoming war with Germany. They could not find the hospital so approached a policeman, who, knowing about the bomb, took them there. Jack was needed to identify his brother but apparently passed out, so his wife Rene carried out the traumatic task. The body was covered in bandages and she identified Rex by his mouth. While they were at the hospital the manager of W.H. Smith paid a visit and had an almighty shock when he saw Rex’s identical twin brother Jack – he thought it was Rex! The same thing happened when a sister of the twins in Birmingham was visited. Jack and Rene called on her to break the bad news. She opened the door with, “Hello Rex! What are you doing back here?” Jack explained that he wasn’t Rex and informed her of what had happened in nearby Coventry.

Jack and Rene Gentle returned to Birmingham for the trial of those charged with murdering Elsie Ansell. The Coroner’s report of the injuries suffered by the victims was so bad that Rene arranged for their relatives to be able to choose to leave the court room while it was read out. She stayed in the room and Jack left. Despite asking her about what she heard she never told him – the injuries being so horrific.

In 1966 the husband of Jack Gentle’s daughter Marie was shown round the police museum at Little Park Street where the remains of the bicycle and some of the evidence gathered during the investigation are kept in a simple glass cabinet. It must have been an upsetting experience to say the least.

Rex Gentle, who was much loved by his family and fondly remembered by them to this day, was buried in Newtown after a service at the local Baptist church.

Gwilym Rowlands, of Poole Road, Radford, worked for the Highways Department of the Coventry Corporation. His wife Mary Ann had the grim task of identifying his body at the public mortuary at 5:00pm on the day of the explosion. His funeral service took place at St. Nicholas Church and he was buried in the adjacent graveyard. A large crowd of mourners were in attendance and the wreaths included one from the Radford Social Club and another from the Transport & General Workers Union, Cheylesmore branch.

James Clay, the eldest victim, was Coventry born and bred but lived at Clarendon Road, Kenilworth. A widower and a grandfather, he was a former President of the Coventry & District Co-operative Society and was working as a Confidential Clerk for C.A. Gray & Son, Printers, of Broadgate. James was a trained printer who took a keen interest in education, being a member of the old Coventry school board, founding the P.S.A. movement in Coventry and also was secretary of the Co-operative Society educational classes. He was also associated with Sunday school work at Warwick Road Church. His burial took place at Kenilworth cemetery on the August 30th and was well attended.

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In addition to the dead some 70 others were injured including 12 seriously. Most were treated at the Coventry & Warwickshire Hospital. Twelve blood donors were called on following the explosion and were praised for their quick attendance at the hospital. Extensive damage was caused to 43 business premises in Broadgate and nearby streets. Astley’s and its adjacent shops – Burton and Manfields – were hit badly as was Sketchley’s directly across the road.

Alexander Ballinger was the manager of Astley’s at the time. When the bomb went off he was standing near the front window. The whole frontage of the shop was blown inside and he was blown off his feet suffering several cuts to his knee, right hand, nose and head. He was clearly lucky to survive.

Robert Kinsella was another who had a lucky escape. He was walking past Burton’s towards Astley’s when the bomb exploded. He described what happened:

The scene of the explosion directly after the occurrence The scene of the explosion directly after the occurrence.

“There was a violent explosion that threw me to the ground. I picked myself up and I could see there had been terrible damage done. There were a lot of people lying about on the ground, but the first person I went to was, I believe, old James Clay, whom I picked up; I could see from his injuries he was almost dead. Of course, I then found I was bleeding very badly myself, and I went to the hospital.” (He had suffered injuries to his shoulder, feet, stomach and leg.)

John Worth was sweeping the gutter outside Burton’s while his colleague Bill Rowlands was sweeping the pavement outside Astley’s. John was at the back of the parked saloon car (see picture) when the explosion occurred. He escaped with injuries to both arms and a thigh.

Youngsters Ian Adams and his cousin were on a bus in Corporation Street when they heard a loud boom. They were on their way to see Will Hay in a film called “Oh Mr Porter!”. Reaching Broadgate minutes later, they were stopped by a police officer and discovered that what they had heard on the bus was actually a bomb going off. The road was closed and the policeman directed them via a different route to the cinema. After the film the two lads returned via Broadgate where the debris was still being cleared up. Much of it was dumped at a tip on Four Pounds Avenue. (When Ian grew up he served in the Special Branch and in early 2010 his excellent book about this I.R.A. campaign and the reaction to it, called “The Sabotage Plan”, was published.)

Prior to this attack the I.R.A. had carried out numerous missions in Coventry. These included bombing telephone inspection chambers, public toilets and commercial premises. In The Sabotage Plan, Ian Adams details several attacks carried out on a single day in the spring of 1939:

On 23rd of March, there were four explosions in underground telephone inspection chambers. The first explosion, at 7.15am was in the Cheylesmore area, and shattered the glass in numerous windows. The bomb blew heavy pieces of metal into a nearby engineering works, and damaged telephone lines, lampposts, and surrounding houses. Three hours later, there was a similar explosion in a telephone junction box in Quinton Road which hurled fragments of the iron box and pieces of concrete paving over a wide area, and through the glass roof of a nearby factory. During the lunch hour there was a third explosion, in an inspection chamber of the electric transformer station at Gosford Green. John Martin, a passer-by, was injured. A fourth explosion in the afternoon, in Coundon Road, hurled a heavy iron manhole cover through the roof of St. Osburg’s Roman Catholic presbytery, the church my parents and I often attended, and a Corporation bus was damaged, but nobody was injured. Balloons filled with nitric acid detonated all the bombs. The explosions disrupted many telephone lines.

In June an unexploded bomb was found near a petrol dump. They also bombed the cloakroom at Coventry Rail Station. The device exploded at 6:45 am on July 2nd. Refreshment staff had bedrooms directly above the cloakroom and eight of them had a lucky escape as fortunately the building did not collapse. They were severely shaken but escaped injury. A couple of weeks before the deadly attack on Broadgate an allotment at the rear of Armfield Street was rocked by an explosion leaving a crater two feet deep and three feet wide. A shed was blown to smithereens and two men were seen running from the scene onto Bell Green Road where they boarded a tram and escaped. The local I.R.A. unit stored explosives here and due to carelessness accidentally ignited them. This explains why the explosive used on August 25th was brought to Coventry from Liverpool via London. Up until this point the police believed that an I.R.A. unit operating from Birmingham was carrying out attacks in Coventry.

The aftermath of the Broadgate bomb led to tension between locals and the Irish community in Coventry. It was estimated that over 2,000 Irish people were working in Coventry’s factories at the time. There were calls for all Irish workers to be sacked and on the day that inquests began into the deaths, 2,000 workers at Armstrong Whitworth in Baginton downed tools at lunchtime and marched to Pool Meadow to protest against the I.R.A., stressing that the protest was “not directed against peaceful Irishmen.” From Pool Meadow they marched through the city centre and held a rally at Market Square where their numbers swelled to 3,000 with shoppers and other workers joining them. A deputation of four then met the Lord Mayor, Sidney Stringer. Many Irish left their lodgings in the city and others were asked to leave. Such was the bad feeling that the Chief Constable of Coventry Police, Captain S.A. Hector, (who was from Somerset) had to deny rumours that he was Irish.

Of course, the vast majority of Irish people in the city were just as appalled by the bombing as everyone else. The attack was condemned during Mass at all Catholic churches in the city the following Sunday. Father Simpson at St. Osburg’s denounced the bombers as “fanatics discrediting and dishonouring Ireland” and reminded worshippers that the penalty for belonging to secret societies and plotting to destroy the state or church was ex-communication. The Midland Daily Telegraph was inundated with letters from Irish people living in Coventry expressing their disgust and horror at the attack. Some suggested forming an “Irish Union” pledging that they were ‘loyal’ and promising to inform the authorities about I.R.A. activity. (Thousands of Irish people continued to work in the factories of Coventry during World War Two – providing an invaluable contribution to the war effort when most young British men had been called up for military service.)

View of Broadgate after the explosion View of Broadgate after the explosion.

A couple of days after the attack “BUSINESS AS USUAL” signs were up in Broadgate, and though many windows were boarded up the shops were open. Of course, it would never be “business as usual” for the dead and their families. The Lord Mayor launched a relief fund for victims of the bombing which by the end of September had raised the substantial sum of £800.

After initially issuing press appeals saying they wished to interview Dominic Adams about the attack, (Dominic Adams was the Uncle of current Sinn Fein President Gerry Adams and suspected of being a senior member of the I.R.A. during this period) the police investigation soon led to Clara Street following the arrest of Peter Barnes in London on the same night of the bombing. An attempt to plant a further three ‘bicycle bombs’ in the capital city had been thwarted in the morning. At 8:50 pm Barnes arrived home to find Detective Sergeant William Hughes and some of his colleagues from the Special Branch at Scotland Yard waiting for him. They were there because of the attempted attacks in London, but when Detective Sergeant Hughes and the officers with him searched the building at 176 Westbourne Terrace, they found incriminating evidence linking him to Coventry, which understandably raised their suspicions considering what had happened earlier in the afternoon 100 miles away.

Barnes had called at Clara Street previously on August 21st to acquaint himself with McCormick and discuss the role he would play in the imminent bombing mission. During this visit, McCormick asked Brigid O’Hara to buy a suitcase for Barnes and also asked Mary Hewitt to buy two empty flour sacks. The flour sacks were purchased from Celia’s on Walsgrave Road but had to be returned as they were the wrong type. Both women returned them. The suitcase was brought from Forey’s Ironmongers. For reasons known only to himself – perhaps he had to account to the I.R.A. for his expenses? – Peter Barnes kept the receipts at his lodgings in London where they were found by the police and were to prove crucial in the Coventry investigation. (The owner of Celia’s was able to give a very accurate description of Brigid O’Hara. It is believed the flour sacks were to be used for holding the Potassium Chlorate.)

Chief Inspector Cyril George Boneham of the Coventry City Police led the local investigation. He and his team were assisted by Special Branch detectives. On August 28th, Chief Inspector Boneham and Detective Inspector Sydney Barnes of Special Branch led a search of 25 Clara Street. Tools suitable for bomb making, screws, bolts, insulating tape, labels from a battery and crucially a brass setter for the back of an alarm clock were found. This setter, or key, appeared to be new and did not fit any clock in the house. The occupants were detained and initially released while deportation orders were applied for. On September 2nd they were arrested under the Prevention of Violence (Temporary Provisions) Act. As the investigation proceeded and clear evidence of bomb making at the house emerged those being held were then charged under the Explosive Substances Act, 1883. Later that month, on the 27th, after a thorough police investigation and careful consideration, the Public Prosecutor decided that the facts justified a charge of murder against all five people being held. The charge was limited to the murder of Elsie Ansell and not the other four victims.

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The trial began on Monday 11th of December at the Warwick Assizes, Victoria Courts, Birmingham. One crucial person was missing – the man who actually built and planted the bomb. He was never captured. It was acknowledged that those in the dock – James McCormick, Peter Barnes, Joseph Hewitt, Mary Hewitt and Brigid O’Hara – had not made or planted the bomb, but as it was believed they had all played an active part in a conspiracy that could clearly endanger life it was a murder charge they faced, and consequently the hangman’s noose if found guilty. On Friday 14th December, McCormick, who was tried under his alias of James Richards, and Peter Barnes were found guilty by the jury and convicted of murder. After the guilty verdicts were passed, James McCormick gave this response:

“My lord, before you pass sentence I have something to say. I wish to state, my lord, before you pass sentence of death on me, I wish to thank sincerely the gentlemen who have defended me during my trial and I wish to state that the part I took in these explosions since I came to England I have done for a just cause. As a soldier of the Irish Republican Army I am not afraid to die, as I am doing it for a just cause. I say in conclusion, God bless Ireland and God bless the men who have fought and died for her. Thank you, my lord.”

Peter Barnes said:

“I would like to say as I am going before my God, as I am condemned to death, I am innocent, and later I am sure it will come out that I had neither hand, act or part in it. That is all I have to say.”

The Hewitt’s and Brigid O’Hara were acquitted – they were later charged with the murder of the other four people who were killed and five counts under the Explosive Substances Act and all three pleaded not guilty. No evidence was offered by the prosecution on the murder charge and the judge ordered the jury to return a formal verdict of not guilty. The women were discharged while Joseph Hewitt was remanded in custody. At the Old Bailey in London on 6th February 1940 he was charged with maliciously causing an explosion and having explosive substances in his possession. No evidence was offered by the prosecution and after a verdict of not guilty by the jury he was discharged. The following day, the guilty pair – Peter Barnes and James McCormick – were executed at Winson Green Prison. An appeal against their convictions had been dismissed in January. In the very same week of the hangings the mother of Elsie Ansell died at the early age of 49. Laura Ansell was being cared for by the mother of Harry Davies, her late daughter’s fiancé. Mrs Davies said that she never recovered from the loss of Elsie and died of a broken heart.

The hangings of McCormick and Barnes caused outrage in Ireland and other parts of the world. It was felt unjust that as they had not planted the bomb they should die because of the actions of another person. Appeals for clemency were ignored. Public mourning was observed and flags flew at half-mast in Ireland on the day of the executions.

A crowd gathers to see the aftermath of the incident A crowd gathers in Broadgate soon after the incident. The actual site of the bomb is just out of shot to the left.
For those unfamiliar with the pre-war street scene, we are facing the west side of Broadgate, and stretching to the north in the distance is Cross Cheaping, Burges and Bishop Street respectively. The small street on the left just after Boots is Market Place, and the tall building just visible on the far right of the picture is the original Owen Owen store; itself bombed in November the following year.

It has been suggested that the real target for the bomb was an electricity generating station and this is where McCormick and Barnes believed the bomber was cycling to. Some people claim that a faulty timer (the alarm clock) on the bomb caused the bomber to abandon the bicycle in Broadgate while en-route to the real target, but a leading author on Irish Republicanism describes the bomber as a ‘psychopath’ and as it was placed outside Astley’s an hour before it exploded it would seem this was an intentional act by the bomber. Even if the timer was faulty, it would have been a strange decision to abandon the bomb in the busiest shopping street in Coventry which obviously put civilians at risk of death contrary to I.R.A. instructions. Just why he chose to do this we will probably never know.

This particular badly timed and ill-judged I.R.A. campaign against Britain is often said to have petered out following the carnage in Coventry, but in fact there were a further 42 incidents attributed to the I.R.A., with the last bomb exploding on a rubbish dump in London on 18th March 1940.

After their acquittals, the Hewitt’s and Brigid O’Hara were deported from England and presumably went back to Belfast. The remains of James McCormick and Peter Barnes were moved from the grounds of Winson Green prison and re-interred in Ballyglass cemetery, Mullingar, Westmeath, Ireland in 1969. 15,000 people attended. Both men continue to be remembered by the Republican movement in Ireland with yearly parades and speeches at their graveside.

In Coventry, no memorial plaque or sculpture marks the spot where the bomb exploded killing five innocent people and devastating families across the city and further afield. There is not even an annual memorial service in any of Coventry’s churches. The excellent Police Museum in the basement of Little Park Street Police Station houses the remains of the bicycle and some of the evidence gathered after the explosion. With the kind permission of its curator, Tony Rose, I was able to photograph the remains of the bicycle in June 2010. The handlebars, front wheel and carrier basket are missing but remarkably, much of the rest of it is still intact. Some parts are dented, rusted, scratched and mangled but others bits are unscathed and look nearly new. When Mr Rose opened the cabinet I was hit by the smell of rubber and explosive. It was very sad gazing at this unwitting instrument of death and destruction and my thoughts turned to the victims and their families. I am very grateful to Mr Rose, who is an expert on the history of policing in Coventry, for sharing his knowledge of the incident with me and allowing me to take pictures. The image at the start of this article is copyright of the Coventry Police Museum and is not to be reproduced elsewhere – anyone doing so is liable to prosecution.

Thanks to the Luftwaffe and various town planners, Broadgate has changed almost beyond recognition from that fateful day. I believe the present day location of the explosion lies between the Lady Godiva statue and the entrance to the Cathedral Lanes shopping centre – see below for Rob Orland’s comparison of contemporary and modern maps. Next time you pass this spot spare a thought for John, Elsie, Gwilym, Rex and James. May they Rest in Peace.

* * * * *

Below is a 1937 map showing the spot where the bomb detonated.
Clicking on the map will reveal where it occurred on a modern-day aerial view (courtesy of Google Maps).

 August,28th.1939

1939:

The Heinkel He 178,

 

the first jet-plane takes to the air with Erich Warsitz at the controls.

Just five days before the German attack on Poland, and the beginning of WWII the tiny plane lifts off the airfield of Rostock-Marienehe.
The story of this airplane is not just about building the aircraft as well as the constructing of the engine to power it.


Heinkel received a letter of Proff. Robert W. Pohl from the Göttingen University in March 1936.

In it he explained that there was a young student by the name of Pabst Von Ohain who was working on the principle of jet propulsion and who needed the necessary funds to continue his research.

Heinkel was very busy creating ever faster airplanes and was interested. He invited Von Ohain on March 17th 1936 to explain his ideas.

 


Soon after, Von Ohain and his mechanic Max Hahn were working at the Heinkel plant on his He S 2. (together with a few men from the Heinkel factory under guidance of Dipl-Ing. Wilhelm Gundermann). The He S 2 ran on hydrogen and was only build to demonstrate the idea. This engine ran in March or April 1937. ( On April 12th ’37 Frank Wittle undertook his first test-run in England).
The engine for the He 178 however was the He S 3 wich was ready for flight-testing in the summer of 1938 (He S 3A). This engine was tested in the air whilst hanging under a He 119 dive-bomber prototype. After several test-flights the jet-engine is destroyed in a fire because of leaking fuel-line. The experiences lead to the He S 3B engine, and it is this engine that ends up in the He 178. It has a thrust of about 450kg.

At the same time as Ohain starts to develop his engine a team of Heinkel employees was set to work on developing the airplane that was to be powered by the new jet-engine.
A mock-up was build and ready on August the 8th 1938. Some of the developers were: Karl Schwarzler ( head of construction) and the brothers Siegfried and Walter Gunther (aerodynamics). A second prototype was constructed either at the same time or a little later. This plane was pretty much the same as the first one although it had a bigger wing and a retractable undercarriage.

First prototype during rolling.

Second prototype.

The pilot Erich warsitz was chief pilot at the Peenemunde experimental rocket station and was on loan to Heinkel.(on June 20th he flew the first rocket plane, the He 176).

He had flown with the He 119 airplane to find out the handling of the jet-engine and was the only flier involved to make the flight in the first jet-plane.
During the first flight a speed of 600 km/h was reached and the flight lasted some 7 minutes. On finals Warsitz notices that one fuel-pump has stopped working but it doesn’t affect the flight. After landing mechanics lift Proff. Ernst Heinkel on there shoulders as everybody present cheers

 

 

 

August,31th.1939

The Excuse


After Germany having gained both Austria and Czechoslovakia,

 

 

Hitler

 

 

was confident that he could again move east, this time acquiring Poland without having to fight Britain and France. (To eliminate the possibility of the Soviet Union fighting if Poland were attacked, Hitler made a pact with the Soviet Union – the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.)

So that Germany did not officially seem the aggressor (which it was), Hitler needed an excuse for entering/attacking Poland.

It was

 

Heinrich Himmler

 

who came up with the idea; thus the plan was code named Operation Himmler.

 

On the night of August 31, 1939,

Nazis took

 

an unknown prisoner from one of their concentration camps, dressed him in a Polish uniform, took him to

 

 

the town of Gleiwitz (on the border of Poland and Germany), and then shot him.

 

The staged scene with the dead prisoner dressed in a Polish uniform was supposed to appear as a Polish attack against a German radio station.

Hitler used the staged attack as the excuse to invade Poland.

August,31th.1939

The Excuse
After having gained both Austria and Czechoslovakia, Hitler was confident that he could again move east, this time acquiring Poland without having to fight Britain and France. (To eliminate the possibility of the Soviet Union fighting if Poland were attacked, Hitler made a pact with the Soviet Union – the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.)
So that Germany did not officially seem the aggressor (which it was), Hitler needed an excuse for entering/attacking Poland. It was Heinrich Himmler who came up with the idea; thus the plan was code named Operation Himmler.

On the night of August 31, 1939,

Nazis took an unknown prisoner from one of their concentration camps,

 

dressed him in a Polish uniform, took him to the town of Gleiwitz (on the border of Poland and Germany), and then shot him. The staged scene with the dead prisoner dressed in a Polish uniform was supposed to appear as a Polish attack against a German radio station.


Hitler used the staged attack as the excuse to invade Poland.

Blitzkrieg


At 4:45 on the morning of September 1, 1939

(the morning following the staged attack),

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Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
 
Kayu Natal Candle Holder (Item Wehr 31-1)
DESKRIPSI: Ini adalah indah, ini adalah bermakna. Ini adalah pemegang lilin kayu diukir dari kayu ek dan itu digunakan di garis depan posisi tentara Jerman di Front Barat. Ukiran yang indah dengan karangan daun oak dan biji-bijian diukir di kedua belah pihak. Juga, ada kata-kata indah diukir di bagian depan: “. Tentara Kristen” “. Kriegs Weihnacht 1942″ Prajurit Jerman untuk bagian terbesar adalah Kristen Protestan atau Katolik dan itulah mengapa kita hanya sebagai sedih dengan kematian ini Seperti kita tentang anak laki-laki dari sisi Sekutu yang memberikan hidup mereka untuk apa? Anda dapat percaya cerita yang berlimpah tentang apa yang Amerika dan Inggris sedang berjuang untuk ATAU Anda dapat membaca buku Patrick Buchanan Lagi “Perang yang tidak perlu.”, Tidak bisa saya mulai, perspektif saya tentang Perang Dunia I dan Perang Dunia II yang jauh dari pandangan ortodoks sebagai dipromosikan oleh “Departemen Kebenaran” sebagai Orwell akan meletakkannya “Hail Big Brother.” saya minta maaf tapi masukan saya sebagai seorang sejarawan revisio.nist tidak dapat ditampung karena saya menangani peninggalan bermakna dari masa penuh gejolak dan misinformasi yang kita telah begitu “profesional sendok makan” Kembali ke candlestick … pengukuran adalah 12 “x 5 ¼” dan 2 ¼ “inci tebal. Terjemahan dari kata-kata daun “Perang Natal 1942″ dengan ek untuk setiap sisi pepatah dan swastika di tengah. Ini bagian yang indah dari seni parit atau kesenian rakyat berdiri hari ini sebagai pengingat bahwa bahkan dalam perang saudara melawan saudara mengerikan pembunuhan antarsaudara, semangat Natal, sebagai hari kelahiran dari “Raja Damai,” dirayakan bahkan oleh orang Jerman yang mengerikan bahwa kita membaca begitu banyak tentang dalam jurnal kain kuning atau di TV dan film. Dalam hal apapun, ini adalah salah satu karya seni yang indah. Dan harus dilestarikan untuk anak cucu.

 
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Dutch Commemorative Plate
 
         
   Tentara Paratrooper Badge (Item Wehr 31-2)
DESCRIPTION:
Komandan atau Kepala Angkatan Darat, Jenderal Oberst Frhr. Von Fritsch, wewenang lembaga lencana penerjun payung militer pada tanggal 1 September 1937. Mengingat fakta bahwa penghargaan ini dari lencana ini pola tertentu dihentikan ketika kontrol unit paratroop dikembalikan dari tentara ke Luftwaffe pada tahun 1939 itu tidak dapat dianggap sebagai penghargaan waktu perang dan jelas bukan penghargaan keberanian untuk membedakan di lapangan. Itu hanya lencana kualifikasi diberikan kepada semua perwira dan prajurit dari unit parasut di bawah kendali tentara yang memenuhi persyaratan yang diperlukan ada Namun, persyaratan tertentu yang harus dipenuhi untuk memenuhi syarat untuk lencana, bagi penerjun yang ditransfer
kontrol Luftwaffe dari tentara dan tetap pada status melompat, mereka dituntut untuk terus mengenakan lencana penerjun militer ketimbang kembali lolos ke lencana Parachutists baru Luftwaffe. Karena masalah waktu pendek itu dianggap cukup langka saat ini. Harap dicatat bahwa talon belakang pada elang menyelam tersebar ketimbang bergabung seperti yang digambarkan pada banyak salinan modern. Ini bagian tertentu juga langka di fakta bahwa lencana seluruh melanda pada 800 perak daripada perunggu biasanya menunjukkan bahwa itu adalah pembelian pribadi khusus juga terakhir tetapi tentu tidak sedikit lencana adalah “pribadi” di bagian belakang karangan bunga. Ada kata-kata Fallshirm Inf. Btl. Mayor Adolff. Jadi, hal ini ternyata menjadi permata yang nyata dan layak tempat di koleksi yang baik. Perhatikan gambar salib Knights. Pemenang Hagi mengenakan lencana militer penerjun payung sementara di seragam Luftwaffe nya.

 
 
 
 
Combat Book Knife
 
Combat Book Knife
Combat Book Knife
Combat Book Knife
Combat Book Knife
 
pISAU sEPATU TENTARAJerman pERANG DUNIA KEDUA  (Item Wehr 31-3 & WAF 11-10)
KETERANGAN: Awalnya dirancang untuk klip di tepi di atas boot. Ini adalah pisau yang dirancang untuk ringan klip ke setiap bagian dari seragam (sangat berguna) ini gaya tertentu digunakan secara luas oleh SS Waffen tetapi juga Angkatan Darat dan beberapa pilot Luftwaffe disukai mereka sebagai pisau well.The memiliki beberapa lama noda? ? /? Tapi pisau keseluruhan dalam kondisi sangat baik dan klip masih sangat ketat. Yang satu ini mungkin bisa memberitahu beberapa cerita. mengenai noda
 
German Combat Soldier’s Boot Knife (Item WEHR 31-3 & WAF 11-10)
 
Dutch Commemorative Plate
Dutch Commemorative Plate

Decorative Plate Commemorating the Military Mobilization of the Netherlands 1939 (Item WEHR 31-4)

 

 
DESKRIPSI: Piring tidak tepat masuk ke salah satu kategori kami, tapi itu sangat artistik indah, kami hanya harus memasukkannya. Setelah semua, itu adalah bagian dari sejarah Perang Dunia II. Ini mengacu pada mobilisasi pasukan perbatasan daerah, Brabant-Limburg. Ini tidak melakukannya lebih baik karena Wehrmacht mudah berguling mereka ketika invasi dari dataran rendah mulai. Tapi itu hidangan yang cukup pula. Ini memiliki label menarik di bawah glasir di bagian belakang – sebuah perusahaan di Maastricht menggunakan sphinx sebagai logo mereka. Karena piring yang lebih untuk ekspor, ia mengatakan, dalam bahasa Inggris – “Made in Holland.”  

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Army Flack Badge
Army Flack Badge
Army Flack Badge (Heeres-Flakabzeichen) (Item WEHR 31-5)
 

Army Flack Badge (Heeres-Flakabzeichen) (Item Wehr 31-5)
KETERANGAN: Otorisasi untuk pemberian lencana flack tentara, menyusul institusinya pada 18 Juli 1941 oleh OKH, datang dari Komandan memegang pangkat Jenderal der Artillerie dan di atas. Itu diberikan dalam abu-abu, kelas tunggal kusam, secara akumulasi poin dengan 16 poin menjadi diperlukan, atau dapat diberikan tanpa mengacu pada jumlah poin untuk tindakan keberanian atau jasa dalam pelaksanaan melakukan udara anti kerajinan misi. Setiap baterai anti-pesawat dikreditkan dengan menenggak pesawat musuh tanpa dukungan baterai lainnya dianugerahi empat poin tetapi jika baterai lain membantu dalam jatuhnya pesawat, hanya dua poin diberikan. Berbeda dengan lencana flack Luftwaffe, poin tidak dapat diberikan untuk target hancur di tanah. Lencana yang kami tawarkan adalah dalam kondisi baik & tidak ditandai untuk membuat

 
 
 
Ukranian Carved Box
Ukranian Carved Box
Front of box
Ukranian Carved Box
Side view
Ukranian Carved Box
Back of box

Wonderful Russian Peasant Box Hand Made and Presented to a German Wehrmacht  Officer (Item WEHR 31-6 & RUSO 5-11)

Indah Petani Tangan Box Rusia Made dan Disampaikan kepada petugas Wehrmacht Jerman (Item Wehr 31-6 & Ruso 5-11)
 
DESKRIPSI: Ini adalah khas seni Ukraina dan benar-benar cantik. Itu disampaikan ke petugas yang memimpin sebuah perusahaan Cossack yang sungguh-sungguh anti-Bolshevik dan bertugas di sisi Jerman dalam Perang Dunia II 1941-1945. Informasi ini berasal dari keluarga korban Jerman ke agen kami dan pemetik. Kotak adalah dari kayu dan bunga-bunga dan simbol tangan mengatur ke permukaan. Sebuah tugas yang sangat membosankan dan itu menunjukkan bakat banyak pembuat. Setiap bagian dari dekorasi harus individual dipotong dan kemudian dilengkapi dengan inlay berbagai jenis kayu di banyak bagian penempatan. Desainnya sangat khas dari Ukraina dengan bunga matahari dan desain bintang. Tema sentral adalah “Deutsche Adler” atau Nasional Jerman desain elang. Juga profesional hias di kayu di atas ini elang adalah simbol dari jenis desain barel dengan lima tombak memancarkan dari setiap sisi. Ini akan mengambil beberapa penelitian tapi terlihat seperti lambang Cossack dikenakan pada tab kerah seragam mereka – teori ini adalah yang terbaik tidak jelas tetapi kemungkinan. Kotak ukuran 6 “x 8″ di dan sekitar 3 inci. Kondisi besar! Dan, sangat penting secara historis dan hanya prestasi artistik yang indah. Ini adalah petani seni Rusia dari orang-orang yang ditundukkan di bawah tumit Bolshevic tapi masih bangga dan mulia. Ini adalah tanda dari persahabatan yang tajam yang berkembang di antara para prajurit Wehrmacht Jerman Pembebasan dan Cossack persaudaraan stepa

 

Army bread bag
Army bread bag
Grain Sack for the German Army (Item WEHR 31-7)
DESCRIPTION: This is one of the burlap sacks as used to carry such supplies as potatoes, beans, bread, etc.; they were used throughout the entire war. Under the eagle and swastika and above the date of 1949 you can see the initials H.VpFL “Heeres-Verpflegung” which stands for Army Supply Service. They might not be the prettiest German war relic but to the soldiers of the Wehrmacht, they were ultra important.  “ An Army travels on its stomach.” 
PRICE: $175.00
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
The brotherhood rides
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
At the ready!
Cossack Sword
General Helmuth von Pannwitz

Cossack Sword (Shashqua) For the Cossack Brotherhood Serving in the German Wehrmacht  (Item WEHR 31-8 & RUSO 5-12)

DESCRIPTION: This is the classic Cossack sword of the Steppes as used for centuries; however, this one has the Nazi eagle and swastika molded in the brass hilt. We remember when a large grouping of these were located in Europe and were purchased by a British dealer. The story was that the swords were produced by a firm that was located somewhere in the Caucasus and the small factory produced the swords for the Communist Cossacks with Hammer and Sickle but when the small staff thought that Germany and its Allies would win the Crusade against Bolshevism, they changed over and produced these swords with the National Socialist eagle to be sold to the officers of the Cossack legions that now were attached to the German Wehrmacht such as the divisions of Don Cossacks, tThe Brotherhood under the command of the brave and noble officer Helmuth Von Pannwitz. The Germans who were well aware of the Cossacks fighting ability and supreme valor and thanks to the efforts of Pannwitz a true Cossack army with all of its traditions became a Cossack Cavalry Corp. They were particularly effective in Yugoslavia where they fought against the filthy murderous partisans of the bloody demon Tito. It is believed that these swords were produced late in the war and the purpose was to make them an issue weapon to these fighters who had been forced from their lands by the advance of the Red Army, but hoped in their service to the German army to be given a new territory in Byelorussia when the Reds were finally defeated. In the meantime the members of the Crusade were settled nearly at the end of the war in an operational area for the Cossack Cavalry Corps in northern Italy. This may have been where the swords were to be sent.  But as dark Fate would have it, the Reds and their willing Allies, the US and Britain, triumphed against Europe and the horrible Fate of these brave men, women, and children ensued and they were turned over by the same ‘Allies’ to the Soviet authorities. Almost 50,000 of these poor souls were turned over, men, women, and children, who for the most part were horribly executed, while others were sent to Gulags or deported for force labor. No more noble, dedicated and wonderful people ever existed *(author’s opinion). The U.S. and England should live in eternal shame for bringing about “Operation Keelhaul.”  Read about it on Google.The sword is 100% original.  It is crude to some extent due to the shortage of certain materials necessary to the production at that late stage of the conflict but certainly it was produced to create an esprit de corps in the warrior ranks but also to be effective in usage. No scabbards were found. The theory was to why no scabbards on any of these swords is this — the swords were shipped to the Italian Cossack redoubt in cartons but the scabbards were to follow in another separate shipment but due to the fortunes of war were never shipped. The shop very probably was geography right in the way of the changing tides of action on the Eastern Front. Lets hope that if the Mongols took possession of the shop that they did not find one of these swords because if they did they would have been in absolute ecstasy while roasting alive the owner his wife, children and any employees. The sword is a large: 38 inches long, the grip is 5 ½ inches long, the grip is of wood. the blade is not marked. It shows much old rust — we know they were stored for many years in a barn, before being discovered they were exposed to the elements although packed in hay in loosely bound crates. But unlike the Cossacks who would have proudly carried them, they survived!  Someday they will reach their full value potential. But for now this is a bargain at…PRICE: SOLD

Small War Flag

Small War Flag (Reichskriegsfahne) (Item WEHR 31-9)

DESCRIPTION: Here is a great little military flag of the Wehrmacht. So often seen on German war ships of the Kriegsmarine but actually was the flag used by all branches including the army. This is an ideal size that collectors are continually seeking. The German measurements stamped on the edging are 60 x 90 mm and that is 31 x 24 inches. It has the full staff rope intact and has the word Reichskreigsfahne on the bunting edge. Absolutely perfect condition. This great looking flag of this size was usually for the “Schnellboot” or PT boat type vessel. Looking for the perfect den decoration or front door posting?  Here is the finest!  Just as nice as they ever come.PRICE: Consignment $650.00
6.450.25 a-12
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Helmet for size perspective

Gross Deutschland Soldier Model (Item WEHR 31-10)

DESCRIPTION: ACHTUNG! Collectors…Are you ready for this? Here is a resin statue of a Landser of the Grossdeutschland Division of the Deutschen Heers (Wehrmacht) in action against the enemy. At Germania we handle 99% vintage original items but when we attend the military shows now and then an item shows up that we simply cannot resist. This guy was one of those. The details, the great action, the authenticity, is remarkable to say the least, look closely at the pictures provided and you will see what we mean Spectacular!! In one of the pictures accompanying this article we pictured a helmet just to give a perspective of the size! This is a big figure 13 inches high including the base. The measurement does not go to the top of the grenade. (Breathtaking detail!)  An accurate depiction of a soldier of the German army’s elite division. This was the absolute “premier “Army group. They fought bravely against vastly superior odds on all fronts. You can read about them in several places by going into “Google.” Remember however that the victors write the history of the wars. Seldom are they completely truthful about the role of the vanquished! You will never see any model with the detail of this one. We are very proud to offer it to Germania’s customers.  PRICE: $198.00
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Inside of cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Top of cap with mothing
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Waffenruck uniform
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Waffenruck
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
German Army Medical Officers Tunic (Item WEHR 31-11)
DESCRIPTION: This beautiful tunic belonged to a Hauptmann-Captain (Sanitatsunteroffizier). The auguette suggests that he was also a medical assistant to what probably was a surgeon. Everything on the tunic suggested that it was tailor made — all the boullion crisp and untattered. All insignia including the shoulder boards and breast eagle and collar tabs are sharp and neat. The Caduseus symbol and pips are gold colored. It has a battle ribbon bar with four medals that show his military history.  He won the 2nd Class Iron Cross, theWar Service Cross, the Nazi Party Long Service Medal, the Army Long Service Medal, the Memel Land Medal and the Sudatenland Medal. This tunic is the early dress uniform “Wafffenrock” and this has to be the neatest yet most beautiful uniform in the world of militaria. So, here it is — right out of the past, and 100% original. This was one sharp looking Doctor when attired in beautiful tunic! We also have a Medical officers cap with the blue piping (shown) but while the tunic is in exemplary condition the cap is with moth damage mostly on the top the cap has that  wonderful jaunty look with the high lift to it that you all like to see in these caps.  It would be great featured with the tunic as you can see in our pictures.   PRICE: SOLD
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
Note wear
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
Note wear
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
Major’s shoulder boards
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
The label (Note: Wehrmacht)
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
Rommel in leather coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
Hitler in leather coat
A Leather Greatcoat for German Army Officer (Item WEHR 31-12)
DESCRIPTION: This is what 75% of all WWII German collectors look for…a genuine German officer’s grey leather greatcoat. This is the ‘real McCoy’ German officers of higher rank could wear store bought leather coats that approximate this coat if it would be their choice, but this was the only official Wehrmacht model made by the firm of Max Schleusner of Dresden. You can see his label in the pictures attached. Note that he was a ‘Special’ leather workshop for Wehrmacht and Sport. This coat is beautiful in form and design but it is very worn. Some of the inner sleeves are worn to a frazzle and pocket edges are frayed rather badly. However, it will still look sharp and jaunty on a manikin or on you perhaps.  It was bought in one of our German field trips from the family of the man who wore it through many campaigns in the West and in Russia.  After the war he wore it (usually sans the shoulder boards) right up to the early 90’s until he passed away. He was a Major in the Heers Signal troops and was right up there in all the major action.  He had an extra set of shoulder boards stashed away in his wife’s keeping during the war. This was lucky because the ones he wore on the coat were taken from him by some GI when he surrendered. From time to time he openly wore the boards all around Munich after the war and was oftimes saluted by soldiers who served their country, and he was spat upon by cowards and lowlifes. His wife told us that a bunch of leftist goons who were really “the bottom of the barrel” tried to provoke him once near the Munich Hofbrau Haus. They held combs under their noses and gave Nazi salutes done in obvious hostile jest. Then one of them leaned over and ‘mooned him.’At that moment the old man quickly strode forward and shoved his foot ‘resoundingly’ practically up the buffoons ‘arshe’.  The other three were getting ready to come to the aid of the red baboon who was howling in pain when some of our hero’s friends both old and young came out of the Hoffbrauhaus and ran them off with dire threats about “life and limb.” This old Major was the “Heldenmann” (hero) of the hour and the beer flowed that evening.  So dear collector, here is the Coat of Champions. Note: pictures of some known and unknown Soldaten in our picture section wearing these Max Schleusner greatcoats. Yes, this “mantel” is a bit raggedy but authentic and no part of the traditional German uniform said it all like these handsome coats! PRICE: SOLD
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
A bit of artistic license
Replica German Schmeisser Mod MP-40.5 Sub Machine Gun (Non-Firing) (Item WEHR 31-13)
DESCRIPTION: Again we say we do not generally handle replicas, reproductions, etc, but now and then when we attend a military show something ‘neat’ will catch our eye. In this case it was this ‘Schmeisser” just the neatest piece of machinery ever to be used by German paratroopers and crack Waffen SS units in WWII. There have been other copies of this gun but the best ones were the ones that were made in limited numbers in the Orient and were imported into the US in the 1970’s. This model is a near perfect replica of the MP-40 and has the folding stock and a bolt action that actually functions like the real thing. It has a detachable clip and plastic or bakelite stock just like the real ones. It is assembled with over 70 precision parts, and has been approved by the U.S. Government as a non-gun but we sell it as a decorator model only, and we have only one! This great piece can be used in reenactments or display — it will look really great in any good WWII collection. Length 32.5, weight 7.5 pounds. We cannot by law ship this replica internationally nor to Mexico or Canada.  It cannot be shipped to CA., CT., KS, MA., MN., NY., or WI or Puerto Rico. The piece we have is from a collection that is established since 1965 and the replica was purchased in 1975 — again it is the oldest model and by far the best. It even has color stressing to look like it was carried in war. Good condition and functioning perfectly. We have seen other replicas of this gun but the quality does not approach this one.  PRICE: $695.00 (ONE ONLY!) A bargain for this one.
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
The artist
Bronze German Soldier Statue
The plaque
Bronze Soldier Statue
Ulanen on patrol
Bronze Soldier Statue
Ulan in early combat
Bronze Soldier Statue
Third Garde Ulanen Kaserne in Berlin
Bronze Soldier of the Reich (Item WEHR 31-14, WWI 12-2, ART 16-10, KSTATUE 5-6 )
DESCRIPTION: This marvelous statue measuring 13 ½ inches high with a base 4 ½ inches square (length and depth) personifies the strength and determination of the “Deutscher Soldat” from the time of the battle of the Teutoberg Forest up through the pages of history and into the 2nd World War. The slogan that might go with this wonderful sculpture could be “Die Ganze Welt Gegen Uns”! The whole world against us! Yes, Germany in the embodiment of the Heilege Vaterland was always to protect Europe against the constant incursions from the east against the Magyars, Huns ,Goths, and Visagoths and even the moribund Roman Empire. The land of Germania and its Teutonic Volk took on all comers. It was no different in the 2nd World War when Germany with a few allies stood against the Maelstrom in what was a German led crusade to destroy the beast of Bolshevism before all of Europe was disseminated by what President Reagan later called the Evil Empire. Tthis was truly “evil personified! “ And in this author’s perception, all the nations who joined in the fight to preserve communism and crush Germany were the acolytes of Stalin and Tito and obviously Satan*. (*Authors historic opinion.) The statue you see here tells of a saga that we have briefly touched upon in the forgoing narrative. As this Warrior stands naked before the world, the artist who sculpted him conveys in statuary the defeated yet proud and militant German soldier who wears the Stalhelm (steel helmet) and makes ready the sword of Siegfried known as Nothung for the next time the call of the besieged Fatherland is heard. We readily admit that all of this will only be understood and honored by Germanophiles, but we can envision all the deep meaning that this artistic masterpiece conveys. Nothing else that we have ever offered or seen offered comes up to the artistic expression and important significance of this prodigiously important piece. Its historical importance is magnificently conveyed. This statue which may actually be unique; it is a presentation piece to an officer who was “Beirat” (military advisor) to the Third Ulan battalion in Berlin. This wonderful gift was from the Kameradschaft (comrades) and presented to him for his true service to the Batt. From 1920 to 1940 this illustrious unit was the Third Guard Uhlan regiment and in WW 2 the Uhlans became armored divisions and covered themselves with glory in the early campaigns in Poland and the military engagements against France and Russia. The sculpture weighs about 14 pounds with the marble plinth and is in perfect condition with a gorgeous patina throughout. Deutschland Uber Alles !  PRICE: SOLD
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books

Album, Diary and a Published Book Concerning A Soldier of the Africa Corps FABULOUS! (Item WEHR 31-15 & AFRICA 1-13)

DESCRIPTION: Yes, fabulous and yet that may be an understatement. The diary and photo album were the property of Rolf Krengel Afrika Korps and the photo album is also from him. It is the saga of a brave and true soldier of the Reich. The diary is the actual original handwritten copy.  It starts with the beginning of the war and ends shortly after the Occupation. Serving primarily in North Africa, Krengel recounts with keen insight and now and then flashes of humor the day-to-day challenges of the Africa Corps in the desert battle and the lines are seldom clearly drawn. The narrative reveals an ad hoc campaign in which the average soldier never knew who had the upper hand. During one of the swirling battles in the desert, Krengel found himself sharing a tent with Field Marshal Rommel himself at a forward outpost. However, after the Battle of El Alamein, the cards of fate seemed clear. Evacuated back to Germany prior to the unfortunate collapse in Africa, Krengel continued to keep his journal during the last two years of the war, providing further insight into the final throes of the N.S. regime. He went on to become a successful economist and assisted the Allies with the Post-war Berlin airlift. Here is a first hand account found in the pages of this diary. Here are overviews, illustrations, and timelines with — get this! – a book published in 2009 written by Professor Don Gregory of the University of Alabama and Wilhelm Reinhard Gehlen who was born in Germany and was in the “Deutsches Jungvolk” the equivalent of the American Cub Scouts in Hitler’s Germany. After WWII ‘Willi’ joined the French Foreign Legion and served in Indo-China and North Africa. These two authors previously collaborated on Mr. Gehlen’s acclaimed memoir, “Jungvolk the Story of a Boy Defending Hitler’s Third Reich.”Now, here is the fabulous part. Not only do we have the actual Krengel Diary and photo album but what goes with it is the actual book that was published that gives the entire translation for the diary day by day, while Krengel was with the 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion. Then the 5th Light Division/21st Panzer Division German Africa Corps/Panzer Army Africa. A great and typical narrative of the Infantry soldier who fought bravely for Fuhrer and Fatherland. The book by Gregory and Gehlen is called Two Soldiers, Two Lost Fronts, subtitled German war diaries of the Stalingrad and North Africa campaigns.  Actually, it describes the service of both Rolf Krengel and another German soldier whose diary R. Gehlen decided to keep at this point. This other soldier must at this point be considered the “unknown” warrior as he as author of the diary did not see fit to include his name but if you read the account of his war experiences on the Eastern Front it is just as exciting as Krengel’s accounts. That soldier was a member of the 2nd Batt. 201st Panzer Regiment 23rd Panzer Corps Army Group A. We think this diary and album of R. Krengel is practically unique in that here you not only have the original documentation, but a book in English that is written by a learned professor and a battle experienced veteran of the Wehrmacht telling it as it was directly from the account of this A.K. soldier. We know of no other instance that something as personal and historically important as this group is being offered. The diary measures 8 x 5 inches and ½ inch thick. It contains page after page of hand written accounts by Krengel and even several drawings that he actually sketched.  One in particular is my favorite showing an artistic conception of the face of the British enemy as Krengel envisioned it. A familiar face to Scottish, Irish, American Revolutionists and others who faced the cruelty of the British Grenadiers.  I believe it was the Iron Duke (Wellington) who said of his soldiers at Waterloo “I don’t know if they frighten the enemy, but they scare the Hell out of me.” There are several photographs pasted on the pages as well.  The photo album measures about 12 x 9 and has about 134 photos in it.  Most of the photos are of Africa Corp Personal, aircraft officers, stage presentations at Command HQ, Artillery, Sport, and some neat photos of Krengel himself.  Many of the actual pictures in the album are copied into the book and explained therein.The book by Gregory and Gehlen is 262 pages long with many pictures of German and Italian Axis soldiers and officials. All the dates and summaries in the book match the dates of the entries in the diary.  What a combination! — diary, album, and new book that traces it all for the reader.  Please understand just how unique this truly is! The authors are to be highly commended for putting all of this together and the collector or archivist who decides to purchase this marvelous assemblage will be fortunate indeed. When it comes to provenance on articles of military history we are often asked what the provonance is. And our usual answer is that the inanimate objects cannot speak for themselves unfortunately. But here is the exception surely because this diary and album does in fact speak clearly and distinctly through the explanations and revelations of these two gifted writers in the present and the A.K. soldier Krengel speaks clearly and lucidly from the past. PRICE: SOLD
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
An Original Period Model of a German Troop Car (Iem WEHR 31-16)
DESCRIPTION: Leithtengelende Einheits Personen-Kraftwagen this was a light uniform all road car and was manufactured from 1940 by the Svgwer Company and also by BMW and Hano-Mag. The cars were all wheel drive and were produced with different style bodies. The model we have was the 4-man style with driver, gunner, officer and co-driver personell. The real autos were often used by the German Signal Corps as a radio car and also for forward reconnaissance. This is a period toy made in the 40’s. It is about 8 inches long with all metal wheels. To find one with all the soldiers there is seldom accomplished .Good condition overall.  The soldiers are probably produced by Elastolin. Very rare and historically important as well. PRICE: $750.00
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
An Odd WWII Wehrmacht Unit Ring (Item WEHR 31-17)
DESCRIPTION: We call this a Wehrmacht ring in lieu of not knowing if it is a ring of the Deutsche Heers, Luftwaffe, or Waffen SS. Somewhere in the far reaches of my mind, I remember seeing a depiction of man and rearing hose such as this back several years ago, but I do not remember what it was on; perhaps one of you collectors out there might help us to shed some light on it. Possibly you have read our narrative on our home page entitled “About Our Rings and Silver Insignia.” But if you have not, then I really suggest that you do so and then you will have an understanding of how all of these fabulous pieces of jewelry were obtained by us in Stuttgart, Germany. You will also be introduced to Herr Franz Schnell, the silversmith who produced many of these pieces and personally designed many of them himself in the 20’s through to the 40’s. He was a master of his trade. This ring is one of the items that we found in his huge grouping but his son could tell me nothing about it except that he knew his father designed rings for many of the units of the Wehrmacht. So for now, it is unidentified and we won’t price it until we have some idea of what the unit was that used it.PRICE: ??
Vorsicht Sign
Vorsicht! A Metal Sign of Warning (Item WEHR 31-18 & GEN 14-16)
DESCRIPTION: This is a warning to service personal and German citizens during WWII that they should be alerted to the danger of loose talk on telephones and other means of communication. The words Vorsicht Bei Gesprachen, Feind Hort Mit! This means: Caution with your conversation! The enemy is listening!  With such Freedom eroding laws & unconstitutional  measures imposed on Americans today with the ‘Patriot Act’ and ‘Homeland Security’ this sign has real meaning in 21st century America as well.  The sign is in heavy gage steel enameled over. It has four holes, one at each corner so it may be secured in place where it would be a reminder that loose lips are the friends of the enemy. The sign measures 8″ x 4″ and is in good shape with a little staining that will wash off.  We leave them as we get them! PRICE: SOLD
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWII German Army Rabbit Fur Cold Weather Hat (Item WEHR 31-19)
DESCRIPTION: This rabbit fur cap is the typical cold weather issue that was used by various Wehrmacht units. This one by the military police who often had to stand for hours directing military traffic and also performing the duties of the “Field Cop” and this necessitated the warmest of clothing especially in Russia each unit of the German Wehrmacht was issued these caps with the cloth parts closely matching the uniform of the particular recipient. This one was for the MP’s and it has the police eagle device sewn to the front face. Army and Luftwaffe personnel had the particular insignia of their branch affixed in the same way on the ones issued to them. The cap in is 100% perfect condition. It is marked inside with the numbers and letter R.B.Nr 0/1200 and under this 58-41. This is the size and date of issue. The fur is soft and completely intact. A very nice speciman of excellent German workmanship technique. This cap might be practical as well as a collectable considering the strange weather patterns as of late! PRICE: $450.00
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Back side
Army Officer Sword
Knuckle bow
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Nice blade!
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
The Army oath taken on sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Von Stein WW II German Army Sword (Item WEHR 31-20)
DESCRIPTION: This Von Stein pattern sword is an aluminum example, exhibiting rich gilding throughout its surfaces. In fact, the gilding work on this sword is nearly 100%. The Von Stein sword is one of the famed field marshal series and can be seen in the Angolia Book on page 79. It is named for the famed German marshal  of the Napoleonic wars, Freiherr von Stein. This example has a dove head style pommel with a flowing backstrap and side tabs which all portray raised-out oak leaves with acorns. The “P” guard also has an oak leaf acorn sprig design. The same is true of the ferrule. The cross guard area has a series of dot and dash markings and at the langet there is a Wehrmacht eagle. This bird is shown in relief and he has half-closed wings, looks to the viewer’s left and clutches a swastika.. The grip is the standard wood base having celluloid covering. The celluloid is in perfect condition having fine factory sheen. This grip is tightly wrapped with triple aluminum wire, the center being twisted. The lower portion of the sword guard is stamped, “Ges. Gesch.”, indicating that the Eickhorn firm had a patent pending on the design. The scabbard is nice and straight. The scabbard is without any bending or dented, but it has been very professionally re-painted in the exact hue that the original scabbard was finished in back in those early days in Solingen. The very fine blade is 33 inches in length. It has been quality nickel-plated and has a bright mirror finish. This blade is in near mint condition. The reverse ricasso is stamped with the 1935-41 seated squirrel logo. The original tan leather washer is in position. A fine looking and semi rare Von Stein example offered here.PRICE: $ 695.00
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
Back
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
Note the depth of carving
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
The mail out of Krosno
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
Postschutz Officer dagger (note
the eagle configuration)

Carved Bread Plate from the Military Postal Police (Postshutz) in Krosno, Poland (Item WEHR 31-21 & BRE 1-6)

DESCRIPTION: This may be the finest German bread plate we have ever seen and we have seen many fine collections of them. This plate is expertly carved with the eagle of the German Military Postshutz eagle as its central design. The Postshutz (Postal Police) comprised about 4,500 members stationed all over Europe and they were tasked with the security of Germany’s Reichspost; they were not only responsible for security of the mail but other communications media such as telephone and telegraph systems. The plate was from the HQ of this organization in Poland. They were stationed there after the Polish attack on the German radio station at Gleiwitz, in 1939 — the event that after many Polish atrocities against the German minority in Poland finally launched the German retaliation and began WWII. After that vicious attack units of the postal protection police were dispatched to several locations in Poland to prevent something like this happening again. One of these outposts was Krosno which is a medieval fortified town; a former royal “free town” in medieval Europe. The carved plate was probably a gift from Poles who not only cooperated with the German occupiers but actually sided with their mission of destroying Soviet Communism. There were many who thought this way. The contemporary orthodox history books do not mention this of course. The dish says along its edges “Deutsche Post Osten 1939-1942 Krosno.” It measures 11 inches in diameter and is in excellent condition. The carved Postshutz eagle rises in deep relief carving and is very dramatic. It is the eagle that you see in the middle of the grip of the rare Postshutz daggers. The piece is not only artistically great but is a really important historic relic of the turbulent time!PRICE: $750.00
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses

Cased Set of Snow Goggles for SS Mt. Troops (SS Geburgsjager) (Item WEHR 31-22)

DESCRIPTION: Here is something seldom found. It is a cased set of goggles used in winter combat by the SS Mountain Troopers of the SS Geburgsjager Division “Nord’ and this wording is engraved on the outside of the case. It also says Eigentum Der Waffen SS; this sentence means Property of the Waffen SS. In the middle is the runic symbol for this elite corps. The box measures 3×2 across the box top and 1 ½ inches deep. The goggles are with blackened lenses and black fabric head band. The Kampfgruppe Nord was formed from the 6th and 7th SS Totenkopf Standarten in 1941. In 1942 they became the SS Division Nord and in May of 1942 they became the SS Gebirgs Division Nord. They fought bravely as the SS DivisionNord against the Russians on the Kald Peninsula and in subsequent hard fought conflicts. They saw combat in the Finnish Front along with the brave Finns until the Finish Government made a Devil’s pact with the Soviets and then ordered all German Army and SS units to leave Finnish territory and in September 1944 the 6th SS Division Nord began its retreat across Finland to the West.  Later they participated in the Ardennes Offensive. After continuous fighting in this area, the Division retreated to the North where it was engaged once more with the advancing English and American enemy. In the vicinity of Worms, eventually after heroic action, they surrendered to the Americans. Usere Ehre Heist Treue! This was their clarion call and their sacred pledge right to the end.PRICE: $450.00
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
Distressed cover
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
Good inside – note glasses
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
The 3-D pictures
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
All great like this!
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
The color plates
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book

Der Kampf in Westen 3-D Book “Raumbilderbuch ” (Item WEHR 31-23)

DESCRIPTION: OK, collectors, here is one of the fabulous 3-D books that were produced by the firm of Heinrich Hoffman in Munich. The subtitle is “Die Soldaten Des Führers Im Felde” (The Soldiers of the Fuhrer in the Field). It was published early in the war in 1940. These Raumbilder books were all the rage back then and are very popular today when found. We have had several of them including some of the rare titles. The one most profusely produced in the Third Reich was this one because it celebrated the dazzling victory of the German Army in the West right up to the fall of France to the German Wehrmacht. The German people rejoiced in this and the purchase of these books that told the story in 3-D was more popular than “Leberwurst”! Who can blame them? These actions were the first steps in a war lamented by Hitler but necessary to stem the tide of British encroachment and the soon to come onslaught of the Russian Communists. The people were overjoyed at the success of their fighting soldiers. And the book shows the prowess, dash and daring of these soldaten at the front. Great scenes of the forward advances and early victories. Pictures of scroungy looking White and Negroid French prisoners, sharp German officers of the army, air force, etc. right up to the surrender of the French armed forces at Compiegne in the same railroad car that the Germans had to surrender to the French in 1918. This was the most glorious moment for the Führer, his army and the German people. But from 1943 it was all down-hill because the misguided Allies pushed on to utterly defeat Germany with its superior fire power and endless supplies that Germany did not have, thus the bulwark against the Eastern hordes of Bolshevism was destroyed and the West has been in danger ever since of losing also due to the influence of its traditional enemy and its most diabolical offshoot, communism.Enough of my history lesson. The book itself is a history lesson portrayed before you in three dimension just like you are standing there personally (Do I hear the music of twilight zone!) The stark realism cannot be compared to looking at pictures in a regular book as fine as they might be. Before Japan got into the art of special photography, Germany excelled in state of the art photographic innovation. Now that 3-D is so popular out of Hollywood, it really has nothing on this 1940’s Raumbilder process. We have another copy of this prodigiously book on our site at WEHR 10-5 on the Wehrmacht section. This one that we offer here is not nearly in as good condition as the one I just mentioned. The cover is quite tattered with the spine taped some time ago and it has rips at the edges and also tattering.  The spine was glued to hold at some time or another. But the pages are all there with the brilliant color plates.  It has all 80 pages, the viewer is in good shape and the cards are also. There should have been 100 cards but a dozen are missing. However, these books are so very rare today that this one will be considered extremely reasonable compared with what they bring in Germany today. It is still a great historical treasure if only for the pictures, so we offer it for the bargain price of…PRICE: $198.00  A real bargain, better grab it!
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Method of carry
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Worn about the neck
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
German WWII Gas Mask Container (Item WEHR 31-24)
DESCRIPTION: Here is a container for the gas mask issued in WW II to the German Army and Waffen SS personal. Poison gas was not used in WWII although the British and Americans longed to use it. It was the most horrible weapon other than the Allies atom bomb ever devised to be sent against soldiers in the field. It was used so frequently in WWI that it gave rise to the term “The Chemist’s War.” One notable poison gas victim of WW I was Adolf Hitler who was temporarily blinded while healing in a hospital in Wervik; as a result Hitler adamantly refused to authorize the use of poison gas on the battlefield in World War II. However, the High Command of the Wehrmacht did not trust the Allies with good reason and retrospect. So, German soldiers were issued gas masks in the event that the Allies would suddenly introduce this cruel and horrible type warfare. The only reason they didn’t was fear of retaliation in kind. Their genocidal bombing raids on Hamburg Koln, and especially Dresden, proved that their only regard for human life was to run up their score of kills on human targets and mostly civilian. So the soldiers of the Fatherland carried their gas masks right up to the end. But why do we find so many of the canisters empty of the gas mask. Because from 1940 on the soldiers were fairly sure that they would never encounter gas at the front. Their code of honor however was theirs alone in WWII and although it was extremely ‘chancy’ thousands of them threw away the mask and kept the canister as a handy ‘catch all’ for trinkets, goodies and yes, collectables! This one we offer has all the original straps and is in good condition throughout.PRICE: $175.00
War Service Cross
War Service Cross

War Service Cross with Issue Envelope (Kriegs Verdienstkreuz) (Item WEHR 31-26)

DESCRIPTION: This is the 2nd Class without swords (mint condition) with ribbon. Adolf Hitler directed that a decoration should be struck that would recognize service in the war effort that would fall short of the award of the Iron Cross. This medal was instituted on 18 Oct 1939 and even civilians could win this coveted award who performed outstanding service. The war merit cross was instituted with and without swords in a 1st and 2nd class. The class without swords was a non-combatant award but could be given for duties performed for the Fatherland exceeding the feats that would be given to military recipients who received the cross with swords. To find one with the issue envelope is rare.PRICE: $150.00
Faithful Service Cross
War Service Cross Without Swords (Kriegsverdienst Kreuz) (Item WEHR 31-27)
DESCRIPTION: Another like the one listed above but without issue envelope (condition mint!) but with some stain on the back portion of the medal.PRICE: $80.00
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
The presentation cigarette case
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Medal assemblage with shoulder
boards
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Promotion certificates
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
To Captain
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
To Major
Konrad Leper Grouping
To Oberstleutnant
Konrad Leper Grouping
Aryan birth paper
Konrad Leper Grouping
Letter while POW
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
His sword from WWI seen in
this portrait
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
His engraved initials
Konrad Leper Grouping
Wilhelm II cypher
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
His WWII officer’s dagger
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Portepee
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
His initials
Konrad Leper Grouping
Manufactured by Puma-Solingen
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Hangers
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Some misfortunes of war
Konrad Leper Grouping
Back side
Konrad Leper Grouping
Utterly Magnificent WWI & WWII Group Belonging to One Officer of the Deutsches Vaterland  (Item WEHR 31-28 & WWI 12-8)
DESCRIPTION: This has to rate as one of the absolute best groups we have ever offered at Germania International.  In a word, incredible.  The articles were the personal possessions of Herr Konrad Lepper who served in WWI and won the Iron Cross First and Second Class and was an adjutant, so we are told, in the unit I/417 and worked up the ranks to being an Oberstleutnant in 1942. The Second World War, he was in the Gebirgsjager Corps (Mountain Infantry) or at least that is indicated by the color of the underlay on his shoulder boards…light green Waffenfarbe. With the group there is a cigarette case that is crafted in 800 silver. It measures 3 ½” x 3″ and about ½ inch thick; it has the Hohenzollern eagle in its center and K.L for Konrad Lepper. The initials are on the left (K) and in the bottom right (L) on the inside of the case. It is presented to Lepper with the words that are hand engraved — Ihrem Lieben Adjutanten Lepper 2-M 14 5 1917. “To the Dear Adjutant Lepper’.  Then there are what looks to be five facsimile signatures of officers that  were presenting the case to Lepper. The only one at his point that we can make out clearly is Kluge — this could be the famed General Von Kluge of WWI and WWII fame. That might have been the officer that Leper was adjutant to.With the group are 10 medals in parade dress mount and his shoulder boards from his WWII rank -Oberstleutant 1st Colonel in the 15th Mountain Troop Battalion. His medals are mounted on a board that is similar to the funeral pillow that is used in display, these would be the awards won in the career of a soldier then deceased and this might well be the case here. We received them mounted like this when we purchased the group. Note the medals in our pictures and they are from the top on down: 

  1. The Iron Cross First Class
  2. The ribbon bar contains the Iron Cross Second Class.
  3. The red enamel medal is the Hanseatic Cross given for bravery in combat.
  4. The cross of Honor WWI for a combatant
  5. Cross for Military Merit awarded by Austria (“Militar-Verdienstkreuz”)

On the Next medal grouping parade bar we find:

  1. WW II Kriegs Verdienst-Kreuz with swords for Combatants.
  2. The 4 year Faithful Service medal for the German army.
  3. The National Socialist Civil Service medal
  4. The War Service medal presented by the Weimar Republic to Veterans who served in the First World War
  5. (Separate) the war Merit Cross Kriegsverdienstkreuz with swords for combatants (in silver 1st Class)

On this board you can also see Lt. Col. Lepper’s WW II shoulder boards from the 1st Gebirgsjager Regiment. We would hazard a guess that Lepper may have been retired at the age of 52 in 1943 or 53 in 1944.  He was born May 14th, 1871.  We say this because of the Weimar Kyfhauser bund medal and the N.S. Faithful Service award; it indicated he may have been in the Civil Service even before the First World War. To continue we come to the most incredible part of the group and that is a beautifully rendered oil portrait of the Soldat Lepper in full uniform in the WWI era with his sword. This is a large painting 42” x 30”.  It is actually from the period 1914-1918 and it is in fine condition.  We had to remove the frame to send the painting home but believe me the frame was nothing we would treasure. It was a black painted common frame in chipped up condition and this magnificent oil deserves a better framing job in any case.  We leave that to the buyer.  The painting is unsigned but is obviously the work of a truly professional artist; very life-like portrait of a real career officer, Germany’s finest.

Also fantastic is that we have the actual Mod 1889 Infantry officers sword that you see in the picture with Lepper’s initials K.L. engraved in the pommel section.  The sword is in all around great condition  The wire wrapping is tight, the brass is all still with 90% of its original gilted patina.  The scabbard shows use but no abuse.  The blade is plain steel.  Unsigned, with double blood gutters. The royal Prussian crest are perfect as is the eagle on the brass foldable guard   The sword in its scabbard is 36 inches long. Herr Lepper was a proud German soldier so it is not so unusual to find their initials or names on the swords.  Usually it is the career men who are “button busting proud” of their army, their nation and their family who would have this done. To continue, we have Lepper’s Wehrmacht officers model ‘Heersdolch’or (army dress dagger) with original portepee (knot) and hanger. The dagger was manufactured by the famous Solingen Firm of Puma. The cross guard on the back incredibly has his initials once again (K.L.) done in classic Germanic letters that exactly match the personalization on the sword. This dagger is in average to very good condition.  The blade is bright but could have at one time broken at the tip. But if so it has been expertly repaired even if shortened by a ¼ inch or so.  The grip may have had a chip near the cross guard but that also was excellently repaired. The scabbard shows some plating loss here and there but we think Lepper was no armchair officer; he was probably busy most of the time and wearing the weapon all the time as an adjutant.  The supplied hangers show use but are still good and serviceable (and highly collectable); all in all a very nice specimen of the official dress dagger of the German Army.

Next, and this is incredible, the original three promotions that Lepper earned through his long military career. This starts with:

  1. The promotion document promoting him from a Hauptmann (Captain) in the infantry regiment 15 who has served form Dec. 1938 as a captain in the reserve to a captain in the regular army in the field for 1939 and it is hand signed by the Supreme Commander of the army, General Oberst Franz Halder.
  2. The official document promoting him from Hauptmann (Captain) to Major on the 1st of April 1940. It says — “I issue this promotion document and expect that the above Konrad Lepper to be true to his oath of service and he will execute his duty and the trust in him that is given to him with this promotion at the same time he can be assured of my special protection.”  Fuhrers headquarters facsimile signed by Adolf Hitler in autopen on the 20th April 1940. This was Hitler’s birthday.  Under this is in large letters “Der Fuhrer Adolf Hitler”.  Under this is the handwritten signature of General Walther Von Brautisch who in 1940 was also promoted .He was elevated from General to Field Marshal
  3. The original document promoting Lepper from Major to Oberstleutant.  (Lieutenant Colonel) The wording in this document is much the same as on the document preceding at (B) this one is signed by Wilhelm Keitel Supreme commander of the Army. It is dated and signed 8 April 1942 but is retroactive from April 1st 1942.  This one like the others has the facsimile Adolf Hitler signature. All three documents are in their original folders with the beautiful and noble Reichsadler eagle on the covers embossed in gold. The actual documents are on parchment stock paper and have the highly embossed official seal of the Reich (An eagle on a wreath of oak leaves). All of these documents are in marvelous condition and like all of the other Leper items were kept in a special state of preservation.

Next: When an officer reaches the high rank of Oberstleutenant the official Wehrmacht inspection always came to pass. And this was similar to the Party Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt “Race and Resettlement Office.” They wanted to know if the officer was of pure Germanic descent according to paragraph (1.) The law of Aryan descent. This was under the Reichsgesetzblat-filing system 1063 it says “We hereby certify that Oberleutnant Konrad Lepper who was born 14/5/91 is of German descent as is his wife Martha who was born Hupfeld Nov 1st 1893 and as far back as her grandparents is also Aryan Approved by inspection of official records here in Oct 1935.  This was signed in Kasssel the 22nd of December 1942.  It has the stamp of the inspection office and is signed by a captain and adjutant. This file paper is 8 x 6 inches in size.  

Last but not least is an envelope minus the letter — 5 ½” x 4″ addressed to Oberstleutnant Lt. Lepper # 316-2 509 083 U.S. Army POW 1 B France and dated 29 May 1946. It says to the side (German) and at the top Prisoner of War post. On the back it says Lepper Bringhausen UB Wildungen 16 Germany.   We believe this was a letter from his father or mother but could be from his brother or sister while he was a prisoner of war in France but at a US prisoner facility.

So here we have one of the most complete groupings of the personal articles ever offered — absolutely stupendous! How and why they were ever released and sold by the family is unknown to us.  Perhaps it is because of the slander and debasement of Germany’s soldiers taught in the post-war German schools and in fact even in the media today in the Orwellian world we now seem to have reached.  Or perhaps most of the Lepper family is gone leaving behind a few of the ‘new’ Germans who have adopted the “Coca-Cola and gum chewing culture”. These types would sell their history and heritage in a snap! It means nothing to them. If they would be asked if they knew the difference between ignorance and apathy their answer would likely be “I don’t know and I don’t care!” Think about that one.  To us this collection is truly a Germanophiles dream and a tribute to a brave soldier of the Reich. May he rest in glory!  Alles für Deutschland!

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Driwancybermuseum christmas and newyour card

Dr Iwancybermuseum sent to All collectors from all over the word Marry christmas And’ Happy New Year Special for You

We upload a sample of dr Iwan E-book In Cd-ROM THE CHRISTMAS HISTORY COLLECTIONS 1500 1800

1800

World’s first Christmas card Christmas cards originated as hand-written letters sent by school children to their families in England in the early 1800s.

The invention of the steam press in 1840 made it possible to mass-produce Christmas greetings. Christmas cards were first printed in London, England.

They were designed by John Calcott Horsley of the Royal Academy for Sir Henry Cole in 1843 and were sold at Felix Summerly’s Home Treasury Office.

The greeting was “A Very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to You.” A portrayal of a child sipping wine in a toast on the central panel caused a stir with temperance groups. Cards were first mailed (to friends) by W. C. Dobson (Queen Victoria’s favorite painter) in 1845. First mailings in U. S. were in 1846. Louis Prang, a Boston lithographer, marketed multicolored Christmas Cards in Europe in 1865, and in the U. S. in 1875.

He made Christmas Cards popular. Mailing was expanded with the “penny post card,” 1893. Half-tone engravings appear in 1900. The home photograph card begins in 1902 by Eastman Kodak.

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the Sample Of Euro and Pasific World War II 1943 History collections

THIS IS THE  SAMPLE OF Dr IWAN E-BOOK IN CD-ROM ,THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBE TO BE PREMIUM MEMBER VIA COMMENT

THE SAMPLE INFO FROM

THE EURO AND PASIFIC WORLFD WAR II 1943

HISTORY COLLECTIONS

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private limited e-book in Cd-Rom Edition

special for senior collectors

copyright @ 2012

August,28th.1943

1943 Air Mail Letter Card from CDBScholey   RAF INDIA Command  to his parent  C.W.Scholey  Watkworth Morpeth  Northtumberland England. GB with d/r. 220 Security p/m. and censor W 148. From F/O CB Scholey, RAF India Command.

CONTENTS MOSTLY ABOUT DOWNFALL OF

MUSSOLINI

AND

REPLACEMENT BY

MARSHAL BADOGLIO

COMMENTING ON THE LATTER’S USE OF MUSTARD GAS ON THE ABYSSINIANS, THE RUSSIAN ATTACK ON GERMANY AND “THE JAPANESE ANIMALS ARE A DIFFERENT MATTER BUT WE WILL FIX THEM BEFORE LONG. I PERSONALLY SHOULD WHIP THE SON OF HEAVEN IN PUBLIC” COMMENTS ON THE CAPTURE OF VON ARNIN IN NORTH AFRICA.

read the letter below

Dear Dad and mother

Thank you for your Air letter card on 27th June which I got a day or two ago. From What you say you are greetings my letter in less time then I usually recived from you, but there is a  great improvement from both directions.In Mussolini’s downfa I suppose you see,as I do,the beginning of the end of Italy.and I dare say something will have happened before you get this.Obviously off course the country had enough of the fellow,and to say that he resignedmean that he was told to get out.I only hope they don’t bump him off before we get our hooks on him! I supposed this the biggest blow yet to the Axis, and how exactly Hitler can explain it way, I don’t know bad heel is much too thin this time, for musso is hardly the man to pack up even if his health is not all it may be.

As far as I can make out they are saying so little as possible about it for the present.

Badoglio is, of course, preferable to Musso, but I deplore the tendenvy which even now is making itself  apparent to regard him as  a sort of savior,not only for Italy but of half the civilized world.

It should not forgotten that,although he is an anti-Fasict,it was he who used mustard gas on the Abysinnian and did a few other thing he shouldn’t.So although Italy is hardly in the  same category as Germany she should never the less be very severely dealtwith.

If she isn’t , we shal be offering a direct incentive to all the Jack Spratte the world over to imitate her performance of the last decade or two.

If it is true that Badoglio has  ordered  the Division in the Balkans and France to return to Italy,Goodness knows what Germany will do, especially in Balkans., but I should think it is a move prepatory to talking peace, for if he packed up before he got his Division home heaven knows what might happen to them at the handle of the Yugoslave and the Greeks.

It seems quite obvious that the German attacks on the Russian front have lost much of their sting, and that the Russian are masters of the situation there.Germany’s losses have been so enormous that I don’t see how it could be otherwise, I am beginning to think that my current estimate of a maximum of tweleve month more in Europe may be in generous side.I hope so anywhy.

The Japanese animals  are a different matter, but we’ll fix them before very long I personally should whip the Son Of Heaven in the public.

Thanks you for offering me to send me newspaper occasionally  don’t trouble to much about it, but I should certainly like one now an then.

No. I am afraid I am not keeping a diary , there is  little at present that I could put in it of any interest, and most of that would be unprintable.

I am kept busy enough to have very little time for outside pursuits, and they ,such as  they are , don’t amount to very musch.

Pepys would have been hard put to it to make much of this lot

(Dr Iwan note,please read more info to proof the estime right or wrong,please read the info from my complete CD-rom)

The complete Cd-rom exist please subscribe to be premium memebr to get it via comment

 

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Rare stamps for investment

This the rare stamps for investment, read the tips related to the rare stamps collection and if you look it grabbed and collect it for the future

 

 

The Rare stamps For Investment

Created By

 

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Limited E-book In CD-ROM Edition

Special for Senior Collectors and investor

Copyright @ 2012

Source

stampselector.

Barrier Island

 

Many modern city-dwellers are accustomed to thinking of pigeons as filthy nuisances- “rats with wings”- but the birds have played their part as useful messengers since the time of the Romans.
A pigeon postal service was established between Great Barrier Island, an isolated community 90 kilometers north east of Auckland, New Zealand, and the mainland in 1897. Formerly, postal service had been provided by a weekly coastal steamer, but treacherous seas wrecked the ship SS Wairarapa off the coast of Great Barrier Island in 1894, with the loss of 121 lives, leading to the establishment of two rival pigeongram companies, each of which issued stamps. The birds were sent over to the island on the weekly steamer, and then flew back to Auckland with up to 5 small messages attached to each bird’s legs. Great Barrier’s pigeongram service ended when the first telegraph cable was laid between the island and the mainland in 1908.
Today, the pigeongram stamps are eagerly collected for their novelty value, and some have become extremely valuable.

 

New Zealand 1997 Pigeon-Gram Centenary Commemoratives

: Ethiopia 1949 National Exposition Semi-Postals (Scott #B6-10)

In 1949, Ethiopia issued a set of overprinted semi-postals (Scott #B6-10) commemorating the National Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition, held in Addis Adaba. Initially, 15,ooo sets were issued, but most sets were not sold, and 10,ooo of each of the low values and 5,000 of the high value were later overprinted again, creating the the 1951 Exposition set (Scott #B16-20). Consequently, B6-10 ultimately had a total quantity issued of 5,000. Scott ’09 values B 6-10 unused at $ 49.00 and B 16-20 at $ 25.00, and I feel that both catalog values are absurdly low. Many similarly undervalued Ethiopian issues exist, however, and I intend to recommend some of them in the future.

Ethiopia is still a poor country, with an estimated population of over 85 million people, but it has one of the fastest growing economies in the world, with annual GDP growth of 9%-11%. It has the greatest water reserves in Africa, and is one of its most fertile countries. According to the New York Times, it has the potential “to become the breadbasket for much of Europe
if its agriculture were better organized.”

Ethiopia has a fascinating philatelic history, and most serious collectors who specialize in Ethiopia are Europeans and Americans. I expect that this will change over the long-term, as it has for so many countries which have risen out of poverty.

: U.S. Offices in China Issues (Scott #K1-18)

From 1919 to 1922, the U.S. issued stamps for prepayment of mail despatched from the U.S. Postal Agency in Shanghai, China. I view many of these stamps as extremely undervalued, and list their printing quantities and Scott ’09 Catalog Values for unused below:

1919 Issue:

K1 2c on 1c Green (355,000; $ $25.00 unused; $70.00 NH)

K2 4c on 2c Rose (355,000; $25.00 unused; $ 70.00 NH)

K3 6c on 3c Violet (113,000;$ 60.00 unused; $ 150.00 NH)

K4 8c on 4c Brown (113,000; $ 60.00 unused; $ 150.00 NH)

K5 10c on 5c Blue (113,000; $ 85.00 unused; $ 220.00 NH )

K6 12c on 6c Red Orange (113,000; $ 85.00 unused; $ 220.00 NH )

K7 14c on 7c Black (113,000;$ 87.50 unused; $ 225.00 NH)

K8 16c on 8c Olive Bister (13,000; $ 70.00 unused; $ 180.00 NH)

K8a 16c on 8c Olive Green (100,000;$ 60.00 unused; $ 160.00 NH)

K9 18c on 9c Salmon Red (113,000; $ 65.00 unused; $ 170.00 NH)

K10 20c on 10c Orange Yellow (113,000; $ 60.00 unused; $ 160.00 NH )

K11 24c on 12c Brown Carmine (50,000; $ 80.00 unused; $ 200.00 NH)

K11a 24c on 12c Claret Brown (8,000; $ 110.00 unused; $ 275.00 NH )

K12 30c on 15c Gray (58,000; $ 87.50 unused; $ 210.00 NH)

K13 40c on 20c Deep Ultramarine (58,000; $ 130.00 unused; $ 300.00 NH)

K14 60c on 30c Orange Red ( 58,000; $ 120.00 unused; $ 280.00 NH)

K15 $1 on 50c Light Violet (14,000; $ 575.00 unused; $ 1,300.00 NH)

K16 $2 on $1 Violet Brown (13,800; $ 450.00 unused; $ 1,000.00 NH)

K16a $2 on $1 Violet Brown, double surcharge (200;$ 8,500.00 unused; $ 14,000.00 NH)

1922 Issue:

K17 2c on 1c Green (10,000;$ 110.00 unused; $ 250.00 NH)

K18 4c on 2c Carmine (10,000; $ 100.00 unused; $ 230.00 NH)

K18a 4c on 2c Carmine, “SHANGHAI” Omitted (Unknown, probably 100 or fewer; $ 7,500.00 unused)

K18b 4c on 2c Carmine, “CHINA” only (Unknown, probably 100 or fewer; $ 15,000.00 unused)
The three overprint errors (K16a,K18a, and K18b) are the key stamps of this set, and they, along with the other better stamps should be expertized prior to purchase. The Offices in China Issues tend to have mediocre centering. I recommend obtaining graded certificates for those which are VF-XF or better, and which catalog over $100.
Many of the stamps issued by various nations for their offices and possessions in China have not experienced the same meteoric rise as the currently hot issues of the P.R.C.. Perhaps this is partly attributable to Chinese nationalism, as the foreign countries that had colonies or spheres of influence in China were there as imperial powers, attempting to suck the lifeblood out of the Chinese people via the opium trade, resource extraction, and other means. Nevertheless, many of the stamps issued by the U.S., Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Portugal (for Macao) and Russia for their Chinese offices/possessions are quite scarce and undervalued, and eagerly sought by the colonies collectors of those countries. Eventually, the Chinese market will take greater notice of them.

: Burma 1937-39 Officials

In 1937, the British declared Burma separate from India, and made it a self-governing unit of the Empire. The first stamps of Burma were George V definitives of India overprinted “Burma.” A set of Official stamps (Scott #O1-14), for use by governmental officials, was also created by additionally overprinting the stamps “Official.” In 1939, a new set of Officials (Scott #O15-27) was issued by overprinting some of the stamps from Burma’s 1938-40 George VI issue.
Issuance quantity information is unavailable for these sets, but in all probability, 10,000- 20,000 (or fewer) of each were produced. They are of current interest to British Commonwealth collectors, and Scott ‘ values O1-14 at $ 497.00 for unused ($825.00 for NH)and O15-27 at $ 309.10 for unused ($ 420.00 for NH).
Now called the Union of Myanmar, this country of 50 million is ruled by a ruthless military junta which oppresses its people and mismanages and isolates Myanmar from the rest of the world. The junta has committed crimes against humanity, including the forced labor of approximately 800,000 of its citizens. Previous to the coup of 1962 in which the junta seized power, Burma was one of the most prosperous nations in Southeast Asia, rich in commodities and with a highly literate, hard-working population.
I view it as inevitable that the Burmese people will cast off their oppressors and return to democracy, and eventually, prosperity, but when this will happen, or at what cost, remain open questions. Until then, I suggest purchase of both of these sets, which should gradually increase in value based solely upon demand from British Commonwealth collectors.
In 1933, Egypt issued a set of stamps commemorating the meeting of the International Railroad Congress in Heliopolis (Scott #168-71). The set pictures various locomotives from the 1850s on, and is an attractive Train topical issue. 52,000 sets were issued, and Scott ’10 values it unused at $ 70.00 .

With an estimated 76 million people, Egypt possesses one of the most developed economies in the Mid-East, with a GDP growth rate of 5% -7%. The government is undertaking major economic reforms to further spur development, including massive investments in infrastructure and liberalizing economic and tax policies to encourage foreign investment. Egypt’s main challenge in the years to come will be one of social and political democratization – how to assure that enough of the new wealth trickles down to the majority of the population to lessen the problems of poverty and political instability.

 Cape of Good Hope 1900 Siege of Mafeking Issue

During the Boer War of 1899-1902, the town of Mafeking was besieged by the Boers over a period of 217 days, and successfully defended by British forces commanded by Lieutenant General Robert Baden-Powell. Greatly outnumbered by enemy forces, Baden-Powell bolstered his troops by forming the Mafeking Cadet Corps, a group of boys aged 12 to 15, to act as messengers and orderlies. The Cadet Corps was later to be one of the inspirations for the Scouting movement, which Baden-Powell founded in 1907.

Mail delivery was among the tasks performed by the Cadet Corps, and since inventories of postage stamps had been depleted during the Siege, stamps of the Cape of Good Hope and the Bechuanaland Protectorate were surcharged, and new stamps picturing 12 year-old Sergeant Major Goodyear (later considered the “First Boy Scout”) and Baden-Powell himself were locally produced.

All of the stamps of the Siege of Mafeking Issues (Scott #162-180) are scarce to rare, and both fake overprints and forgeries exist, so expertization should be a condition for purchase. I’ve listed the stamps, along with quantities issued and Scott ’10 Catalog Values, below:

Stamps of Cape of Good Hope surcharged:
#162 1p on 1/2p Green (7,680; $ 240.00 unused, $ 77.50 used)

163 1p on 1/2p Green (5,280; $ 300.00 unused, $ 90.00 used)

164 3p on 1p Rose (6,000; $ 275.00unused, $ 60.00 used)

165 6p on 3p Red Violet (840; $ 42,500.00 unused, $ 300.00 used)

166 1sh on 4p Pale Olive Green (1,440; $ 8,000.00 unused, $ 425.00 used)
Stamps of Bechuanaland Protectorate Surcharged:

167 1p on 1/2p Vermilion (6,000; $ 240.00 unused, $ 77.50 used)168 and 173 3p on 1p Lilac ( 1,800 total; 168: $ 1,000.00 unused, $ 105.00 used; 173: 1,050.00 unused, $ 90.00 used)

169 and 174 6p on 2p Green and Carmine (1,200 total ; 169: $ 2,250.00 unused, $ 90.00 used; 174: $ 1,300.00 unused, $ 90.00 used )

170 6p on 3p Violet on yellow (1,440; $ 2,250.00 unused, $ 90.00 used)

171 6p on 3p Violet (3,600; $ 450.00 unused, $ 80.00 used)

172 1sh on 4p Brown and Green (2,320; $ 1,650.00 unused, $ 95.00 used)

175 1sh on 6p Violet on rose (1,440; $ 7,250.00 unused, $ 105.00 used)

176 1sh on 6p Violet on rose (240; $ 55,000.00 unused, $ 900.00 used)

177 2sh on 1sh Green (570; $ 14,500.00 unused, $ 500.00 used)

Locally Printed Issue:

178 1p Blue on blue (9,476; $ 1,000.00 unused, $ 425.00 used)

179 3p Blue on blue, 18 1/2mm wide (6,072; $ 1,400.00 unused, $425.00 used)

180 3p Blue on blue, 21 mm wide (3,036; $ 10,750.00 unused, $1,500.00 used)

In 2007, Boy and Girl Scouts and Guides numbered 38 million members in 216 countries worldwide. Scouting Topical stamps are extremely popular internationally. The stamps of the Siege of Mafeking were the first such produced, and will remain key items within any Scouting collection. I strongly recommend purchase of these scarce stamps, conditional on obtaining expertization.

 

 People’s Republic of China 1964 Peony Souvenir Sheet (Scott #782)


In August of 1964, about a year and a half before the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, the People’s Republic of China symbolically fulfilled its broken promise to let a few flowers bloom, by issuing a set (Scott 767-81) and souvenir sheet picturing paintings of Peonies (Scott #782). Only 30,000 of these beautiful Flower topical souvenir sheets were issued, and Scott ’10 values the unused souvenir sheet at $ 1,200.00 .

Most were sold to American and European collectors, because philately was discouraged in the P.R.C. at the time. Like the Ping Pong souvenir sheet (Scott #566a) tipped earlier in this blog, this sheet is white-hot right now, and tipping it is actually a boringly safe recommendation. Unless China has another revolution or the sky falls on it somehow, the Peony Souvenir Sheet will continue to soar, the only pertinent question being how far and how quickly.

Phila-Trivia: Bhutan’s Record Stamps

Philately is replete with absurdity and interesting trivia.

Over the years, Bhutan, a kingdom in the Himalayas, has issued many “novelty” postage stamps, which have sold mainly to collectors and contributed to the country’s economic development. In 1973, Bhutan issued a group of stamps that were actually small phonograph records which played the National Anthem and local folk songs.

In 2008, to celebrate the centennial of its hereditary monarchy and the crowning of its 5th king, His Majesty Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, Bhutan issued the world’s first CD-ROM postage stamp. The stamp commemorates on video the anniversary, crowning, and signing of the new constitution, and visually documents Bhutan’s evolution as an emerging democracy.

For those who collect stamps on cover, attempting to insert a whole envelope bearing the CD-ROM stamp into your hard drive is probably not such a great idea.


Practical Advice: Auctions, Part II: Consigning and Selling

From the perspective of the consignor, the four types of auctions described in the earlier article on buying at auction (Practical Advice: Auctions, Part I – Bidding and Buying) are useful for liquidating different types of material. A few general questions regarding terms for consignors apply to all four, however:

  • What is the seller’s commission? Most stamp auctions charge a 10%-15% commission of the gross realization from sellers, but some charge as much as 25%. If a consignment is large enough, many an auctioneer will reduce or even eliminate the seller’s commission, because he is in competition with other auctioneers who also may wish obtain the consignment.
  • What is the buyer’s commission? Most stamp auctions charge a commission to the buyer as well as to the seller. While the seller doesn’t pay this commission directly, it does affect how much prospective buyers are willing to bid for his lots.
  • Does the auctioneer allow consignors to set minimum reserves on their lots? This is important because reserves eliminate the possibility of the consignor’s lots selling for too little.

 

  • What are the minimum consignment values and minimum lot values?

 

  • Must the consignor pay lotting fees for unsold lots? Are there any other fees for which the consignor is responsible?

 

  • How many catalogs are sent out and how many are sent overseas?

 

    • What is the auctioneer’s record when he has sold similar material in the past? It’s always prudent to request the records of realizations from recent auctions in which the auctioneer has offered material similar to the consignor’s. Many of the same bidders who have purchased this material will probably bid on yours.
    • How soon after the auction does the consignor get paid?
  • Is the auctioneer reputable? This can be determined by checking with the membership department of the philatelic society to which he belongs.

Each of the four types of auctions is appropriate for different types of consignment, and a fifth, auctions which specialize in a particular collecting area, can also be useful.

    • Premier Auctions require the highest minimum consignment and lot values. Lately, they’ve been trending towards charging high consignor’s and buyer’s commissions of 15% to 20%. Unless your consignment is extremely valuable, the premier auctioneer will be inflexible in maintaining his terms. On the positive side, premier auctions tend to achieve high realizations for better material, because their clientele tends to be very affluent.
    • Specialty Auctions focus on stamps of a particular collecting area. They’re generally similar to premier auctions, and also tend to achieve high realizations, because their clientele specializes in the stamps which they’re offering.
    • “Second Tier” U.S. and Worldwide Auctions neither specialize nor do they publish expensive catalogs. Commissions tend to be more reasonable at such auctions, and minimum consignment and lot values are lower. Frequently, the auctioneer will be more flexible as to terms if the consignment is of medium value or greater, or the consignor has established a relationship with the auctioneer. Realizations are across the board, and at most such auctions, there will be both bargains and gross overbidding.
    • Ebay reaches the widest possible audience, and is useful for selling inexpensive and medium-value single items, and low-grade collections or accumulations.Its main disadvantages are that it charges the seller an insertion fee whether a lot sells or not, and bidders don’t tend to bid as much for individual high-value items as they would at a regular stamp auction, because they cannot physically inspect the lots. On the plus side, its total commissions (including Paypal fees) for lots that actually sell are considerably lower than those of regular stamp auctions, and payment is received much faster.
  • Local Antique Auctions are the best venues for dumping worthless junk. They are often attended by bidders who know very little or nothing about the stamp market, and who will pay real money for stamps that seem impressive to them because the stamps are beautiful, old, or from “exotic” countries. I do not condone blatant dishonesty when writing descriptions for lots for sale at an antique auction, but I see nothing wrong with presenting them in an attractive manner. A common tactic for antique auction sellers is to create a stamp “mystery box,” a box of common stamps, recently received covers with interesting stamps attached, unwanted supplies, old auction catalogs, and other miscellaneous rubbish all thrown together in a lot for which the only true “mystery” is why anyone would want to bid on it. Antique auctioneers tend to charge a high seller’s commission (usually 20%-25%), but they usually pay within 2 weeks after the auction. Local antique auctions are a great way to play the “ignorance market,” converting garbage into real money which can then be re-invested in something of value. They are hit or miss opportunities, however, as sometimes sufficiently ignorant, gullible buyers do not show up to bid. Nevertheless, the risk of consigning to them is minimal or non-existent, given the quality of the material being unloaded.

 Belgium 1957 Antarctic Expedition Semi-Postal Souvenir Sheet (Scott B605a)

In 1957, Belgium issued a semi-postal souvenir sheet to benefit its 1957-58 Antarctic Expedition (Scott #B605a). This pleasant souvenir features sled dogs resting at outside a Antarctic camp, and doubles as an Animal and a Polar Topical. 82,700 were issued and Scott ’10 values the souvenir sheet at $ 175.00 for unused and $ 140.00 for used.

With a population of just under 11 million, Belgium is the world’s 15th largest trading nation. Highly industrialized, educated, and affluent, Belgium has a sizable, vibrant stamp collecting community comparable to those of its Northern European neighbors.

This souvenir sheet is well worth accumulating, either VF NH or used. Attractively cacheted First Day Covers exist, for which Michel assigns a hefty premium over the catalog value for used. Fortunately, many dealers don’t keep up with Michel, so it may be possible to find a B605a FDC at a very reasonable price.

 Mexico 1934 University Issue (Scott 698-706/C54-61/RA138)

In 1934, Mexico issued a beautiful compound set of stamps honoring its National University (Scott #698-706/C54-61/RA138). Showcasing Mexico’s Aztec heritage in Art Deco style, it’s rather pricey, so the constituent sets are usually sold individually (and even as individual values). 1,300 of the regular issue and 1,500 of the Airmail sets were sold, and the regular issue (Scott # 698-706) has a Scott ’10 Catalog Value of $ 1,736.00 unused ($ 2,400.00 for NH) while the Air set (Scott #C54-61) is valued at $ 1,617.00 unused ($ 2,600.00 for NH). The postal tax stamp (Scott #RA138) is common.
I feel that the sets are grossly undervalued despite their apparent costliness, and should do very well in the years to come. Individual high values also are attractive: the 10p and 20p top values (706 and C61) with printings of 1,300 and 1,500, respectively (Scott Catalog Values of
$ 1,100.00 and $ 1,250.00), the 5p Offering to the Gods (Scott #705- 2,000 issued; $ 325.00), and the 5p and 10p Airs (Scott #C59 and C60; 3,000 and 2,500 issued; $ 75.00 and $ 240.00).
With a population of about 109 million, Mexico has experienced consistent annual GDP growth of between 3 and 5%. It has a diverse and developing economy, but modernization remains a slow and uneven process, and current challenges include addressing income inequality and corruption, upgrading the infrastructure, and reforming tax and labor laws. Stamps of Mexico are popular among collectors in the U.S. as well as in Mexico, and those who wish to learn more about Mexican stamps should consider joining the Mexico Elmhurst Philatelic Society International (M.E.P.S.I.). MEPSI provides many useful services for collectors of Mexico, including expertizing Mexican stamps.
Note that a rare unwatermarked variety exists of the 10p Aztec Worshiper (Scott #706a), of which only 200 were issued. Scott values the variety at $ 3,250.00 unused ($ 5,000.00 for NH) . Should you decide to cough up for one, it could certainly become one of the crown jewels of your philatelic investment portfolio.

Between 1929 and 1943, Uruguay issued a magnificent set of thirty-six airmail stamps, the Pegasus Issue (Scott # C27-60A). Each stamp bears the same design but in different colors, and the set has become a favorite among Horse and Animal topical collectors. Only 5,000 sets were issued, and Scott ’10 values it unused at $ 417.90. Because of its length and the fact that it was issued over 14 years, the set has become increasingly difficult to find complete and in decent shape (F-VF LH or better). I believe it to be a bargain at full Scott if found F-VF+ NH, or discounted by 40%-50% for LH.

A related issue with the same design, the 1944 Surcharged Pegasus set (Scott # C106-12) is also worth targeting. It had a somewhat higher printing (15,000), but is also far less expensive (Scott ’10 Catalog Value = $ 12.00) .

I hesitate to recommend the 1935 Pegasus set (Scott #C63-82), because Scott notes that counterfeits of this set exist. I have not seen examples of these counterfeits, so cannot comment on how convincing they are.

With a population of about 3 1/2 million people, most of whom are of European or mixed descent, Uruguay has a stamp collecting population which will probably approach European levels in the years to come. Uruguay is one of the most economically developed, politically stable and least corrupt countries in Latin America, and is moving away from its dependence on agricultural exports and toward development of commercial technologies, especially software.

 Marianas 1899 Spanish Handstamped Issue (Scott 1-6)

In 1899, Spain issued stamps for the Marianas Islands, which it had claimed as its possession since 1668, the arrival of Spanish Jesuits intent on Christianizing the local natives, the Chamorro, who were nearly wiped out by wars with the Spanish and diseases introduced by colonists over the next eighty years. Stamps of the Philippines, which Spain had just lost in the Spanish-American War, were crudely handstamped “Marianas Espanolas” and were used for only a single mail shipment that was transported off the island in December of 1899, before Spain sold the Marianas to Germany in 1900.

These stamps are extremely scarce, and the covers are about as rare as hen’s teeth. They are occasionally offered at auction. Expertization is a necessary condition of purchase, because forged handstamps exist. Many of the Spanish Marianas stamps are poorly centered, so attempt to either select one that has F-VF or better centering, unlike the one pictured, or discount for mediocre centering or condition problems.

The quantities issued and Scott ‘ 10 Catalog Values are as follows:

  • 1 2c Dark Blue Green (500 issued; $875.00 unused, $ 325.00 used)
  • 2 3c Dark Brown (500 issued; $ 675.00 unused, $ 225.00 used )
  • 3 5c Carmine Rose (500 issued; $ 1,000.00 unused, $ 350.00 used)
  • 4 6c Dark Blue (50 issued; $ 6,500.00 unused, $ 5,000.00 used)
  • 5 8c Gray Brown (700 issued; $ 500.00 unused, $ 200.00 used)
  • 6 15c Slate Green (150 issued; $ 2,500.00 unused, $ 1,300.00 used)

 

Practical Advice: Auctions – Part I – Bidding and Buying


Stampselectors should view auctions both as opportunities to find bargains and as venues for selling (which will be discussed in a future article). This article will focus on bidding on and buying stamps at the four types of stamp auction: premier auctions, general U.S. and worldwide auctions, ebay and other Internet stamp auctions, and local antique auctions.

A few general rules apply when buying stamps at auction. Firstly, read the conditions of sale. Before bidding, it is important to know:

  • the buyer’s commission – this may be as little as 10%, or as high as 20% (or more); it is necessary to be aware of the buyer’s commission when placing a bid because it is a part of the cost of the lot won;
  • the costs of shipment, if you are not picking up lots – the shipment cost should be considered a part of the cost of the lot; note that certain auctioneers pad their invoices with very high “handling” charges in addition to the actual postage and insurance cost;
  • the terms governing the return of misdescribed lots – these cover two matters of importance: a description of the kinds of lots that cannot be returned, and the duration of the return privilege. Many auctioneers specify that lots containing over a certain number of stamps, such as long sets of stamps or collections, cannot be returned. As for duration of the return privilege, most auctioneers allow bidders to return misdescribed lots within 10 days after receipt.

 

  • the terms relating to expertization- almost all auctioneers grant an extension of the return privilege for the purpose of getting a stamp expertized. It is important to know how long this extension lasts, because experts can sometimes take up to 9 months to issue a certificate and send it back with the stamp. Some auctioneers will not grant such an extension if the auctioned stamp already bears a certificate that has been issued within the last 5 years. Others will grant an extension only if the extension is requested when bidding. Most auctioneers will refund both the cost of the stamp and the cost of expertization, up to a specified maximum amount, if the stamp receives a negative opinion from the expert. It is very important to know all of the expertization terms before placing a bid on any stamp which may require expertizing.

 

  • additional fees, such as sales taxes or value added taxes;

 

Secondly, it is best to establish accounts with stamp auctioneers which allow for inspection of won lots prior to payment (if not attending the auction), and if possible, “net in 30 days” payment terms. When establishing such accounts, the auctioneer will request that you provide references, including society or organization membership information and dealer or auctioneer references. I am a firm believer in inspection prior to payment because, in my experience, even the best auction houses misdescribe lots 10% to 15% of the time, and the worst- 1/4 to 1/3 of the time. Such lots must be returned to the auctioneer via insured mail, and if a lot is grossly misdescribed, the auctioneer should be held accountable for postage and insurance costs, both ways. “Net in 30 days” payment terms is convenient because it allows the bidder time to resell the lot before he has paid for it.

Descriptions of stamps should be read carefully, noting any condition problems which are included. If condition problems are noted but trivialized, treat the trivialization sceptically, as the stamp’s defect may not seem so trivial when you try to resell it. View all photos of lots, when available, as frequently photographed lots may not not be returned on the basis of problems which are visible in their photos.

 

Different strategic approaches apply to different types of auction.

Premier stamp auctions are conducted by the prestigious international stamp auction firms, and often feature many lots from prize-winning specialized collections formed by advanced collectors over a period of decades. Premier auctioneers always publish expensive, glossy auction catalogs, and the stamps displayed within them generally bring top dollar. Often, many of the lots are from collections consigned by just a few major consignors, with whom the auctioneer has had to make deals, including allowing reserved minimums and reduced seller’s commissions, so as to bag the consignment. Such auctions usually have few outright bargains, because so many of the lots are “reserved to the hilt,” but give the bidder the opportunity to purchase stamps which are rarely offered, and which may represent good investments.
General U.S. and Worldwide auctions present greater opportunities for bargains, especially in the areas of neglected foreign issues and large lots, such as collections and accumulations. As many of these auctions represent a large number of small consignors, fewer deals are made, and fewer lots have reserves. Often, the best bargains will be had by those who are willing to devote time and effort to inspecting the large lots, as most bidders are discouraged by the prospect of spending many hours rummaging through boxes.

Ebay and other Internet auctions have revolutionized the stamp market, and collectibles markets in general, in that they have brought together greater numbers of sellers and buyers than have ever been connected before. So many collectors, investors, and dealers have become adept at using Ebay that it is amazing to consider that it has only been around for about 15 years, and that before then, a collector who wished to buy or sell material usually had to go through a middleman who took a large cut for his services, such as a dealer or auctioneer, or else hope to find something at his local stamp club. Taking the classical Hobbesian perspective of free-market capitalism, I think it fair to say that ebay has waged a successful war of attrition against many of the traditional “mom and pop” operations, appropriating most of their customer base and driving those who could not adapt out of business.

When bidding on ebay lots, it is important to check the seller’s feedback in order to ensure that he is reputable. The bidder should read all terms within the lot description, especially the return provisions and shipping costs. The seller should offer shipping terms which allow the option of insured mail, or registered mail if the seller is outside of the U.S.. These costs should be taken into account when bidding on a lot. Payments should be made via paypal, because it is convenient, and because it guarantees a refund in the event of a return of a misdescribed lot, or non-receipt of a lot sent via accountable (registered, insured, or certified) mail. I find that there are many bargains to be had on ebay, especially in items of “medium” value, which are too inexpensive to appear in major stamp auctions.

Local antique auctions are “hit and miss” situations, because usually when stamps are advertised for such auctions, they turn out to be “wallpaper”, or junk. Much of the philatelic material that is offered at local antique auctions is either “limited edition” collections (described in an earlier article) and common worldwide stamps – either packet material or post-1940 U.S.. Occasionally, however, you may find a diamond among the mountains of coal, and will probably be able to buy it quite cheaply. The only thing of which one may be sure when attending a local antique auction is that the vast majority of bidders will be utterly ignorant of stamp values, and will therefore bid far too much or far too little.
 

: Greenland 1905-37 Parcel Post Issues (Scott Q1-11)


Between 1905 and 1937, Denmark issued parcel post stamps for Greenland, which was a colony until becoming an integral part of Denmark in 1953. Scott lists these issues as two sets (Q1-9 and Q10-11), but one could argue that they actually comprised three separate sets: the 1905 typographed, perf. 12 1/2 issue, the 1916-37 typographed, perf. 11 or 11 1/2 issue, and the 1937 lithographed, perf. 11 issue.

All of the Greenland Parcel Posts (with the possible exceptions of Q6 and Q6a) are undervalued, probably because they’ve been neglected as “back-of-book” issues, and I’ve listed their quantities issued and Scott ‘ Catalog Values for unused below:

  • Q1 1916 1 ore Olive Green (56,500 issued -$ 57.50)
  • Q1a 1905 1 ore Olive Green, Perf 12 1/2 (10,000 issued – $ 775.00)
  • Q2 1916 2 ore Yellow (37,500 issued – $ 325.00 )
  • Q3 1916 5 ore Brown (32,500 issued- $ 125.00 )
  • Q3a 1905 5 ore Brown, Perf 12 1/2 (5,000 issued- $ 750.00)
  • Q4 and Q4b 10 ore Blue (58,000 total issued – $ 40.00 and $ 55.00, respectively)
  • Q4a 1905 10 ore Blue, Perf 12 1/2 (10,000 issued – $ 950.00)
  • Q5 1916 15 ore Violet (28,000 issued- $ 200.00)
  • Q6 and Q6a 20 ore Red (344,000 total issued – $ 17.00 and $ 40.00, respectively )
  • Q7 and Q7a 1937 70 ore Violet, Perf 11 (16,500 total issued – $ 40.00 and $ 250.00, respectively)
  • Q8 and Q8a 1 krone Yellow ( 50,000 total issued- $ 40.00 and 52.50, respectively)
  • Q9 1930 3 krone Brown (40,000 issued- $ 140.00)
  • Q10 1937 70 ore Pale Violet (25,500 issued – $ 42.50)
  • Q11 1937 1 krone Yellow (Unknown quantity issued – $ 40.00 )

The Michel Catalog notes a 1937 70 ore ReddishViolet variety (1,000 issued) which is not listed in Scott, and it might pay to watch out for it. It is actually the scarcest stamp of the entire issue, and an unknowing seller might offer it as the regular 70 ore Pale Violet (Q10), which is 25 times more common.

Those interested in learning more about investing in stamps are welcome to join the Facebook “Stampselectors” group, which currently has over 1,600 members. The group provides a forum for discussion, and is also a useful venue for those who wish to buy and sell stamps and covers. 

Tip: Philippines 1926 10p Madrid-Manila Flight Issue (Scott #C15)

In 1926, the Philippines, then under U.S. Administration, issued its first airmail stamps (Scott #C1-15) to commemorate the flight of Spanish aviators Edwardo Gallarza and Joaquin Loriga from Madrid to Manila. All of the values of the 1917-27 regular issue were overprinted “Airmail Madrid-Manila 1926.” In addition, two other values, the 1911 26c Blue Green and the 1914 1p Pale Violet, were also given the overprint (Scott # C16 and C17). In my opinion, all of the Madrid-Manila Airs are scarce and undervalued, as even the inexpensive low values have printings of under 10,000. However, fake overprints may exist and expertization is necessary, so it makes sense to concentrate on this issue’s scarcest and priciest stamps, for which paying for expertization is worthwhile.

One such stamp is the 10 peso Deep Green with Violet overprint (Scott #C15), of which only 500 were issued. I have selected this stamp merely as a representative of all of the scarcest stamps of this issue; I believe they are all comparable as investments, and list them, along with their Scott ‘ 10 Catalog Values (for unused) below:

  • 16c Olive Bister with Red Overprint (Scott # C8)- 100 issued; $ 5,000.00
  • 2p Violet Brown with Red Overprint (Scott # C13)- 900 issued; $ 650.00, $ 1,200.00 NH
  • 4p Dark Blue with Red Overprint (Scott #C14) – 700 issued; $ 750.00, $ 1,300.00 NH
  • 10p Deep Green with Violet Overprint (Scott #C15) – 500 issued; $ 1,350.00
  • 26c Blue Green with Violet Overprint, watermarked single-lined PIPS (Scott #C16)-100 issued; $ 6,250.00
  • 1p Pale Violet with Violet Overprint (Scott #C17)- 2,000 issued; $ 225.00, $ 450.00 NH

As a newly democratic and newly industrialized country of 92 million which is transitioning from its centuries-old complete dependence on agriculture, the Philippines may turn out to be one of the most successful emerging markets in the Pacific Region. The government tends toward fiscal conservatism coupled with long-term economic planning, and annual GDP growth has been around 6%-7%.

There are many scarce and undervalued issues of the Philippines, some of which will be covered in future articles. I favor the better Madrid-Manila Airs in particular, because they are sought after in three markets (the Philippines, the U.S., because at the time that these stamps were issued, the Philippines was a U.S. Possession, and Spain, because of interest in the historic flight). Also ,I feel that they are undervalued in part because of the perceived difficulty of obtaining expertization, a concern which is rooted in lack of experience.

 

: Japan 1934 Plane Over Lake Ashi Souvenir Sheet (Scott #C8)

On April 20, 1934, Japan celebrated Communications Commemoration Day, and issued a souvenir sheet (Scott #C8) at a philatelic exhibition in Tokyo. The four stamps in the sheet had the same design as the 1929-34 Airmail stamps (C3-7), which pictured a passenger plane of Lake Ashi. 20,000 sheets were issued.

Scott ’10 prices the unused sheet at $ 1,400.00 (and $ 2,200.00 for Never Hinged), which seems expensive. It isn’t, considering that Japan, with its 128 million people, is the second largest economy in the world, has a healthy stamp market on par with those of Europe, and has one of the most rapidly aging populations in the world. The percentage of Japanese aged 60 and over, which was 23% in the year 2000, is expected to rise 42%, an 82% increase, by 2050.

: Spain 1950 Stamp Centenary Issue (Scott #776-79,C127-30)


In 1950, Spain issued a set of imperforate stamps (Scott #776-79, C127-30) commemorating the Centenary of its first postage stamps. The “Stamp on Stamp” topical pictured the 1850 Isabella II issue, and 41,000 sets were produced. Scott values the unused NH set at $ 575.00 and the used set at $ 376.00.

I favor the scarce and undervalued issues of Spain and its colonies. The nation has 46 million people, the 9th largest economy in the world, and the most rapidly aging population in Europe. Philately will continue to flourish under such conditions.

I recommend purchase of the set – unused or used. First Day Covers with the complete set are also attractive, as long as the premium over the cost of a plain used set isn’t exhorbitant.

 Cameroun 1940 Spitfire Semi-Postal set (Scott B10-13)

In June of 1940, France surrendered to Germany, signing an armistice which instituted a regime of collaboration, centered in Vichy. General Charles de Gaulle, then in London serving as an emissary for the defeated government, established the Free French Organization and gave a speech over BBC Radio calling for French resistance to the occupying German forces and their French collaborators.

Initially, many of the Free French forces were not composed of French nationals. Over 65% were West African conscripts. Shortly after the fall of France, the French Colonies of Cameroun and French Equatorial Africa (with the exception of Gabon) were the first to join the Free French.

In November of 1940, Cameroun overprinted four values picturing the Falls on the M’bam River from its 1939-40 regular issue with the word “Spitfire” and a surcharge, creating a set of semi-postals (Scott #B10-13). The 5 franc surtax was used to purchase Spitfire Fighters for the Free French Army. Only 4,000 sets were issued and the set has a Scott ’10 Catalog Value of
$ 500.

This set is of interest mostly to collectors of France and Colonies, and will continue to remain so, unless philatelic investors decide to target it. Despite my belief that stamp collecting in the Republic of Cameroon will not take off in the near future, I feel that the scarcity of the set and its historical significance make it a worthy long-term holding.

By First World standards, the Republic of Cameroon is a poor country, although it is considered one of the more stable and prosperous nations of Sub-Saharan Africa. With a population of about 19 million and GDP growth of about 4% per year, it is heavily reliant on commodity exports – agricultural products, timber, oil, aluminum, and other metals. The government seems to be moving towards gradual reforms- countering corruption, moving away from authoritarianism and human rights abuses, encouraging economic development, etc. – but it is likely that progress will be slow.

: Singapore 1969 150th Anniversary of Founding Souvenir Sheet (Scott 106a)


In 1819, the British East India Company, led by Sir Stamford Raffles, established a trading post on the island of Singapore, then the site of a small Malay fishing village. Over time, Singapore became one of the most important commercial and military centers of the British Empire, and the hub of British power in Southeast Asia.

In 1969, four years after becoming an independent republic, Singapore issued a set (Scott #101-06; Scott ’10 Catalog Value of $ 127.00) and souvenir sheet (Scott #106a; Scott ’10 Catalog Value of $ 675.00 for unused ) commemorating the 150th Anniversary of its Founding. Both are scarce, as 14,312 sets were issued, along with 9,067 souvenir sheets.

Since independence, Singapore has built a prosperous, export-driven economy, heavily based on manufacturing and refining imported goods. With a population of about 5 million, it is the 5th wealthiest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita. In January, 2009, this small island’s foreign exchange reserves stood at approximately $170 billion. It is likely that the economy will grow by at least 4%-6% annually over the next 10 years.

I favor scarce and undervalued issues of all of the “Asian Tigers,” and the “Raffles Issue” is no exception. Not only will its value reflect the continuing economic growth of Singapore, but given the paucity of supply, the market for the issue could easily be inflamed by competitive buy-listing in the not-too-distant future.

: The Aging Population and the Coming Stamp Market Boom

A 2007 UN Report describes global trends in aging, showing an “unprecedented, pervasive, and enduring” aging of the world population which will have “profound implications on many facets of human life.” According to the report, those aged 60 and over comprised 8% of the world population in 1950, and this number increased to 11% in 2007. It is expected to double, to 22%, by 2050.
One of the “profound implications” of global senescence which has not been explored is its probable effect on philately. While no surveys or empirical studies have been done to determine the break-down of the “serious” stamp collecting population by age, it is commonly accepted that people start collecting stamps when they are young, set them aside for several decades, and then return to stamp collecting later in life, when they have the money and time to devote themselves to the hobby as serious collectors.
Consequently, we may expect a doubling of the “serious” stamp collector proportion of the general population in countries which have a substantial middle class. The effect will be less pronounced in less-developed countries. Overall, however, we may expect the global population of serious stamp collectors to swell by tens of millions over the next forty years, and continue to grow as the population continues to age. This will result in a stamp market boom, as a vastly expanded pool of serious stamp collectors competes for a static or diminishing supply of better stamps.
While a “rising tide may lift all boats,” in this case, some boats will be lifted higher than others. Clearly, the aging trend should be factored into the equation when analyzing the growth potential of a particular country’s better stamps. The UN Report cited above profiles the aging trend with a section that examines how it affects specific countries and areas (at the end of the report). A prudent stampselector might consider targeting issues from countries which have both growing middle classes and rapidly aging populations.

In 1934, Czechoslovakia issued a set of two souvenir sheets of 15 stamps each (Scott # 200a-201a) commemorating the Centenary of the National Anthem, Kde Domov Muj? (Where is My Home?), written by composer Frantisek Skroup and playwright Josef Kajitan Tyl. 9,600 sets were issued and Scott ’10 prices the set at $ 1,100.00.

With among the most developed industrialized economies in Eastern Europe, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic have a combined population of about 16 million. They have privatized most of its formerly state-owned industries and have maintained annual GDP growth of around 4% over the past 5 years.
I view this set as a low-risk bet on the two republics’ continued long-term economic development. It doubles as a Music Topical, and because the souvenir sheets were issued without gum, somewhat less attention need be paid to preservation. Forgeries of the sheets exist, however, so make purchase of the set conditional on receiving expertization.

In 1924, the Olympic Games were held in Paris. The postal authorities in Lebanon, then a French Mandate Territory, joined in the celebration by overprinting the basic French Olympics set “Grand Liban” and surcharging it in local currency (Scott #18-21). Issuance quantities were not recorded , but they were probably 10,000-20,000. Scott ’10 values both the unused and the used set at $ 130.00 .

The set is of interest to collectors of Lebanon, French Colonies, and of course, Sports and Olympics topical collectors. This is one of many scarce sets of Lebanon which should significantly increase in value as the various factions within that country learn how to get along, and Beirut returns to its former preeminence as the “Paris of the Middle East.”

This only the sample, the complete CD Exist but only for premium member please subscribed via comment
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Mengungkap Misteri Keramik antik Pesanan Khusus Keraton Solo dari Eropa

 

source

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/11/07/the-mysteri-of-vintage-java-kingdom-special-import-ceramic-from-euromengungkap-misteri-keramik-antik-pesanan-khusus-keraton-solo/

Hallo all collectors from all over the world especially from Indonesia. I have just found at Solo middle java the vintage special import ceramic from euro with ilustration of the java princess and javanese kawi script cally graphy who know who was the princess, may be Princess Pakubuwono Xi or Princess of Mangkuneraan ?

Look the picture below carrefully from right side

 Photo: keramik lama era hindia belanda dari keraton surakarta atau mangkunegaran,ditemukabn disolo

left side

Photo: close up profil permaisuri keraton surakarta atau mangkunegaraan(?) mohon identifikasi bagi yang mengenalnya,terima kasih

closeup the princess profile

closed up the janavese czalligraphy

Thanks very much for help me

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA Collections

Para kolektor Indonesia khususnya yang memahami sejarah kerataon di solo, harap berkenan membantu saya,

Photo: close up profil permaisuri keraton surakarta atau mangkunegaraan(?) mohon identifikasi bagi yang mengenalnya,terima kasih

siapah permaisuri yang profilenya tertera diatas kermaik antik pesnan khusus kerajaan dari eropa diatas? dan

apakah artinya kaligrafi dalam bahasa kawi tersebut diatas,mungkin susatu peingatan kghusus, sebelum ini saya juag menemukan piring besar dengan kaligrafi bahasa kawi yaitu peringatan 100 hari meninggalnya permaisuri Sulatan Pakubuwono X

Terima kasih atas bantuanya untuk mengungkap misteri keramik perinagtan ini.

Harap waspada saat ini banyak tiruan palsu yang dibuat,dan keramik ini orisinil asli lihat ilustrasinya sanga5t halus begitu juga dengan warna keemasannya yang sangat indah,kaligrafinya sangat halus,bukan tehnik sablon tetapi transger sistem 6yang cangih

seluruh keramik ini koleksi dr Iwan suwnady,MHA

Semoga informasi ini berhguna untuk mengungkap sejarah keraton Jawa(Mataram khususnya)

Copyrigy @ 2012

source http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/11/07/

the-mysteri-of-vintage-java-kingdom-special-import-ceramic-from-euromengungkap-misteri-keramik-antik-pesanan-khusus-keraton-solo/ Hallo all collectors from all over the world especially from Indonesia. I have just found at Solo middle java the vintage special import ceramic from euro with ilustration of the java princess and javanese kawi script cally graphy who know who was the princess, may be Princess Pakubuwono Xi or Princess of Mangkuneraan ? Look the picture below carrefully from right side left side closeup the princess profile closed up the janavese czalligraphy Thanks very much for help me Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA Collections Para kolektor Indonesia khususnya yang memahami sejarah kerataon di solo, harap berkenan membantu saya, siapah permaisuri yang profilenya tertera diatas kermaik antik pesnan khusus kerajaan dari eropa diatas? dan apakah artinya kaligrafi dalam bahasa kawi tersebut diatas,mungkin susatu peingatan kghusus, sebelum ini saya juag menemukan piring besar dengan kaligrafi bahasa kawi yaitu peringatan 100 hari meninggalnya permaisuri Sulatan Pakubuwono X Terima kasih atas bantuanya untuk mengungkap misteri keramik perinagtan ini. Harap waspada saat ini banyak tiruan palsu yang dibuat,dan keramik ini orisinil asli lihat ilustrasinya sanga5t halus begitu juga dengan warna keemasannya yang sangat indah,kaligrafinya sangat halus,bukan tehnik sablon tetapi transger sistem 6yang cangih seluruh keramik ini koleksi dr Iwan suwnady,MHA Semoga informasi ini berhguna untuk mengungkap sejarah keraton Jawa(Mataram khususnya) Copyrigy @ 2012

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Forum Komunikasi Dan Konsultasi Gratis Diabetes tipe 2

Forum Komunikasi Diabetes Tipe 2

Diabetic type 2 Communication Forum

Editor

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Siapa Saja yang berhubungan dengan Diabetes Tipe 2 dapat memanfaatkan forum komunikasi ini secara gratis untuk saling memberikan informasi, baik para profesional medis maupun para pasien

Forum Komunikasi Diabetes Tipe 2

Diabetic type 2 Communication Forum

Editor

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Siapa Saja yang berhubungan dengan Diabetes Tipe 2 dapat memanfaatkan forum komunikasi ini secara gratis untuk saling memberikan informasi, baik para profesional medis maupun para pasien

This Forum Special for Medical Professional and Dibetic Patiens and relarted disease communication to exchznge information freely

Editor

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Komunikasi Dan Konsultasi gratis  klik

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/11/05/diabetic-type-communication-forumforum-komunikasi-dibetes-tipe-2-diabetic-type-2-and-related-info/

komunikasi liwat comment

The Study report Of Diabetic Type 2

Created by

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

copyright@2012

This Study dedicated To

my wife, sons and my brother ,lso for all Diavetic Type 2 community in all over the world,specially( khususnya) Indonesia.

Introductions

Indonesian version

Seseorang dengan diabetes tipe 2 dapat menggunakan latihan untuk membantu mengendalikan kadar gula darah mereka dan memberikan energi otot mereka perlu untuk berfungsi sepanjang hari.

Dengan mempertahankan diet sehat dan olahraga yang cukup, seseorang dengan diabetes tipe 2 NON Insulin dependend diabetes melittus (NIDDM) mungkin dapat menjaga gula darah mereka dalam rentang non-diabetes normal tanpa pengobatan.

Original info

A person with type 2 diabetes can use exercise to help control their blood sugar levels and provide energy their muscles need to function throughout the day.

By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person with type 2 diabetes NON Insulin Dependend diabetes melittus(NIDDM) may be able to keep their blood sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medication.

STUDI KEPUSTAKAAN

Diabetes tipe 2

Definisi

Diabetes tipe 2 adalah penyakit (kronis) seumur hidup di mana ada gula tingkat tinggi (glukosa) dalam darah.

Diabetes tipe 2 adalah bentuk paling umum diabetes.

Alternatif Nama Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes – tipe 2;

Diabetes onset(Timbul)

saat dewasa Penyebab, kejadian, dan faktor risiko Diabetes disebabkan oleh masalah dalam cara tubuh Anda membuat atau menggunakan insulin. Insulin dibutuhkan untuk memindahkan gula darah (glukosa) ke dalam sel, di mana disimpan dan kemudian digunakan untuk energi.

Pathogenesis

Pada diabetes tipe 2, lemak, hati, dan sel-sel otot tidak merespon dengan benar terhadap insulin. Hal ini disebut resistensi insulin.

Akibatnya, gula darah tidak masuk ke sel-sel ini untuk disimpan untuk energi. Bila gula tidak dapat memasuki sel, gula tingkat tinggi membangun dalam darah. Hal ini disebut hiperglikemia.

Diabetes tipe 2 biasanya terjadi perlahan-lahan dari waktu ke waktu. Kebanyakan orang dengan penyakit kelebihan berat badan ketika mereka didiagnosis. Peningkatan lemak membuat lebih sulit bagi tubuh Anda untuk menggunakan insulin cara yang benar.

Diabetes tipe 2 juga dapat mengembangkan pada orang yang tipis. Ini lebih umum pada orang tua.

Riwayat keluarga dan gen memainkan peran besar pada diabetes tipe 2.

Kegiatan tingkat rendah, pola makan yang buruk, dan berat badan berlebih di sekitar pinggang meningkatkan risiko Anda.

Lihat juga: diabetes tipe 2 untuk daftar faktor risiko. Gejala Sering kali, orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 tidak menunjukkan gejala pada awalnya.

Mereka mungkin tidak memiliki gejala selama bertahun-tahun. Gejala-gejala awal diabetes meliputi:

• Kandung kemih, ginjal, kulit, atau infeksi lain yang lebih sering atau menyembuhkan perlahan • Kelelahan • Kelaparan • Meningkatnya rasa haus • Peningkatan buang air kecil Gejala pertama mungkin juga: • kabur visi • Disfungsi ereksi • Nyeri atau mati rasa pada kaki atau tangan

Tanda dan tes Dokter mungkin menduga bahwa Anda memiliki diabetes jika kadar gula darah Anda lebih tinggi dari 200 mg / dL.

Untuk memastikan diagnosa, satu atau lebih dari tes berikut harus dilakukan. Tes darah Diabetes : • kadar glukosa darah puasa –

diabetes didiagnosis jika lebih tinggi dari 126 mg / dL dua kali • Uji Hemoglobin A1c o Normal: Kurang dari 5,7% o Pra-diabetes: 5,7% – 6,4% o Diabetes: 6,5% atau lebih tinggi Sedamg 6,5-9 Bukurk lebih dari 9

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