The Bali History Collections Continued

This The sample Of Dr Iwan CD-ROM To Be Continued

The Bali History Collections

 Dienstmeisje van kunstschilder Lemajeur, Bali, Indonesie (1947-1953)

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

Bali In 3rd century

 

During this century Greeks built Amphitheater,

 

 And Roman art Mosaic pictures Ulysses and The Sirene ship

 

 

the ruler Itzamna, Mayan, Mexico, 1st-3rd

 what happened In Bali ?

 Until This day we hadn’t found related artifact from this rea. But some art near same with bali like

 

 

Mask In 3rd Century

 

 

Chicken Hanwa(Japan)

 

 

Bali 4th Century

history and art of Bali, with it’s ancient culture basically is the acculturation of local culture since pre-history, contacted with

 Hindu – Javanese local culture around 4th century

 

Celengan Majapahit

the adoption of Hindu-Buddhist culture.

Elephant Cave

It refers to a 1,000-year-old cave excavated here that houses the Hindu

 

Balinese art is art of Hindu-Javanese origin

 

photographed this statue of guardian

in Tirta Empul Temple, Bali.

I was amazed by the details carved on it. Balinese art is art of Hindu-Javanese origin that grew from the work of artisans of the Majapahit Kingdom, with their expansion to Bali in the late 13th century. This is one good sample of stone carvings of Bali.

To Be Continued

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The Bali History Collections Continued

This The sample Of Dr Iwan CD-ROM To Be Continued

The Bali History Collections

 Dienstmeisje van kunstschilder Lemajeur, Bali, Indonesie (1947-1953)

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

 the 1st century AD.

1st Century
History is vague for the first few centuries.

 

 

A number of Hindu artifacts were been found dating back to the 1st century (AD), which suggests that the main religion, around 500 AD, was predominantly

 

Buddhist.

 

Until now I havenot  yet found informations from Bali,

from ist to 8th century.  this time in Euduring Roman emparire ,and somen ancient collections have found like the jewellary

 And statue which made the comparative with Bali if I find the informations from Bali let’s look

Second century

Ancient Jewellery in second century

Ancient gold jewelry: timeless beauty, technical mastery

 

 

.

.

Other collections from second century almost near same with Old Bali statue

 

Old Bali Wooden Carving

 

 

 

To Be Continued

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The Bali History Collections Intro Continued

This The sample Of Dr Iwan CD-ROM To Be Continued

The Bali History Collections

 Dienstmeisje van kunstschilder Lemajeur, Bali, Indonesie (1947-1953)

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THE BALI HISTORY COLLECTIONS

TABLE OF CONTENT

Introductions

Part One

 

The vintage Bali Collections

Part Two

 

 Bali Traditional  pictures

Part Three

Dienstmeisje van kunstschilder Lemajeur, Bali, Indonesie (1947-1953)

 

Classic  Pictures

Part Four

Drie vrouwen waarvan één bezig iets te malen

 

Bali  Native Profile Art Picture

Part Five

 

 Bali Landscape Art Pictures

Part Six

Houten beeld van een demon

 

Wayangfiguur

 

Een verzameling houten gepolychromeerde beelden

Bali Native  Artwork

Part Seven

Jonge vrouw

 

 

 Bali Traditional  Dancer And Drama 

Part Eight

 Bali Local Fauna Flora  

Preface

This special collections dedicated to 

 

Ret.Police Inspecture General Made mangku Pastika, we ever met during the last day of East Timor refendum 2009 at Dili when I cameback before the crucials chaos situations  and now He was the Gouvenor of Bali ,

 also to

 

Ret.Inspedtuer  General Dr Musadeq who have the same duty with me to prepared the health of Indonesia nationalPolice during That refendum , that time he was the chief of Medical Health Indonesian national Police Bali,

 then the Chief of Medical Health center Indonesia national police Headquaters Jakarta (Congratulation for your up rank Inspector General).and now He was retired at Surabaya

 I think both of my collegue ‘s  General will be happy to read this informations and look at the illustration, and the Timor unique collection  informations and illustraion will put the sample of CD-ROM  after this Bali info completely at my Web Blog

Hhtp//www..Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Hhtp//www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

All the  collections were collect from 1957 until now during travelling around Java-Bali 1977,1979,1983, and the last visit Bali 2008

I have made a private  limited E-Book In CD-Rom edition Special foor senior Collectors

Very limited only ten CD-ROM

If some one want this CD-ROM please contact me via the comment at my web blog with send your identity from ID card and short working history info form my security info for protect against the Highjack Internet.

Jakarta January 2013

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

INTRODUCTION

The Bali  History Collections

The History of Bali Kingdom Glory(pre-Euro.came)

Bali was inhabited

by around 2000 BC

by

 

 

Austronesian peoples

 

who migrated originally

from Taiwan through Maritime Southeast Asia.[5]

Stone Age 2500 BC

Although there are no artifacts or records dating back to the Stone Age, it is believed that the first settlers in Bali migrated from China around 2,500 BC,

Bronze era, around 300 BC

 By the Bronze era, around 300 BC, quite an evolved culture existed in Bali. The complex system of irrigation and rice production, still in use today, was established around this time

 

Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are thus closely related to the peoples of the Indonesian archipelago, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Oceania.[6] Stone tools dating from this time

 

have been

found near

the village of Cekik in the island’s west.[7]

In ancient Bali,

nine Hindu sects existed,

namely

Pasupata,

Bhairawa, Siwa Shidanta,

 

Waisnawa,

Bodha,

 

Brahma,

 

 

Resi,

 

Ida Panditha Mpu Budha Mahaseri Alit Parama Daksa, also known as Ida Resi Alit, was born I Komang Widiantri on March 14, 1986,

 in a small farming village in the central highlands of Bali.

 She lived as an ordinary girl for the first twenty years of her life. At the age of 20, due to external events, she fell into a deep depression. Ida Resi Alit’s uncle, a village Mangku, concerned for her wellbeing, introduced her to meditation and yoga to soothe her.

As she started practicing, the girl who had no previous spiritual training or deep desire, began to have out of body experiences and download information during her practice.

She was instructed to perform a special ceremony, the meaning of which she did not understand. At the ceremony she fell into deep unconsciousness.

She stopped breathing and her pulse was gone. Her family wailed, crying and reacting hysterically, scared that she had died.

 Ida Resi Alit has no memory of this time. At 2am she started to regain consciousness, to be able to blink but not to talk. Then she saw a laser, like a bolt of lightning in the sky, and found herself able to fully return to her body. She slept until the afternoon and when she had awakened spiritually. Soon after she was ordained by the highest authority, the Hindu Dharma Council, and she became Bali’s youngest and only High Priestess.

 

This month I-mag traveled to Demulih, Susut, Bangli a second time to have an audience with the high priestess. When we sat down with her on the floor in front of her small personal bale, she talked about wanting to expand, and share her experience of oneness. Right now she is in the beginning stages of sending her energy out in the world.

 

“One day I would like to travel. But right now I want to start here in my home. This place is all from my ancestor. I’ll start from here and maybe expand step by step. I cannot just keep to myself. But I need people to help me how to, share the story, to write, to teach. If my friends want to, to share about everything. I need some people who can help me.”

 

Ida Resi Alit is preparing for the world stage. Other such figures, Thich Nhat Hanh, Vietnamese and of the peace movement, the Dalai Lama of Tibet or Eckhart Tolle, have large groups around them who help spread their teaching and report back to the masters. Ida Resi Alit maintains that all knowledge is available and in every single one of us at any moment, if we so choose to feel it and enjoy our limitless power as we are connected to all.

 

There is no rush, unlike what most of us feel in our daily lives. Resi Alit says, “I will need a long time. A long long time.” Everything takes place in the present moment, even learning from the past and planning for the future. Or worry or being anxious or afraid, if that’s what we choose to do! It is a blessing for us to be able to witness and take part of the growth of a major spiritual leader.

 

“I need some people who can help me. Like disciples. I will keep doing my yoga and everything. Many people teaching yoga, they have the basics. But it is just for excersize. I think I need to teach yoga, and I will teach people who will become yoga teacher, like that. I need people for this positions, that position and so on, then open for others to come in, open for all people, and then the teachers teach other people until then go out, maybe once a week meet me. We make a program, one time we share, I meet them like this.”

 

Ida Resi Alit has not yet started looking for land for her Ashram, but that is the first step. For now she is doing her own practice and the many purification ceremonies and events for the Balinese community.  We took part in another purification ceremony this month. After her sunset prayers, she sat on her knees on the temple bale. Using water exquisitely scented of jasmine and frangipani, that tasted as sweet as it smelled, she doused us with buckets of what felt like icy water. “Whatever you feel, like let it go. Let it all go. If you want to cry, if you want to shout, stomp your feet, whatever.” We both had the experience of hyperventilating despite our tropical setting. Afterwards we both said we felt lighter. I was acutely aware of being in the presence of limitless energy, and felt about as spiritually ready for it as I would be for the Olympic marathon. But after realizing this, it allows some sort of space to let light in. Luckily for us lot, we don’t have to train as hard for a marathon as we do to feel grateful and ready to receive gifts of consciousness. We just have to be humble, ever so slightly willing, and ready.

 

Ida Resi Alit graciously invited us to return in a few days to accompany her to ceremony at her family temple, called Sugihan. The Balinese have three ceremonies to balance the universe; one to balance the relationship between people and people, one to balance the relationship between people and the Gods, and one for the relationship between people and the earth- this last is Sugihan. We arrived at the home of Resi Alit, and traveled in the car with her and her two Mangkus, or priests. When we arrived at the temple complex in Gianyar, Resi Alit took her place atop the platform for prayer in the front of the congregation. She changed into her formal dress and started the bell, the incense, her hand mudras and the mantra. A Balinese women next to me said, “Resi Alit, she is like a miracle. Every ceremony has a different mantra, and she knows them all by heart without ever studying.”

 

Then what took place was without precedence in anything I had ever seen before. Ida Resi Alit, open to the unlimited power and energy of the universe, prayed and chanted, receiving direct information. She would share information with her Mangkus, who would then inform the congregation of her wishes. One Mangku chanted loudly over the PA system. A puppeteer wailing behind us. A topeng dance was taking place in the entrance section of the temple, obscured behind the walls. Children screamed and giggled and women chatted, men sipped coffee.

 

Resi Alit share with us after her ceremony her experience, “In Bali, there are the four directions, north, west, east and south. We must take the energy from each, and balance them. I do this with the ceremony, I feel what must be done, and in this way I communicate with the Mangku, and they tell the community what must be done.”

When she was done we shared a meal of vegetables and babi, or pig. She had a large meeting with the village priests, where they laughed and sipped sugary tea sitting together in a cowd in the shade. On the way home in the car, her priest did voice imitations of puppet shows from the back seat, alternating between the typical low gutteral characters, the jokers and the strange-voiced ladies of the sagas.

 

We giggled on the way home as they went back and forth, Resi Alit singing in a beautiful high wail and the mischevious Mangku producing a sound I’d only ever heard through a loud speaker at a Balinese temple. It felt almost eerie to hear it while driving in a car with friend.

 

A movement has started in Bali. It may take years to manifest, but you’ll hear about it again, in different forms, one way or another. When asked what we should write in the magazine about her message, what people should know, Ida Resi Alit just said, “Whatever you feel, write that.” She then started speaking in astro, a language not English, not Indonesian, not Balinese and not even Ancient Sanskrit, that she uses freely whenever she feel she can’t explain something important properly. It’s in our breath, and from breath, come the voice, and we use it to share and receive. It starts in the stomach, where we usually feel fear and anxiety churning up our breakfast. Every ounce of love and enjoyment in available right now in the moment, to everyone, whether you want it or not. Nothing new, really. Its just a matter of freedom

Sora

and

 

Ganapatya.

The Origin of dates back to at least the fifth century. A specific Ganapatya sect probably began to appear between the 6 and 9 centuries and reached a high point around the 10 centur. Two Sanskrit Purana’s, the Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana, dates from the 12 and 14 centuries respectively. These Purana’s recount and celebrate the myths of Ganesha’s triumphs over demons on behalf of the gods and his devotees and also include instructions for ritual performance and hymns of praise. Since the 17 century there has been a steady flow of devotional literature in both Sanskrit and Marathi.

Their are many temples built dedicated to

Ganesha,

 

the largest of which is said to be the Ucchi Pillayar Koil (the Columns Hall of a Thousand Pillars), on the Rock Fort of Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu, while Ganapatheeshwaram in Tamilnadu hosts the Adi Ganesha, or Naramukha Ganesha (Ganesha with a human face). There is also a cluster of 8 temples – Asta Vinayak in and around the city of Poona (Pune) and the nearby village of Cincvad, associated with Ganesha’s most famous devotee, MorayaGosavi (d.1651)

Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead.[8]

Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian, Chinese, and particularly Hindu culture,

 beginning around

 the 1st century AD.

1st Century
History is vague for the first few centuries. A number of Hindu artifacts were been found dating back to the 1st century (AD), which suggests that the main religion, around 500 AD, was predominantly Buddhist.

 

Until now I havenot  yet found informations from Bali, from ist to 8th century.  this time in Euro during Roman emparire ,and somen ancient collections have found like the jewellary

 And statue which made the comparative with Bali if I find the informations from Bali let’s look

To Be Continued

The Complete Cd-ROM exist, to get it please subscribed with upload your personal identity info  from your ID Card via comment and I will contact you for administration fee

 

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koleksi sejarah perang dunia kedua di Euro prolog 1939

THIS IS THE SAMPLE OF DrIwan CD-ROM

To be continued in English version only look and click at

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The Euro world War II History Collections

Part Prologue 1939

Created By Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-Rom edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright@2013

Prolog 1.939

 

Februari, 15th.1939

Kiessling & Schiefner Dresden

  pada 6 persen Hindenbverg kartupos stasioner dikirim dari Dresden 1939/02/15 kepada Mr L.Christ Neurenberg, dengan  gambar kembali promosi Hus un Kundhegerate Hotelbedarf Aufrag bulu Fa, L.Christ

 3 buah tempat pelayan nomor satu varietas vergoldest, emaeilliert dengan 01:30 sichcherheitsnadel gross hitungan 1-12.
Heil Hitler!
tangan tandatangan stempel  Kiessling & Sciefner cincang pada delcredere tanda Nord Sud eGmbH Dresden gottig nuf untuk delkrendere mentolerir Lieteranten pendapatan 20 RM dan 10 RM

Photo: look the closed up salut heil hitler and local revenue of germany nazi era 1939 pre WW III

tulisan Asli dalam bahasa Jerman

Je 3 terjebak kellner nummern Sorte 1 vergoldest, emaeilliert mit sichcherheitsnadel brutto 1,30 Zahl 1-12.

Heil Hitler!

handSign Kiessling & Sciefner cincang pada Delkredere Wertmarke Nord Sud EGMBH Dresden gottig nuf bulu delkrendere vertrage Lieteranten 10 und 20 RM

menarik

 

Hitler salut Heil Hitler! pada kartu ini

(Courtecy dr Iwan Suwandy, ditemukan di Kotakinibalu sabah (sebelum Yeseltown Kalimantan Utara)

 

 

Kartu Promosi lainnya yang sama pada hindenberg 3 postalsationer persen kirim ke drwsden

 
 

Prolog 1939

February,15th.1939

Kiessling &Schiefner Dresden

 on  6 cent Hindenbverg postal stationer card send from Desden 15.2.1939 to Mr L.Christ  Neurenberg, at back  promotional picture of Hus un Kundhegerate Hotelbedarf Aufrag fur  Fa, L.Christ

Place 3 pieces waiter number one varietal vergoldest, emaeilliert with 1:30 sichcherheitsnadel gross count 1-12.
Heil Hitler!
hand sign Kiessling & Sciefner chopped on delcredere token Nord Sud eGmbH Dresden gottig nuf for delkrendere tolerate Lieteranten revenue 20 RM and 10 RM

Original in germany

Je 3 stuck kellner  nummern sorte 1  vergoldest,emaeilliert mit sichcherheitsnadel  brutto 1.30 Zahl 1-12.

Heil Hitler !

handSign Kiessling & Sciefner chopped on  Delkredere Wertmarke Nord Sud E.G.M.B.H  Dresden gottig nuf fur  delkrendere vertrage Lieteranten 10 und 20 RM

Interesting

 

the Hitler salut Heil Hitler ! on this card

(Courtecy dr Iwan suwandy,found at Kotakinibalu sabah(before Yeseltown North Borneo)

 

 

Other same Promotional card on hindenberg 3 cent postalsationer send to dresden

1939

Photo: this is another germany Bhoeringer Promotional leaflet send to Indonesia in 1939 pre WWII

Langka CFBoeringer & Sohned GmbH, Mannheim-Waldhof promosi (reklame) Perlaten-Kalsium dalam folder klimakterium kartu mengirim dari CD Manheim 10.3.39 khusus cap pos Deutch nazi reich 5 persen menjadi Dr Thung Sin Nio (frist medis Cina docter luar negeri Universitas Indonesia ) Batavia-centrum (sekarang Jakarta Pusat)

(courtecy Dr Iwan ditemukan di Jakarta pada tahun 1994)

Perusahaan farmasi Boehringer Ingelheim didirikan pada tahun 1885 oleh

 

  Albert Boehringer (1861-1939)

di Ingelheim am Rhein.

  Dari awal di 1885 ketika bekerja hanya 28 orang di Nieder-Ingelheim, perusahaan ini telah menjadi perusahaan global.

Sebagai bagian dari kegiatan penelitian dan pengembangan untuk obat inovatif, perusahaan berfokus terutama pada wilayah terapi penyakit jantung, penyakit pernapasan, penyakit pada sistem saraf pusat, penyakit metabolik, penyakit virologi dan onkologi.

Boehringer Ingelheim adalah kelompok global perusahaan merangkul banyak budaya dan masyarakat yang beragam. Pelajari lebih lanjut tentang ikhtisar data keuangan, visi perusahaan, organisasi, Direksi Mengelola dan sejarah perusahaan serta keterlibatan kami untuk tujuan ilmiah, budaya dan lingkungan

 

March, 13th.1939

Ambisi Hitler 

 

Adolf Hitler menginginkan lebih banyak tanah, terutama di timur, untuk memperluas Jerman sesuai dengan kebijakan Nazi lebensraum. Hitler menggunakan keterbatasan keras yang ditetapkan melawan Jerman di Perjanjian Versailles sebagai alasan untuk hak Jerman untuk memperoleh tanah di mana berbahasa Jerman orang hidup. Jerman berhasil menggunakan alasan ini untuk membungkus dua seluruh negara tanpa memulai perang.

 
 
 

March,10th.1939

The rare C.F.Boeringer &Sohned G.m.b.H ,Mannheim-Waldhof  promotional(reclame)  Perlaten-Calcium  in Climacterium card folder send from CDs Manheim  10.3.39 special nazi postmark Deutch reich 5 cent to Dr Thung Sin Nio (the frist Chinese overseas medical docter  of Indonesia University)Batavia-centrum(now Central Jakarta)

(courtecy Dr Iwan found at Jakarta in 1994)

The pharmaceutical company Boehringer Ingelheim was founded in 1885 by

 

 Albert Boehringer (1861-1939)

in Ingelheim am Rhein.

 From its beginnings in 1885 when it employed just 28 people in Nieder-Ingelheim, the company has since become a global enterprise.

As part of research and development activities for innovative drugs, the company focuses primarily on the therapeutic areas of cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases, diseases of the central nervous system, metabolic diseases, virological diseases and oncology.

Boehringer Ingelheim is a global group of companies embracing many cultures and diverse societies. Learn more about the financial highlights, the corporate vision, the organisation, the Board of Managing Directors and the company’s history as well as our engagement for scientific, cultural and environmental purposes

 

March,13th.1939

Hitler’s Ambitions

 

Adolf Hitler wanted more land, especially in the east, to expand Germany according to the Nazi policy of lebensraum. Hitler used the harsh limitations that were set against Germany in the Versailles Treaty as a pretext for Germany’s right to acquire land where German-speaking people lived. Germany successfully used this reasoning to envelop two entire countries without starting a war.

 

 Invasi Polandia

 

Akhirnya menerima bahwa Jerman tidak bisa ditenangkan Inggris dan Perancis meningkatkan program persenjataan mereka dan memberikan jaminan ke Polandia, target berikutnya Hitler.

Setelah menandatangani pakta non-agresi dengan Soviet, Hitler menuntut konsesi teritorial dari Polandia. Ini ditolak dan Jerman menyerang pada tanggal 1 September 1939. Inggris dan Prancis menyatakan perang dua hari kemudian. Perang Dunia II telah dimulai.

Sebuah pistol anti-pesawat Inggris, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-47

 

 Persemakmuran berperang

 

Pada pecahnya perang pada tahun 1939 Angkatan Darat Inggris terdiri 50 divisi reguler dan Teritorial. Banyak dari tentara ditempatkan di seluruh dunia. Lebih dari 50.000 tentara yang berbasis di India dan garnisun timur dari Suez.

Pasukan Ekspedisi Inggris (BEF) yang dikirim ke Prancis pada tahun 1939 hanya terdiri dari sepuluh divisi. Gaya ini relatif kecil dibandingkan dengan kombatan lainnya. Tapi di samping Angkatan Darat mereka sendiri, Inggris bisa menarik divisi tambahan dari Australia, Kanada, Afrika Selatan, Afrika Barat, Afrika Timur dan Selandia Baru. Ada juga sekitar 200.000 orang tentara India ditempatkan di sub-benua India.

Jenderal Gamelin, Perancis Komandan-in-Chief, memeriksa pasukan Kanada di Aldershot, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-79

 

.

Tentara mengenakan battledress baru dan peralatan yang dikeluarkan untuk semua cabang Angkatan Darat pada tahun 1939.

NAM. 1975-03-63-1-75

 

 

 

Derrick bergabung dengan RAF awal tahun 1939

 

 dan dilatih sebagai Operator nirkabel (Passing keluar pada 06.05.40), kemudian pelatihan kembali sebagai Mechanic Operator nirkabel (Wom) (07.03.41) setelah ia diposting ke No.12 WI (Interception Wireless) Layar

Irlandia Utara di mana ia menempati sebuah pondok pertanian di perbatasan Irlandia Utara dan Eire untuk menjaga pengawasan yang mendengarkan, bersama dengan operator nirkabel RAF dan enam tentara untuk bertindak sebagai penjaga

 (Saya percaya ini menjadi bagian dari layanan “Y”, tapi tidak bisa mendapatkan konfirmasi dari itu), sementara di sini di Irlandia Utara, home base nya RAF Aldergrove, dan itu di salah satu kunjungan rutin untuk mengumpulkan gajinya dia mendengar bahwa karena pengenalan dari empat pembom mesin baru, serta untuk aksi musuh ada kekurangan Gunners Air dan mereka merekrut untuk penggantian, Derrick sukarela dan pada saat diselesaikannya pelatihan (20.07.41) ia akhirnya dipindahkan ke Pesisir Command.

March, 14, 1939

 

 Hitler menjelaskan bahwa ia bermaksud untuk memaksa

 

Pemerintah Cekoslowakia pusat untuk memberikan Slowakia kemerdekaannya, yang akan membuat “pantat” negara Ceko “bahkan lebih lengkap pada belas kasihan kita,” kata Hermann Goering.

Slovakia memang menyatakan “kemerdekaan” nya (pada kenyataannya, ketergantungan terhadap Jerman) pada tanggal 14 Maret 1939, dengan ancaman invasi squelching debat semua dalam provinsi Czech

March, 15th.1939

1.939 Nazi mengambil Cekoslowakia

Pada hari ini, pasukan Hitler menyerbu dan menduduki Cekoslovakia – bangsa dikorbankan di altar Pakta Munich, yang merupakan upaya sia-sia untuk mencegah tujuan kekaisaran Jerman.

Kemudian, pada tanggal 15 Maret 1939, selama pertemuan dengan Presiden Ceko Emil Hacha – seorang pria dianggap lemah, dan bahkan mungkin pikun – Hitler mengancam serangan bom terhadap Praha, ibukota Ceko, kecuali dia diperoleh dari bagian Hacha gratis untuk Jerman pasukan ke perbatasan Ceko.

Dia mendapatkannya. Pada hari yang sama, pasukan Jerman dituangkan ke Bohemia dan Moravia. Dua provinsi yang ditawarkan tidak melawan, dan mereka dengan cepat membuat protektorat Jerman. Menjelang sore, Hitler membuat entri kemenangan ke Praha.

Pakta Munich, yang menurut Perdana Menteri Inggris Neville Chamberlain telah membeli “perdamaian di zaman kita,” sebenarnya taktik negosiasi hanya oleh Hitler, hanya sementara menunda darah Fuhrer

 
 

 Invasion of Poland

 

Finally accepting that Germany could not be appeased Britain and France stepped up their rearmament programmes and gave guarantees to Poland, Hitler’s next target.

After signing a non-aggression pact with the Soviets, Hitler demanded territorial concessions from the Poles. These were refused and the Germans attacked on 1 September 1939. Britain and France declared war two days later. The Second World War had begun.

A British anti-aircraft gun, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-47

 

 Commonwealth at war

 

On the outbreak of war in 1939 the British Army comprised 50 regular and Territorial divisions. Many of these troops were stationed throughout the world. Over 50,000 soldiers were based in India and garrisons east of Suez.

The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) that was dispatched to France in 1939 consisted of only ten divisions. This force was relatively small compared with those of other combatants. But in addition to their own Army, the British could draw on additional divisions from Australia, Canada, South Africa, West Africa, East Africa and New Zealand. There were also around 200,000 men of the Indian Army stationed on the Indian sub-continent.

General Gamelin, the French Commander-in-Chief, inspects Canadian troops at Aldershot, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-79

 

.

Soldiers wearing the new battledress and equipment issued to all branches of the Army in 1939.

NAM. 1975-03-63-1-75

 

 

 

Derrick joined the RAF early in 1939

 

 and trained as a Wireless Operator (Passing out on 06.05.40), later retraining as a Wireless Operator Mechanic (Wom) (07.03.41) after which he was posted to No.12 WI (Wireless Interception) screen

Northern Ireland where he was to occupy a farm cottage on the border of Northern Ireland and Eire to maintain a listening watch, along with another RAF wireless operator and six soldiers to act as guards

 (I believe this to be part of the “Y” service but cannot get confirmation of it), whilst here in Northern Ireland, his home base was RAF Aldergrove, and it was on one of his regular visits to collect his pay he heard that due to the introduction of the new four engine bombers, as well as to enemy action there was a shortage of Air Gunners and they were recruiting for replacements, Derrick volunteered and on completion of his training (20.07.41) he was eventually transferred to Coastal Command.

March, 14, 1939

 

 Hitler menjelaskan bahwa ia bermaksud untuk memaksa

 

Pemerintah Cekoslowakia pusat untuk memberikan Slowakia kemerdekaannya, yang akan membuat “pantat” negara Ceko “bahkan lebih lengkap pada belas kasihan kita,” kata Hermann Goering.

Slovakia memang menyatakan “kemerdekaan” nya (pada kenyataannya, ketergantungan terhadap Jerman) pada tanggal 14 Maret 1939, dengan ancaman invasi squelching debat semua dalam provinsi Czech

March, 15th.1939

1.939 Nazi mengambil Cekoslowakia

Pada hari ini, pasukan Hitler menyerbu dan menduduki Cekoslovakia – bangsa dikorbankan di altar Pakta Munich, yang merupakan upaya sia-sia untuk mencegah tujuan kekaisaran Jerman.

Kemudian, pada tanggal 15 Maret 1939, selama pertemuan dengan Presiden Ceko Emil Hacha – seorang pria dianggap lemah, dan bahkan mungkin pikun – Hitler mengancam serangan bom terhadap Praha, ibukota Ceko, kecuali dia diperoleh dari bagian Hacha gratis untuk Jerman pasukan ke perbatasan Ceko.

Dia mendapatkannya. Pada hari yang sama, pasukan Jerman dituangkan ke Bohemia dan Moravia. Dua provinsi yang ditawarkan tidak melawan, dan mereka dengan cepat membuat protektorat Jerman. Menjelang sore, Hitler membuat entri kemenangan ke Praha.

Pakta Munich, yang menurut Perdana Menteri Inggris Neville Chamberlain telah membeli “perdamaian di zaman kita,” sebenarnya taktik negosiasi hanya oleh Hitler, hanya sementara menunda darah Fuhrer

 

July,14th.1939

 

 Photo: this is another Nazi Promotional postmark of Merz Jodo Muc,all collections look at with click hhtp//www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

The Fragment postal used cover with Promotion Machinal postmark  Merz  Jodo Muc  der sanitarer in der Westentasche  deutch reichpost 0.65 CDS Frankfurt(mann.) stadt des Deutchen Handwerks14.7.39 n red ink

 

Agustus 1939

 

Messerschmitt 110

The Messerschmitt 110 pada awalnya dirancang sebagai pesawat tempur bermesin kembar. The Messerschmitt 110 terbang pertama Mei 1936 dan pada bulan Agustus 1939, Luftwaffe memiliki 159 110Cs tersedia untuk serangan blitzkrieg di Polandia.
Me 110 terbukti pesawat berharga untuk Luftwaffe dalam kampanye Polandia Aa, ¬ “meskipun itu melawan pejuang kuno di Angkatan Udara Polandia.

Tentara Jerman yang menyeberang ke Polandia pada tanggal 1 September

 

 

 dengan itu memiliki lebih dari 200 Ju87s untuk dukungan, dan tahun antara Perang Saudara Spanyol dan invasi Polandia disediakan Richthofen sekarang Jenderal dengan waktu untuk bereksperimen dengan teknik-teknik baru untuk mengendalikan misi dukungan udara dekat.

Bernama “udara komandan untuk tujuan khusus,” adalah kontribusi utama untuk pengembangan CAS penciptaan empat Detasemen Khusus Air. Bepergian dengan komandan divisi tentara dan menggunakan mobil lapis baja, unit-unit ini dikirim ke Angkatan Darat Kesepuluh Jenderal von Reichenau untuk bereksperimen memanggil serangan udara presisi.

Bila tidak digunakan untuk pekerjaan dukungan langsung, stukas digunakan selama kampanye untuk menyerang jembatan, benteng, dan lainnya “keras” target. Beberapa pelajaran awal kerentanan operasi Stuka saja bisa telah diajarkan telah Polandia menggunakan perintah, terpadu koheren untuk angkatan udara mereka.

Mereka tidak. Bertentangan dengan sebagian besar laporan, Angkatan Udara Polandia TIDAK hancur di tanah di hari pertama, melainkan dikirim ke bidang penyebaran, di mana interaksi dengan unit udara yang lebih besar sulit di terbaik.

 

Angkatan Udara Polandia itu karena itu tidak dapat menghentikan serangan luas oleh stukas karena mereka dilindungi panggul tentara Jerman dan target jahanam di atau dekat garis depan. Sementara serangan terhadap Polandia sering dianggap sebagai Blitzkrieg nyata pertama,

itu adalah serangan yang jauh lebih tradisional. Poin resistensi yang cukup dilewati, perdagangan jarak untuk segalanya. Air listrik diawetkan sisi-sisi kemajuan Jerman dan membeku unit Polandia, yang biasanya menemukan diri mereka dikelilingi oleh tentara Jerman di saku besar.

Ketika Tentara Polandia akhirnya meluncurkan serangan balasan besar di sisi-sisi dari tentara Jerman yang bergerak cepat, mereka menjadi martir awal untuk efektivitas kekuatan udara. Pada tanggal 9 September, sekitar 170.000 pasukan Polandia berkumpul dan menyerang pasukan Jerman dekat Poznan. Serangan itu sekilas mirip itu akan berhasil, memotong Angkatan Darat ke-10 off dari jejak logistik.

Sayangnya untuk Polandia, tanggal 10 adalah unit dengan Detasemen Khusus von Richthofen Udara. Cepat, Polandia menyerang menemukan diri mereka di bawah layu menyelam-bom dari stukas dan pemberondongan konstan oleh Hs123 biplanes (Hs123 itu premier tanah Jerman itu strafer serangan untuk beberapa tahun pertama perang). Namun, itu bukan hanya bomber menyelam dan aset serangan darat dari Luftwaffe yang digunakan.

Setiap pesawat yang tersedia di teater itu dikirim untuk plug kesenjangan. Kuda, masih penting untuk pasukan darat Polandia dan Jerman, panik di bawah serangan udara; pasukan mereka melakukan sedikit lebih baik. Stukas telah dilengkapi dengan sirene pada sayap mereka, dan mesin Hs123 terdengar seperti senapan mesin itu sendiri keras di ketinggian rendah. Efek pada tentara Polandia segar, yang pernah berada di bawah serangan udara, adalah total. Itu adalah rute mengucapkan, dan 1.700 sorti kemudian, Luftwaffe telah efektif menghancurkan serangan balik Polandia.

 

Jendral Polandia  Kutrzeba menggambarkan adegan:

“Menjelang pukul sepuluh, serangan udara marah dibuat di penyeberangan sungai dekat Witkovice – yang untuk jumlah pesawat yang bergerak, kekerasan serangan mereka, dan berani akrobatik pilot mereka, pasti belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya Setiap saat,. setiap konsentrasi pasukan, setiap baris muka, berada di bawah pemboman dari udara penghancuran Itu hanya neraka di bumi.. The jembatan hancur, penyeberangan diblokir, dan kolom menunggu laki-laki hancur. “

Meskipun pertempuran untuk Polandia dengan mudah dimenangkan oleh Jerman, teori kekuatan udara seperti von Richthofen masih melihat banyak ruang untuk perbaikan. Berbagai isu yang timbul dari aplikasi yang sebenarnya dari teori Lampiran Udara Khusus. Perwira Angkatan Darat tidak merasa perlu untuk memanggil serangan udara sebanyak yang mereka bisa, dan ada yang tak terelakkan snafus frekuensi radio dan identifikasi sasaran.

Fakta bahwa kampanye Polandia benar-benar lebih merupakan pertempuran pengepungan daripada serangan armor benar terkonsentrasi juga sangat membebani. Sebagian besar bebas dari serangan terkonsentrasi, stukas digunakan untuk melindungi sisi-sisi unit Jerman dan menyerang sasaran titik.

 

Doktrin  Operasional
Banyak dari doktrin operasional didasarkan pada perencanaan strategis Perancis yang oleh akhir 1930-an itu tidak memadai untuk menangani Germanyââ, ¬ ™ s perang mekanik (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991).
Setiap tentara diberi jatah unit udara sendiri, biasanya terdiri dari dua skuadron dari P.7 pejuang atau p.12 pertahanan udara / pesawat serangan darat.
Selain satu skuadron pengintai terdiri dari delapan sampai sepuluh hal.23 Karas pembom ringan dan satu atau dua skuadron pengamatan terdiri atas Lotnictwo lampiran Wojskowe kepada tentara.

Sementara Polandia memiliki sekitar 300 pejuang (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) hanya 10% berada dalam kondisi tempur. Sisanya adalah baik dalam peran pelatihan atau menjalani perbaikan sebelum pecahnya perang.
Para pembom Karas berjumlah sekitar 240 dan tidak pernah benar-benar memenuhi perannya sebagai bomber ringan atau pesawat serangan darat.
Pembom hal.37 Los lebih maju dalam desain, tetapi hanya 75 yang tersedia untuk tugas tempur pada tahun 1939.

Perang di Udara
Banyak penulis (Davies, 1981, Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) telah berusaha untuk memperbaiki sejarah mitos seputar peran Wojskowe Lotnictwo. Angkatan Udara tidak hancur pada lapangan udara pada tanggal 1 September 1939.
Sebagian besar pesawat tersebar ke lapangan udara rahasia dan Luftwaffe terutama menembak-up dan membom airfileds kosong tertutup oleh kabut pagi. Pertahanan udara terkonsentrasi di sampul udara di atas Warsawa sebagai tujuan utama yang memungkinkan keunggulan Luftwaffe udara untuk mengganggu mobilisasi tentara.
Komando tertinggi militer meminta tingkat rendah serangan pada memajukan kolom Jerman yang terbukti sangat boros dalam pesawat. Sementara unit udara paling cepat mundur ke jantung Polandia, suku cadang dan bahan bakar menjadi masalah yang meningkat.
Komunikasi antara unit dan tentara rusak dan dalam beberapa kasus unit diminta untuk melaksanakan dukungan taktis melawan tentara yang bisa outgun mereka atau mengambil pada angkatan udara unggul.
Pilot dan tanah-kru berjuang heroik dengan sumber daya terbatas dan sering ditemukan Aa, ¬ Ëœfriendly-fireââ, ¬ ™ adalah sebagai mematikan seperti mengambil musuh (Zamoyski, 1995). Sebagai pesawat pindah dari lapangan terbang ke lapangan udara, kru darat berjuang untuk pertemuan dan cukup sering menjadi terpisah sampai tiga hari sebelum bergabung kembali skuadron mereka.
Ini pengalaman kebijakan taktis berbentuk yang dimasukkan untuk efek yang baik, tapi tidak dalam teater perang.

PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade” j=” PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade ” g=”PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade”><span> PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade </ span>

Di seterusnya September 3

semua unit yang mundur ke tenggara Polandia dalam rangka re-group. Semua personil dan cadangan yang sekarang dipanggil.
Pada 5 September, intervensi fisik oleh Inggris dan Prancis tidak terwujud dan Angkatan Udara telah kehilangan 30% dari pesawatnya. Zamoyski, (1995) menunjukkan bahwa 14 Badai dan 36 Fairey Pertempuran telah dimuat di atas kapal di Liverpool menuju Gdynia yang dialihkan ke pelabuhan Rumania dari Galti di Laut Hitam sekali permusuhan dimulai.
Pada tanggal 10 September

200 pilot dan staf teknis diperintahkan untuk Rumania untuk mengumpulkan mesin pengganti. Sayangnya, Rumania di bawah tekanan Jerman membatalkan aliansi dengan Polandia dan menjadi netral, sementara 6.000 personel Angkatan Udara berkumpul di perbatasan.
Kapal yang membawa kargo berharga berlalu Gibraltar Rumania netralitas diumumkan dan diketahui oleh Polandia, kapal itu sekali lagi kembali diarahkan.
Dari seterusnya 16 September

 memerangi korban ke pesawat dan personil meningkat dengan skuadron yang dimusnahkan atau hanya kehabisan bahan bakar dan suku cadang.
Pada 17 September

100 pesawat tempur dan 50 pesawat sipil terbang ke Rumania ke lapangan terbang di Galati. Para kru tiba-tiba menyadari perang usai dan bahwa Rumania, Inggris dan Perancis tidak mendukung mereka di saat mereka membutuhkan.
Kebanyakan penerbang cukup diperlakukan dengan baik. Polandia unit tentara mulai menyeberangi perbatasan Rumania tak lama kemudian.
Dalam Eastern Poland, tentara Polandia dan Angkatan Udara yang terlibat baik Jerman dan Soviet dan terus berjuang keras hingga tanggal 6 Oktober.

Setelah kejadian itu, ternyata sejumlah besar personil militer telah melarikan diri dan memulai kampanye mereka di pengasingan. Angkatan laut telah melarikan diri dan Polandââ, ¬ ™ s cadangan emas juga berkat

 

 perencanaan Jenderal Rayski.

900 personel Angkatan Udara telah membuat jalan mereka ke Hungaria dan sekitar 1.000 ke Amerika Baltik Latvia dan Lithunia. Lain 1.500 telah ditangkap oleh Soviet dan dikirim ke gulag Aa, ¬ “

banyak yang tidak bertahan hidup (Anders, 1949; Zamoyski, 1995).
Keamanan di kamp-kamp interniran miskin dan narapidana terlalu tertarik untuk sampai ke Prancis dan Inggris untuk melawan sementara di pengasingan. 90.000 personil militer Polandia itu harus sembunyi-sembunyi dihapus dari Balkan melalui jaringan bawah tanah.
Inggris adalah akut kekurangan penerbang terlatih yang diberi prioritas bersama-sama dengan unsur-unsur bahan Enigma decoding Zamoyski, 1995:39).

 

 

Pesawat kamuflase 1939 kampanye

 

Sejak 1937 Angkatan skema Polandia kamuflase Air standar pada semua pesawatnya. Ada empat skema dasar:
Atas permukaan sayap dan elevator dan pesawat di seluruh Khaki. Rendah sayap dan permukaan lift di Blue Light. Skema yang paling banyak digunakan.
Atas permukaan disamarkan dalam tiga warna: Olive Light, Dark Olive, Khaki. Rendah permukaan Sliver atau Blue Light untuk tempur. Warna berbulu atau pecah tepi.
Trainer pesawat dicat keseluruhan Khaki. Secara keseluruhan Sliver atau keseluruhan Gading Putih.
Laut pesawat dicat Green Light-Grey di atas dan perak pada permukaan bawah dan mengapung.
Umumnya semua pesawat yang diproduksi oleh PZL dan LWS membawa skema no. 1. Skema no. 2 adalah khas untuk Lublin R-XIII.

 
 
 

March ,14th, 1939

 

 Hitler made it clear that he intended to force

 

the central Czechoslovakian government to give Slovakia its independence, which would make the “rump” Czech state “even more completely at our mercy,” remarked Hermann Goering.

Slovakia indeed declared its “independence” (in fact, complete dependence on Germany) on March 14, 1939, with the threat of invasion squelching all debate within the Czech province

March ,15th.1939

1939 Nazis take Czechoslovakia


On this day, Hitler’s forces invade and occupy Czechoslovakia–a nation sacrificed on the altar of the Munich Pact, which was a vain attempt to prevent Germany’s imperial aims.


Then, on March 15, 1939, during a meeting with Czech President Emil Hacha–a man considered weak, and possibly even senile–Hitler threatened a bombing raid against Prague, the Czech capital, unless he obtained from Hacha free passage for German troops into Czech borders.

He got it. That same day, German troops poured into Bohemia and Moravia. The two provinces offered no resistance, and they were quickly made a protectorate of Germany. By evening, Hitler made a triumphant entry into Prague.

The Munich Pact, which according to British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain had purchased “peace in our time,” was actually a mere negotiating ploy by the Hitler, only temporarily delaying the Fuhrer’s blood

 

 

August 1939

 

Messerschmitt 110

The Messerschmitt 110 was originally designed as a twin engined fighter. The Messerschmitt 110 first flew in May 1936 and by August 1939, the Luftwaffe had 159 110Cs available for the blitzkrieg attack on Poland.
The Me 110 proved a valuable plane to the Luftwaffe in the Polish campaign — though it was up against old fashioned fighters in the Polish Air Force.

The German Army that crossed into Poland on September 1st

 

 

 had with it more than 200 Ju87s for support, and the years between the Spanish Civil War and the Poland invasion provided now-General Richthofen with time to experiment with new techniques for controlling close air support missions.


Named the “air commander for special purposes,” his main contribution to the development of CAS was the creation of four Special Air Detachments. Traveling with army division commanders and using armored cars, these units were sent to General von Reichenau’s Tenth Army to experiment calling in precision air strikes.

When not being used for direct support work, Stukas were used throughout the campaign to attack bridges, fortifications, and other “hard” targets. Some early lessons in the vulnerability of the Stuka operating alone could have been taught had the Poles used a unified, coherent command for their air force.

They did not. Contrary to most reports, the Polish Air Force was NOT destroyed on the ground in the first day, but rather sent to dispersal fields, where interaction with larger air units was difficult at best.

 

The Polish Air Force was therefore unable to stop the widespread attacks by the Stukas as they protected the German army’s flanks and blasted targets at or near front lines. While the attack on Poland is often considered the first real Blitzkrieg,

it was a far more traditional attack. Points of resistance were simply bypassed, trading distance for all else. Air power preserved the flanks of the German advances and froze Polish units, who usually found themselves surrounded by the German army in large pockets.

When the Polish Army finally launched a major counteroffensive on the flanks of the fast-moving German army, they became early martyrs to the effectiveness of airpower. On September 9, about 170,000 Polish forces gathered and attacked German forces near Poznan. The attack briefly looked like it would work, cutting the 10th Army off from its logistics trail.

Unfortunately for the Poles, the 10th was the unit with von Richthofen’s Special Air Detachments. Quickly, the attacking Poles found themselves under withering dive-bombing from Stukas and constant strafing by Hs123 biplanes (the Hs123 was the German’s premier ground attack strafer for the first several years of the war). However, it wasn’t just the dive bomber and ground attack assets of the Luftwaffe that were used.

Any available aircraft in the theater was sent to plug the gap. Horses, still crucial to both Polish and German ground forces, panicked under the air attacks; their troops did little better. Stukas had been fitted with sirens on their wings, and the Hs123’s engine sounded like a loud machine gun itself at low altitude. The effect on the fresh Polish troops, who had never come under air attack, was total. It was an utter route, and 1,700 sorties later, the Luftwaffe has effectively crushed the Polish counterattack.

 

Polish General Kutrzeba described the scene:

“Towards ten o’clock, a furious air assault was made on the river crossings near Witkovice – which for the number of aircraft engaged, the violence of their attack, and the acrobatic daring of their pilots, must have been unprecedented. Every moment, every troop concentration, every line of advance, came under pulverizing bombardment from the air. It was just hell on earth. The bridges were destroyed, the fords blocked, and the waiting columns of men decimated.”

Although the battle for Poland was handily won by the Germans, air power theorists such as von Richthofen still saw much room for improvement. A wide range of issues had arisen from the actual application of the theory of the Special Air Attachments. Army officers didn’t feel the need to call in air strikes as much as they could have, and there were the inevitable SNAFUs of radio frequencies and target identification.

The fact that the Polish campaign really was more a battle of encirclement rather than a true concentrated armor attack also weighed heavily. Largely free of concentrated attacks, the Stukas were used to protect the flanks of German units and strike point targets.

 

Operational Doctrine
Much of the operational doctrine was based upon French strategic planning which by the late 1930s was inadequate to deal with Germany’s mechanized war (Zaloga and Madej, 1991).
Each army was allotted its own air units, usually made up of two squadrons of P.7 fighters or P.12 air defence/ ground attack aircraft.
In addition one reconnaissance squadron made up of eight to ten P.23 Karas light bombers and one or two observation squadrons made up the Lotnictwo Wojskowe attachments to the army.

While Poland had some 300 fighters (Zaloga and Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) only 10% were in combat condition. The remainder were either in a training role or undergoing repair prior to the outbreak of war.
The Karas bombers numbered around 240 and never really fulfilled its role as a light bomber or ground attack aircraft.
The P.37 Los bomber was more advanced in design, but only 75 available for combat duty in 1939.

War in the Air
Numerous authors (Davies, 1981, Zaloga and Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) have attempted to correct historical myth surrounding the role of the Lotnictwo Wojskowe. The airforce was not destroyed on the airfields on the 1st September 1939.
Most aircraft were dispersed to secret airfields and the Luftwaffe primarily shot-up and bombed empty airfileds obscured by early morning mist. Air defences concentrated on air cover over Warsaw as the prime objective that enabled the Luftwaffe air superiority to disrupt mobilization of the army.
The military high command requested low-level raids on advancing German columns that proved to be very wasteful in planes. While most air units quickly retreated into the heartland of Poland, spares and fuel became an increasing problem.
Communication between units and the army broke down and in some cases units were requested to carry out tactical support against an army which could outgun them or take on a superior airforce.
Pilots and ground-crew fought heroically with limited resources and often found ‘friendly-fire’ was as lethal as taking on the enemy (Zamoyski, 1995). As planes moved from airfield to airfield, ground crews struggled to rendezvous and quite often became separated for up to three days before rejoining their squadrons.
These experiences shaped tactical policy which were put to good effect, but not in this theatre of the war.

<span>PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade</span>

On the 3rd September onwards

all units were to withdraw to southeastern Poland in order to re-group. All personnel and reservists had by now been called up.
By the 5th September, the physical intervention by Britain and France had not materialized and the airforce had lost 30% of its aircraft. Zamoyski, (1995) pointed out that 14 Hurricanes and 36 Fairey Battles having being loaded aboard ships in Liverpool bound for Gdynia were rerouted to the Rumanian port of Galti on the Black Sea once hostilities commenced.
On the 10th September

200 pilots and technical staff were ordered to Rumania to collect replacement machines. Unfortunately, Rumania under German pressure rescinded its alliance with Poland and became neutral while 6,000 airforce personnel massed on the border.
The ship carrying its valuable cargo had passed Gibraltar as Rumanian neutrality was announced and unknown to the Poles, the ship was once again re-routed.
From the 16th September onwards,

 combat casualties to aircraft and personnel escalated with squadrons being annihilated or simply running out of fuel and spares.
On the 17th September

100 war planes and 50 civilian aircraft flew into Rumania to an airfield at Galati. The crews suddenly realized the war was over and that Rumania, Britain and France had not supported them in their hour of need.
Most airmen were reasonably well treated. Polish army units began to cross the Rumanian border shortly afterwards.
In Eastern Poland, the Polish army and airforce were engaging both the German and Soviets and continued to fight hard until 6th October.

In the aftermath, it appeared significant numbers of military personnel had escaped and started their campaign in exile. The navy had escaped and Poland’s gold reserves too thanks to

 

 the planning of General Rayski.


900 airforce personnel had made their way to Hungary and approximately 1,000 to the Baltic States of Latvia and Lithunia. Another 1,500 had been captured by the Soviets and sent to the gulags —

many did not survive (Anders, 1949; Zamoyski, 1995).
Security at the internment camps was poor and the inmates too keen to get to France and Britain to fight while in exile. 90,000 Polish military personnel were to be clandestinely removed from the Balkans through an underground network.
Britain was acutely short of trained airmen who were given priority together with the elements of the Enigma decoding material Zamoyski, 1995:39).

 

 

Aircraft camouflage of 1939 campaign

 

Since 1937 Polish Air Force standardised camouflage schemes on all of its aircraft. There were four basic schemes:
Upper surfaces of wings and elevators and entire fuselage in Khaki. Lower wing and elevator surfaces in Light Blue. The most used scheme.
Upper surfaces camouflaged in three colors: Light Olive, Dark Olive, Khaki. Lower surfaces Sliver or Light Blue for fighter. Color edges feathered or splintered.
Trainer aircraft were painted overall Khaki. Overall Sliver or Overall Ivory White.
Sea aircraft were painted Light Green-Grey on the upper and Silver on the lower surfaces and floats.
Generally all aircraft produced by PZL and LWS carried scheme no. 1. Scheme no. 2 was typical for Lublin R-XIII.

 

Tentara Jerman yang menyerang  ke Polandia

pada tanggal 1 September

 

 

 dengan itu memiliki lebih dari 200 Ju87s untuk dukungan, dan tahun antara Perang Saudara Spanyol dan invasi Polandia disediakan Richthofen sekarang Jenderal dengan waktu untuk bereksperimen dengan teknik-teknik baru untuk mengendalikan misi dukungan udara dekat.

Bernama “udara komandan untuk tujuan khusus,” adalah kontribusi utama untuk pengembangan CAS penciptaan empat Detasemen Khusus Air. Bepergian dengan komandan divisi tentara dan menggunakan mobil lapis baja, unit-unit ini dikirim ke Angkatan Darat Kesepuluh Jenderal von Reichenau untuk bereksperimen memanggil serangan udara presisi.

Bila tidak digunakan untuk pekerjaan dukungan langsung, stukas digunakan selama kampanye untuk menyerang jembatan, benteng, dan lainnya “keras” target. Beberapa pelajaran awal kerentanan operasi Stuka saja bisa telah diajarkan telah Polandia menggunakan perintah, terpadu koheren untuk angkatan udara mereka.

Mereka tidak. Bertentangan dengan sebagian besar laporan, Angkatan Udara Polandia TIDAK hancur di tanah di hari pertama, melainkan dikirim ke bidang penyebaran, di mana interaksi dengan unit udara yang lebih besar sulit di terbaik.

 

Angkatan Udara Polandia itu karena itu tidak dapat menghentikan serangan luas oleh stukas karena mereka dilindungi panggul tentara Jerman dan target jahanam di atau dekat garis depan. Sementara serangan terhadap Polandia sering dianggap sebagai Blitzkrieg nyata pertama,

itu adalah serangan yang jauh lebih tradisional. Poin resistensi yang cukup dilewati, perdagangan jarak untuk segalanya. Air listrik diawetkan sisi-sisi kemajuan Jerman dan membeku unit Polandia, yang biasanya menemukan diri mereka dikelilingi oleh tentara Jerman di saku besar.

Ketika Tentara Polandia akhirnya meluncurkan serangan balasan besar di sisi-sisi dari tentara Jerman yang bergerak cepat, mereka menjadi martir awal untuk efektivitas kekuatan udara. Pada tanggal 9 September, sekitar 170.000 pasukan Polandia berkumpul dan menyerang pasukan Jerman dekat Poznan. Serangan itu sekilas mirip itu akan berhasil, memotong Angkatan Darat ke-10 off dari jejak logistik.

Sayangnya untuk Polandia, tanggal 10 adalah unit dengan Detasemen Khusus von Richthofen Udara. Cepat, Polandia menyerang menemukan diri mereka di bawah layu menyelam-bom dari stukas dan pemberondongan konstan oleh Hs123 biplanes (Hs123 itu premier tanah Jerman itu strafer serangan untuk beberapa tahun pertama perang). Namun, itu bukan hanya bomber menyelam dan aset serangan darat dari Luftwaffe yang digunakan.

Setiap pesawat yang tersedia di teater itu dikirim untuk plug kesenjangan. Kuda, masih penting untuk pasukan darat Polandia dan Jerman, panik di bawah serangan udara; pasukan mereka melakukan sedikit lebih baik. Stukas telah dilengkapi dengan sirene pada sayap mereka, dan mesin Hs123 terdengar seperti senapan mesin itu sendiri keras di ketinggian rendah. Efek pada tentara Polandia segar, yang pernah berada di bawah serangan udara, adalah total. Itu adalah rute mengucapkan, dan 1.700 sorti kemudian, Luftwaffe telah efektif menghancurkan serangan balik Polandia.

 

Polandia Umum Kutrzeba menggambarkan adegan:

“Menjelang pukul sepuluh, serangan udara marah dibuat di penyeberangan sungai dekat Witkovice – yang untuk jumlah pesawat yang bergerak, kekerasan serangan mereka, dan berani akrobatik pilot mereka, pasti belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya Setiap saat,. setiap konsentrasi pasukan, setiap baris muka, berada di bawah pemboman dari udara penghancuran Itu hanya neraka di bumi.. The jembatan hancur, penyeberangan diblokir, dan kolom menunggu laki-laki hancur. “

Meskipun pertempuran untuk Polandia dengan mudah dimenangkan oleh Jerman, teori kekuatan udara seperti von Richthofen masih melihat banyak ruang untuk perbaikan. Berbagai isu yang timbul dari aplikasi yang sebenarnya dari teori Lampiran Udara Khusus. Perwira Angkatan Darat tidak merasa perlu untuk memanggil serangan udara sebanyak yang mereka bisa, dan ada yang tak terelakkan snafus frekuensi radio dan identifikasi sasaran.

Fakta bahwa kampanye Polandia benar-benar lebih merupakan pertempuran pengepungan daripada serangan armor benar terkonsentrasi juga sangat membebani. Sebagian besar bebas dari serangan terkonsentrasi, stukas digunakan untuk melindungi sisi-sisi unit Jerman dan menyerang sasaran titik.

 

Operasional Ajaran
Banyak dari doktrin operasional didasarkan pada perencanaan strategis Perancis yang oleh akhir 1930-an itu tidak memadai untuk menangani Germanyââ, ¬ ™ s perang mekanik (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991).
Setiap tentara diberi jatah unit udara sendiri, biasanya terdiri dari dua skuadron dari P.7 pejuang atau p.12 pertahanan udara / pesawat serangan darat.
Selain satu skuadron pengintai terdiri dari delapan sampai sepuluh hal.23 Karas pembom ringan dan satu atau dua skuadron pengamatan terdiri atas Lotnictwo lampiran Wojskowe kepada tentara.

Sementara Polandia memiliki sekitar 300 pejuang (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) hanya 10% berada dalam kondisi tempur. Sisanya adalah baik dalam peran pelatihan atau menjalani perbaikan sebelum pecahnya perang.
Para pembom Karas berjumlah sekitar 240 dan tidak pernah benar-benar memenuhi perannya sebagai bomber ringan atau pesawat serangan darat.
Pembom hal.37 Los lebih maju dalam desain, tetapi hanya 75 yang tersedia untuk tugas tempur pada tahun 1939.

Perang di Udara
Banyak penulis (Davies, 1981, Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) telah berusaha untuk memperbaiki sejarah mitos seputar peran Wojskowe Lotnictwo. Angkatan Udara tidak hancur pada lapangan udara pada tanggal 1 September 1939.
Sebagian besar pesawat tersebar ke lapangan udara rahasia dan Luftwaffe terutama menembak-up dan membom airfileds kosong tertutup oleh kabut pagi. Pertahanan udara terkonsentrasi di sampul udara di atas Warsawa sebagai tujuan utama yang memungkinkan keunggulan Luftwaffe udara untuk mengganggu mobilisasi tentara.
Komando tertinggi militer meminta tingkat rendah serangan pada memajukan kolom Jerman yang terbukti sangat boros dalam pesawat. Sementara unit udara paling cepat mundur ke jantung Polandia, suku cadang dan bahan bakar menjadi masalah yang meningkat.
Komunikasi antara unit dan tentara rusak dan dalam beberapa kasus unit diminta untuk melaksanakan dukungan taktis melawan tentara yang bisa outgun mereka atau mengambil pada angkatan udara unggul.
Pilot dan tanah-kru berjuang heroik dengan sumber daya terbatas dan sering ditemukan Aa, ¬ Ëœfriendly-fireââ, ¬ ™ adalah sebagai mematikan seperti mengambil musuh (Zamoyski, 1995). Sebagai pesawat pindah dari lapangan terbang ke lapangan udara, kru darat berjuang untuk pertemuan dan cukup sering menjadi terpisah sampai tiga hari sebelum bergabung kembali skuadron mereka.
Ini pengalaman kebijakan taktis berbentuk yang dimasukkan untuk efek yang baik, tapi tidak dalam teater perang.

PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade” j=” PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade ” g=”PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade”><span> PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade </ span>

Di seterusnya September 3

semua unit yang mundur ke tenggara Polandia dalam rangka re-group. Semua personil dan cadangan yang sekarang dipanggil.
Pada 5 September, intervensi fisik oleh Inggris dan Prancis tidak terwujud dan Angkatan Udara telah kehilangan 30% dari pesawatnya. Zamoyski, (1995) menunjukkan bahwa 14 Badai dan 36 Fairey Pertempuran telah dimuat di atas kapal di Liverpool menuju Gdynia yang dialihkan ke pelabuhan Rumania dari Galti di Laut Hitam sekali permusuhan dimulai.
Pada tanggal 10 September

200 pilot dan staf teknis diperintahkan untuk Rumania untuk mengumpulkan mesin pengganti. Sayangnya, Rumania di bawah tekanan Jerman membatalkan aliansi dengan Polandia dan menjadi netral, sementara 6.000 personel Angkatan Udara berkumpul di perbatasan.
Kapal yang membawa kargo berharga berlalu Gibraltar Rumania netralitas diumumkan dan diketahui oleh Polandia, kapal itu sekali lagi kembali diarahkan.
Dari seterusnya 16 September

 memerangi korban ke pesawat dan personil meningkat dengan skuadron yang dimusnahkan atau hanya kehabisan bahan bakar dan suku cadang.
Pada 17 September

100 pesawat tempur dan 50 pesawat sipil terbang ke Rumania ke lapangan terbang di Galati. Para kru tiba-tiba menyadari perang usai dan bahwa Rumania, Inggris dan Perancis tidak mendukung mereka di saat mereka membutuhkan.
Kebanyakan penerbang cukup diperlakukan dengan baik. Polandia unit tentara mulai menyeberangi perbatasan Rumania tak lama kemudian.
Dalam Eastern Poland, tentara Polandia dan Angkatan Udara yang terlibat baik Jerman dan Soviet dan terus berjuang keras hingga tanggal 6 Oktober.

Setelah kejadian itu, ternyata sejumlah besar personil militer telah melarikan diri dan memulai kampanye mereka di pengasingan. Angkatan laut telah melarikan diri dan Polandââ, ¬ ™ s cadangan emas juga berkat

 

 perencanaan Jenderal Rayski.

900 personel Angkatan Udara telah membuat jalan mereka ke Hungaria dan sekitar 1.000 ke Amerika Baltik Latvia dan Lithunia. Lain 1.500 telah ditangkap oleh Soviet dan dikirim ke gulag Aa, ¬ “

banyak yang tidak bertahan hidup (Anders, 1949; Zamoyski, 1995).
Keamanan di kamp-kamp interniran miskin dan narapidana terlalu tertarik untuk sampai ke Prancis dan Inggris untuk melawan sementara di pengasingan. 90.000 personil militer Polandia itu harus sembunyi-sembunyi dihapus dari Balkan melalui jaringan bawah tanah.
Inggris adalah akut kekurangan penerbang terlatih yang diberi prioritas bersama-sama dengan unsur-unsur bahan Enigma decoding Zamoyski, 1995:39).

 
 

August,22th.1939

 

 

1939, Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression pact, stunning the world, given their diametrically opposed ideologies. But the dictators were, despite appearances, both playing to their own political needs.

After Nazi Germany’s invasion of Czechoslovakia, Britain had to decide to what extent it would intervene should Hitler continue German expansion. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, at first indifferent to Hitler’s capture of the Sudetenland, the German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, suddenly snapped to life when Poland became threatened. He made it plain that Britain would be obliged to come to the aid of Poland in the event of German invasion. But he wanted, and needed, an ally. The only power large enough to stop Hitler, and with a vested interest in doing so, was the Soviet Union. But Stalin was cool to Britain after its effort to create a political alliance with Britain and France against Germany had been rebuffed a year earlier. Plus, Poland’s leaders were less than thrilled with the prospect of Russia becoming its guardian; to them, it was simply occupation by another monstrous regime.

Hitler believed that Britain would never take him on alone, so he decided to swallow his fear and loathing of communism and cozy up to the Soviet dictator, thereby pulling the rug out from the British initiative. Both sides were extremely suspicious of the other, trying to discern ulterior motives. But Hitler was in a hurry; he knew if he was to invade Poland it had to be done quickly, before the West could create a unified front. Agreeing basically to carve up parts of Eastern Europe-and leave each other alone in the process-Hitler’s foreign minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, flew to Moscow and signed the non-aggression pact with his Soviet counterpart, V.M. Molotov (which is why the pact is often referred to as the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact). Supporters of bolshevism around the world had their heretofore romantic view of “international socialism” ruined; they were outraged that Stalin would enter into any kind of league with the fascist dictator

   

   

   

  On August 23, 1939,

     

 the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a non-aggression treaty which contained an additional secret protocol with maps, in which a demarcation line through Eastern Europe was drawn, dividing it into the German and Soviet interest zones. Bessarabia was among the regions assigned to Soviet sphere of interest by the Pact. Article III of its Secret Additional Protocol states:

With regard to Southeastern Europe attention is called by the Soviet side to its interest in Bessarabia. The German side declares its complete political disinterestedness in these areas

 

 August,27th.1939

‘Not Forgotten’, the 1939 IRA bomb attack – by Simon Shaw

John Corbett Arnott aged 15.
Elsie Ansell aged 21.
Rex Gentle aged 30.
Gwilym Rowlands aged 50.
James Clay aged 82.

On 12th January 1939 the Irish Republican Army, claiming to be the “Government of the Irish Republic”, issued an ultimatum to the British Government. It gave them four days to withdraw all British armed forces stationed in Ireland and declare that they would renounce all claims to interfere in Irish domestic policy. If they received no response, they said they would be compelled to intervene actively in the military and commercial life of Great Britain. Four days passed with no reply so a campaign known as the “S-Plan” was launched against Britain. This mainly involved bombing commercial premises, sabotaging electricity supplies, blowing up telephone kiosks, public lavatories, mail boxes and railway stations. Coventry was mentioned by name in the I.R.A. plans, which had singled out its electricity supply as a prime target. Civilians were not supposed to be targeted.

Remains of the bicycle in Little Park Street Police Museum, Coventry The remains of the bicycle, now in Coventry’s Police Museum, Little Park Street.
(Photograph by Simon Shaw with permission of West Midlands Police. Unauthorised reproduction may result in prosecution.)

Unless you have a reasonably good knowledge of local history the five names at the start of this article will probably not be familiar to you. They are the forgotten victims of the worst terrorist attack Coventry has ever suffered. On 25th August 1939 all of them had the misfortune to be in Broadgate. It was a busy Friday lunchtime. Elsie Ansell, a shop assistant at Millet’s in nearby Cross Cheaping, was on her lunch break and looking at jewellery in the H Samuel shop. She was due to be married a fortnight later. Gwilym Rowlands, known as Bill, was a road sweeper. He and his colleague (John Worth) were working outside Astley’s and Burton’s shops. John Arnott and Rex Gentle both worked at W H Smiths and were returning after their lunch break. Rex had changed his lunch hour so he could spend it with John. James Clay had left a meeting at a nearby cafe with a business friend earlier than usual due to not feeling well. This was the first time in six years the two friends had not left at the same time. Around 2:30 pm these people and many others were in the vicinity of Astley’s shop when the normal hustle and bustle of the city centre was shattered by an I.R.A. bomb.

Ironically, in the city that is regarded as its British birthplace, a bicycle played an instrumental part in the mass murder and carnage that shocked the nation.

Broadgate in 1939. A typical Broadgate day in 1939 – just as it would have appeared shortly before the tragic event of August the 25th.

On Tuesday 22nd August 1939 James McCormick (alias James Richards), the leader of the I.R.A. unit operating in Coventry, and another unknown I.R.A. man visited the shop of the Halford Cycle Company in Smithford Street, where McCormick purchased a Halford ‘Karriwell’ – a tradesman type cycle built for Halford by the Birmingham Bicycle Company which had a carrier basket to the front of the handlebars. He gave a false name and address – Mr Norman, 56 Grayswood Avenue, Allesley Old Road, Coventry – and paid a deposit of £5 – pledging to pay the remaining 19s 6d on collection, which would be either Friday or Saturday. On the morning of Thursday 24th August 1939 another unknown I.R.A. man began constructing the bomb at 25 Clara Street, Stoke, Coventry. The house was being rented from Loveitt & Sons by Joseph Hewitt who lived there with his wife Mary, their baby child Brigid Mary and his mother-in-law, Brigid O’Hara. After marrying his wife at St. Peter’s Cathedral, Belfast, in August 1935, Hewitt came to Coventry in 1936 to find work. His wife and mother-in-law soon followed. Their baby was born in Coventry in 1938. They moved to Clara Street from Meadow Street, Spon End in June 1939. James McCormick lodged with them. It was effectively a ‘safe-house’ for the I.R.A. where McCormick had constructed a concrete storage pit under the stairs a few weeks earlier to store explosives, but the Hewitt’s were not part of the organisation. That evening, at around 7:00 pm, a Transport Officer in the I.R.A. called Peter Barnes arrived at the house from London. He had travelled by train and brought with him potassium chlorate to be used as the explosive in the device. Barnes’ role in the I.R.A. was to ferry explosives from their main ammunition dumps in Liverpool and Glasgow to their operatives across the country. He left later in the evening and returned to London.

The unknown bomb maker completed his task the following morning. It was a 5lb device with an alarm clock used as the timer. The bicycle was collected from Halford’s by McCormick at 12:30 pm and left in the back lane (known as a jetty) at the rear of the house around 1:10 pm. By this stage the bomb had been parcelled up in a box that was wrapped in brown paper and tied with a string. The bomb maker placed it in the carrier basket and began his journey into town. Sometime between 1:30 and 1:45 pm the bicycle with its deadly cargo was left standing against the kerb outside Astley’s shop where it was to shortly explode with such devastating consequences.

Many victims of terrorism or political conflict are totally forgotten about once the initial outrage or shock has died down. Just a week or so after the Coventry bomb, Great Britain declared war on Germany, and a year or so later our city was to suffer carnage on a much greater scale with the blitz of 14th November 1940. Perhaps these events helped play a part in effectively ‘burying’ the tragedy that took place in August 1939?

* * * * *

Part of the carrier cycle lying in front of the damaged car Part of the carrier cycle lying in front of the damaged car.

An excellent book called “Lost Lives” was first published in 1999. It attempts to record all those who died in the Northern Ireland ‘Troubles’ from the 1960’s through to the ceasefires of the 1990’s and beyond. It is an incredibly poignant and moving book which had me in tears on several occasions. Below I give a few details of Coventry’s “Lost Lives” which were gleaned from contemporary newspaper reports and kindly provided by relatives:

Elsie Ansell, (also called Laura in Newspaper reports) from Clarendon Street, Earlsdon, died instantly. Her face was blown away and her body terribly mutilated. She could only be identified by her engagement ring and clothing. Instead of being married at St. Barbara’s Church to her fiancé Harry Davies her funeral service took place there instead on August 30th. On top of her coffin was a wreath of cream roses from Harry. The coffin bearers were from the nearby Albany Social Club. A crowd of 600 to 700 people were at London Road cemetery to see her laid to rest. She was buried in her wedding dress.

John Corbett Arnott, from Daimler Road in Radford, was the youngest victim of the atrocity. After leaving Radford School he went to work for W H Smith in town. With his curly hair and glasses he was a familiar face to many Coventrians through selling newspapers and magazines at the store. At first it was thought his body was actually that of a Mr Hollander of Coundon Road as young John had a bill in his pocket for this man which he was due to deliver. He was buried at London Road cemetery on August 29th with around 100 mourners in attendance. On August 30th the Midland Daily Telegraph published this letter from John’s mother:

Dear Mr Editor

Will you please print my thanks where you will, but I feel I would like to put into print my thoughts as well. The doctors and nurses tried to save my boy’s life but God said “No.”

The kind thoughts of the people go to help me bear my cross. We all have a cross to bear, and when I look at others plight, I feel my cross is only light.

To the kind nurses who took me to kiss him “Good-bye” thanks, and I’ll always remember the youngest nurse’s sweet face. God gave me these words in the loneliness of the night when his little sister was sleeping by my side. Once again thanks for all your kindness, I’ll never forget.

Rex Gentle Rex Gentle

Rex Gentle was born on 3rd April 1909 in Newtown, Montgomeryshire in Wales. He was an identical twin. He left Newtown, where he was engaged to May Hart, to do relief work at W. H. Smith. While in Coventry he lodged with the Arnott family in Daimler Road. Rex had only been in the city for a couple of weeks.

On the day of the explosion, his twin brother Jack was working in Newtown. In the afternoon he was sent home from work suffering from a severe headache. It is often said that when one identical twin suffers pain the other can feel it – Rex had indeed suffered severe head injuries.

After the explosion, word reached the Gentle family in Wales that Rex had been badly injured in an incident in Coventry. His parents could not travel so his twin brother Jack and his wife Rene made the unenviable journey to Coventry. On the train, Jack turned to his wife and told her that he knew his brother, who he was very close to, was dead – again, when he said this it turned out to be almost to the minute that Rex did pass away. When the couple arrived in Coventry a trial blackout was in operation in preparation for the probable forthcoming war with Germany. They could not find the hospital so approached a policeman, who, knowing about the bomb, took them there. Jack was needed to identify his brother but apparently passed out, so his wife Rene carried out the traumatic task. The body was covered in bandages and she identified Rex by his mouth. While they were at the hospital the manager of W.H. Smith paid a visit and had an almighty shock when he saw Rex’s identical twin brother Jack – he thought it was Rex! The same thing happened when a sister of the twins in Birmingham was visited. Jack and Rene called on her to break the bad news. She opened the door with, “Hello Rex! What are you doing back here?” Jack explained that he wasn’t Rex and informed her of what had happened in nearby Coventry.

Jack and Rene Gentle returned to Birmingham for the trial of those charged with murdering Elsie Ansell. The Coroner’s report of the injuries suffered by the victims was so bad that Rene arranged for their relatives to be able to choose to leave the court room while it was read out. She stayed in the room and Jack left. Despite asking her about what she heard she never told him – the injuries being so horrific.

In 1966 the husband of Jack Gentle’s daughter Marie was shown round the police museum at Little Park Street where the remains of the bicycle and some of the evidence gathered during the investigation are kept in a simple glass cabinet. It must have been an upsetting experience to say the least.

Rex Gentle, who was much loved by his family and fondly remembered by them to this day, was buried in Newtown after a service at the local Baptist church.

Gwilym Rowlands, of Poole Road, Radford, worked for the Highways Department of the Coventry Corporation. His wife Mary Ann had the grim task of identifying his body at the public mortuary at 5:00pm on the day of the explosion. His funeral service took place at St. Nicholas Church and he was buried in the adjacent graveyard. A large crowd of mourners were in attendance and the wreaths included one from the Radford Social Club and another from the Transport & General Workers Union, Cheylesmore branch.

James Clay, the eldest victim, was Coventry born and bred but lived at Clarendon Road, Kenilworth. A widower and a grandfather, he was a former President of the Coventry & District Co-operative Society and was working as a Confidential Clerk for C.A. Gray & Son, Printers, of Broadgate. James was a trained printer who took a keen interest in education, being a member of the old Coventry school board, founding the P.S.A. movement in Coventry and also was secretary of the Co-operative Society educational classes. He was also associated with Sunday school work at Warwick Road Church. His burial took place at Kenilworth cemetery on the August 30th and was well attended.

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In addition to the dead some 70 others were injured including 12 seriously. Most were treated at the Coventry & Warwickshire Hospital. Twelve blood donors were called on following the explosion and were praised for their quick attendance at the hospital. Extensive damage was caused to 43 business premises in Broadgate and nearby streets. Astley’s and its adjacent shops – Burton and Manfields – were hit badly as was Sketchley’s directly across the road.

Alexander Ballinger was the manager of Astley’s at the time. When the bomb went off he was standing near the front window. The whole frontage of the shop was blown inside and he was blown off his feet suffering several cuts to his knee, right hand, nose and head. He was clearly lucky to survive.

Robert Kinsella was another who had a lucky escape. He was walking past Burton’s towards Astley’s when the bomb exploded. He described what happened:

The scene of the explosion directly after the occurrence The scene of the explosion directly after the occurrence.

“There was a violent explosion that threw me to the ground. I picked myself up and I could see there had been terrible damage done. There were a lot of people lying about on the ground, but the first person I went to was, I believe, old James Clay, whom I picked up; I could see from his injuries he was almost dead. Of course, I then found I was bleeding very badly myself, and I went to the hospital.” (He had suffered injuries to his shoulder, feet, stomach and leg.)

John Worth was sweeping the gutter outside Burton’s while his colleague Bill Rowlands was sweeping the pavement outside Astley’s. John was at the back of the parked saloon car (see picture) when the explosion occurred. He escaped with injuries to both arms and a thigh.

Youngsters Ian Adams and his cousin were on a bus in Corporation Street when they heard a loud boom. They were on their way to see Will Hay in a film called “Oh Mr Porter!”. Reaching Broadgate minutes later, they were stopped by a police officer and discovered that what they had heard on the bus was actually a bomb going off. The road was closed and the policeman directed them via a different route to the cinema. After the film the two lads returned via Broadgate where the debris was still being cleared up. Much of it was dumped at a tip on Four Pounds Avenue. (When Ian grew up he served in the Special Branch and in early 2010 his excellent book about this I.R.A. campaign and the reaction to it, called “The Sabotage Plan”, was published.)

Prior to this attack the I.R.A. had carried out numerous missions in Coventry. These included bombing telephone inspection chambers, public toilets and commercial premises. In The Sabotage Plan, Ian Adams details several attacks carried out on a single day in the spring of 1939:

On 23rd of March, there were four explosions in underground telephone inspection chambers. The first explosion, at 7.15am was in the Cheylesmore area, and shattered the glass in numerous windows. The bomb blew heavy pieces of metal into a nearby engineering works, and damaged telephone lines, lampposts, and surrounding houses. Three hours later, there was a similar explosion in a telephone junction box in Quinton Road which hurled fragments of the iron box and pieces of concrete paving over a wide area, and through the glass roof of a nearby factory. During the lunch hour there was a third explosion, in an inspection chamber of the electric transformer station at Gosford Green. John Martin, a passer-by, was injured. A fourth explosion in the afternoon, in Coundon Road, hurled a heavy iron manhole cover through the roof of St. Osburg’s Roman Catholic presbytery, the church my parents and I often attended, and a Corporation bus was damaged, but nobody was injured. Balloons filled with nitric acid detonated all the bombs. The explosions disrupted many telephone lines.

In June an unexploded bomb was found near a petrol dump. They also bombed the cloakroom at Coventry Rail Station. The device exploded at 6:45 am on July 2nd. Refreshment staff had bedrooms directly above the cloakroom and eight of them had a lucky escape as fortunately the building did not collapse. They were severely shaken but escaped injury. A couple of weeks before the deadly attack on Broadgate an allotment at the rear of Armfield Street was rocked by an explosion leaving a crater two feet deep and three feet wide. A shed was blown to smithereens and two men were seen running from the scene onto Bell Green Road where they boarded a tram and escaped. The local I.R.A. unit stored explosives here and due to carelessness accidentally ignited them. This explains why the explosive used on August 25th was brought to Coventry from Liverpool via London. Up until this point the police believed that an I.R.A. unit operating from Birmingham was carrying out attacks in Coventry.

The aftermath of the Broadgate bomb led to tension between locals and the Irish community in Coventry. It was estimated that over 2,000 Irish people were working in Coventry’s factories at the time. There were calls for all Irish workers to be sacked and on the day that inquests began into the deaths, 2,000 workers at Armstrong Whitworth in Baginton downed tools at lunchtime and marched to Pool Meadow to protest against the I.R.A., stressing that the protest was “not directed against peaceful Irishmen.” From Pool Meadow they marched through the city centre and held a rally at Market Square where their numbers swelled to 3,000 with shoppers and other workers joining them. A deputation of four then met the Lord Mayor, Sidney Stringer. Many Irish left their lodgings in the city and others were asked to leave. Such was the bad feeling that the Chief Constable of Coventry Police, Captain S.A. Hector, (who was from Somerset) had to deny rumours that he was Irish.

Of course, the vast majority of Irish people in the city were just as appalled by the bombing as everyone else. The attack was condemned during Mass at all Catholic churches in the city the following Sunday. Father Simpson at St. Osburg’s denounced the bombers as “fanatics discrediting and dishonouring Ireland” and reminded worshippers that the penalty for belonging to secret societies and plotting to destroy the state or church was ex-communication. The Midland Daily Telegraph was inundated with letters from Irish people living in Coventry expressing their disgust and horror at the attack. Some suggested forming an “Irish Union” pledging that they were ‘loyal’ and promising to inform the authorities about I.R.A. activity. (Thousands of Irish people continued to work in the factories of Coventry during World War Two – providing an invaluable contribution to the war effort when most young British men had been called up for military service.)

View of Broadgate after the explosion View of Broadgate after the explosion.

A couple of days after the attack “BUSINESS AS USUAL” signs were up in Broadgate, and though many windows were boarded up the shops were open. Of course, it would never be “business as usual” for the dead and their families. The Lord Mayor launched a relief fund for victims of the bombing which by the end of September had raised the substantial sum of £800.

After initially issuing press appeals saying they wished to interview Dominic Adams about the attack, (Dominic Adams was the Uncle of current Sinn Fein President Gerry Adams and suspected of being a senior member of the I.R.A. during this period) the police investigation soon led to Clara Street following the arrest of Peter Barnes in London on the same night of the bombing. An attempt to plant a further three ‘bicycle bombs’ in the capital city had been thwarted in the morning. At 8:50 pm Barnes arrived home to find Detective Sergeant William Hughes and some of his colleagues from the Special Branch at Scotland Yard waiting for him. They were there because of the attempted attacks in London, but when Detective Sergeant Hughes and the officers with him searched the building at 176 Westbourne Terrace, they found incriminating evidence linking him to Coventry, which understandably raised their suspicions considering what had happened earlier in the afternoon 100 miles away.

Barnes had called at Clara Street previously on August 21st to acquaint himself with McCormick and discuss the role he would play in the imminent bombing mission. During this visit, McCormick asked Brigid O’Hara to buy a suitcase for Barnes and also asked Mary Hewitt to buy two empty flour sacks. The flour sacks were purchased from Celia’s on Walsgrave Road but had to be returned as they were the wrong type. Both women returned them. The suitcase was brought from Forey’s Ironmongers. For reasons known only to himself – perhaps he had to account to the I.R.A. for his expenses? – Peter Barnes kept the receipts at his lodgings in London where they were found by the police and were to prove crucial in the Coventry investigation. (The owner of Celia’s was able to give a very accurate description of Brigid O’Hara. It is believed the flour sacks were to be used for holding the Potassium Chlorate.)

Chief Inspector Cyril George Boneham of the Coventry City Police led the local investigation. He and his team were assisted by Special Branch detectives. On August 28th, Chief Inspector Boneham and Detective Inspector Sydney Barnes of Special Branch led a search of 25 Clara Street. Tools suitable for bomb making, screws, bolts, insulating tape, labels from a battery and crucially a brass setter for the back of an alarm clock were found. This setter, or key, appeared to be new and did not fit any clock in the house. The occupants were detained and initially released while deportation orders were applied for. On September 2nd they were arrested under the Prevention of Violence (Temporary Provisions) Act. As the investigation proceeded and clear evidence of bomb making at the house emerged those being held were then charged under the Explosive Substances Act, 1883. Later that month, on the 27th, after a thorough police investigation and careful consideration, the Public Prosecutor decided that the facts justified a charge of murder against all five people being held. The charge was limited to the murder of Elsie Ansell and not the other four victims.

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The trial began on Monday 11th of December at the Warwick Assizes, Victoria Courts, Birmingham. One crucial person was missing – the man who actually built and planted the bomb. He was never captured. It was acknowledged that those in the dock – James McCormick, Peter Barnes, Joseph Hewitt, Mary Hewitt and Brigid O’Hara – had not made or planted the bomb, but as it was believed they had all played an active part in a conspiracy that could clearly endanger life it was a murder charge they faced, and consequently the hangman’s noose if found guilty. On Friday 14th December, McCormick, who was tried under his alias of James Richards, and Peter Barnes were found guilty by the jury and convicted of murder. After the guilty verdicts were passed, James McCormick gave this response:

“My lord, before you pass sentence I have something to say. I wish to state, my lord, before you pass sentence of death on me, I wish to thank sincerely the gentlemen who have defended me during my trial and I wish to state that the part I took in these explosions since I came to England I have done for a just cause. As a soldier of the Irish Republican Army I am not afraid to die, as I am doing it for a just cause. I say in conclusion, God bless Ireland and God bless the men who have fought and died for her. Thank you, my lord.”

Peter Barnes said:

“I would like to say as I am going before my God, as I am condemned to death, I am innocent, and later I am sure it will come out that I had neither hand, act or part in it. That is all I have to say.”

The Hewitt’s and Brigid O’Hara were acquitted – they were later charged with the murder of the other four people who were killed and five counts under the Explosive Substances Act and all three pleaded not guilty. No evidence was offered by the prosecution on the murder charge and the judge ordered the jury to return a formal verdict of not guilty. The women were discharged while Joseph Hewitt was remanded in custody. At the Old Bailey in London on 6th February 1940 he was charged with maliciously causing an explosion and having explosive substances in his possession. No evidence was offered by the prosecution and after a verdict of not guilty by the jury he was discharged. The following day, the guilty pair – Peter Barnes and James McCormick – were executed at Winson Green Prison. An appeal against their convictions had been dismissed in January. In the very same week of the hangings the mother of Elsie Ansell died at the early age of 49. Laura Ansell was being cared for by the mother of Harry Davies, her late daughter’s fiancé. Mrs Davies said that she never recovered from the loss of Elsie and died of a broken heart.

The hangings of McCormick and Barnes caused outrage in Ireland and other parts of the world. It was felt unjust that as they had not planted the bomb they should die because of the actions of another person. Appeals for clemency were ignored. Public mourning was observed and flags flew at half-mast in Ireland on the day of the executions.

A crowd gathers to see the aftermath of the incident A crowd gathers in Broadgate soon after the incident. The actual site of the bomb is just out of shot to the left.
For those unfamiliar with the pre-war street scene, we are facing the west side of Broadgate, and stretching to the north in the distance is Cross Cheaping, Burges and Bishop Street respectively. The small street on the left just after Boots is Market Place, and the tall building just visible on the far right of the picture is the original Owen Owen store; itself bombed in November the following year.

It has been suggested that the real target for the bomb was an electricity generating station and this is where McCormick and Barnes believed the bomber was cycling to. Some people claim that a faulty timer (the alarm clock) on the bomb caused the bomber to abandon the bicycle in Broadgate while en-route to the real target, but a leading author on Irish Republicanism describes the bomber as a ‘psychopath’ and as it was placed outside Astley’s an hour before it exploded it would seem this was an intentional act by the bomber. Even if the timer was faulty, it would have been a strange decision to abandon the bomb in the busiest shopping street in Coventry which obviously put civilians at risk of death contrary to I.R.A. instructions. Just why he chose to do this we will probably never know.

This particular badly timed and ill-judged I.R.A. campaign against Britain is often said to have petered out following the carnage in Coventry, but in fact there were a further 42 incidents attributed to the I.R.A., with the last bomb exploding on a rubbish dump in London on 18th March 1940.

After their acquittals, the Hewitt’s and Brigid O’Hara were deported from England and presumably went back to Belfast. The remains of James McCormick and Peter Barnes were moved from the grounds of Winson Green prison and re-interred in Ballyglass cemetery, Mullingar, Westmeath, Ireland in 1969. 15,000 people attended. Both men continue to be remembered by the Republican movement in Ireland with yearly parades and speeches at their graveside.

In Coventry, no memorial plaque or sculpture marks the spot where the bomb exploded killing five innocent people and devastating families across the city and further afield. There is not even an annual memorial service in any of Coventry’s churches. The excellent Police Museum in the basement of Little Park Street Police Station houses the remains of the bicycle and some of the evidence gathered after the explosion. With the kind permission of its curator, Tony Rose, I was able to photograph the remains of the bicycle in June 2010. The handlebars, front wheel and carrier basket are missing but remarkably, much of the rest of it is still intact. Some parts are dented, rusted, scratched and mangled but others bits are unscathed and look nearly new. When Mr Rose opened the cabinet I was hit by the smell of rubber and explosive. It was very sad gazing at this unwitting instrument of death and destruction and my thoughts turned to the victims and their families. I am very grateful to Mr Rose, who is an expert on the history of policing in Coventry, for sharing his knowledge of the incident with me and allowing me to take pictures. The image at the start of this article is copyright of the Coventry Police Museum and is not to be reproduced elsewhere – anyone doing so is liable to prosecution.

Thanks to the Luftwaffe and various town planners, Broadgate has changed almost beyond recognition from that fateful day. I believe the present day location of the explosion lies between the Lady Godiva statue and the entrance to the Cathedral Lanes shopping centre – see below for Rob Orland’s comparison of contemporary and modern maps. Next time you pass this spot spare a thought for John, Elsie, Gwilym, Rex and James. May they Rest in Peace.

* * * * *

Below is a 1937 map showing the spot where the bomb detonated.
Clicking on the map will reveal where it occurred on a modern-day aerial view (courtesy of Google Maps).

 August,28th.1939

1939:

The Heinkel He 178,

 

the first jet-plane takes to the air with Erich Warsitz at the controls.

Just five days before the German attack on Poland, and the beginning of WWII the tiny plane lifts off the airfield of Rostock-Marienehe.
The story of this airplane is not just about building the aircraft as well as the constructing of the engine to power it.


Heinkel received a letter of Proff. Robert W. Pohl from the Göttingen University in March 1936.

In it he explained that there was a young student by the name of Pabst Von Ohain who was working on the principle of jet propulsion and who needed the necessary funds to continue his research.

Heinkel was very busy creating ever faster airplanes and was interested. He invited Von Ohain on March 17th 1936 to explain his ideas.

 


Soon after, Von Ohain and his mechanic Max Hahn were working at the Heinkel plant on his He S 2. (together with a few men from the Heinkel factory under guidance of Dipl-Ing. Wilhelm Gundermann). The He S 2 ran on hydrogen and was only build to demonstrate the idea. This engine ran in March or April 1937. ( On April 12th ’37 Frank Wittle undertook his first test-run in England).
The engine for the He 178 however was the He S 3 wich was ready for flight-testing in the summer of 1938 (He S 3A). This engine was tested in the air whilst hanging under a He 119 dive-bomber prototype. After several test-flights the jet-engine is destroyed in a fire because of leaking fuel-line. The experiences lead to the He S 3B engine, and it is this engine that ends up in the He 178. It has a thrust of about 450kg.

At the same time as Ohain starts to develop his engine a team of Heinkel employees was set to work on developing the airplane that was to be powered by the new jet-engine.
A mock-up was build and ready on August the 8th 1938. Some of the developers were: Karl Schwarzler ( head of construction) and the brothers Siegfried and Walter Gunther (aerodynamics). A second prototype was constructed either at the same time or a little later. This plane was pretty much the same as the first one although it had a bigger wing and a retractable undercarriage.

First prototype during rolling.

Second prototype.

The pilot Erich warsitz was chief pilot at the Peenemunde experimental rocket station and was on loan to Heinkel.(on June 20th he flew the first rocket plane, the He 176).

He had flown with the He 119 airplane to find out the handling of the jet-engine and was the only flier involved to make the flight in the first jet-plane.
During the first flight a speed of 600 km/h was reached and the flight lasted some 7 minutes. On finals Warsitz notices that one fuel-pump has stopped working but it doesn’t affect the flight. After landing mechanics lift Proff. Ernst Heinkel on there shoulders as everybody present cheers

 

 

 

August,31th.1939

The Excuse


After Germany having gained both Austria and Czechoslovakia,

 

 

Hitler

 

 

was confident that he could again move east, this time acquiring Poland without having to fight Britain and France. (To eliminate the possibility of the Soviet Union fighting if Poland were attacked, Hitler made a pact with the Soviet Union – the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.)

So that Germany did not officially seem the aggressor (which it was), Hitler needed an excuse for entering/attacking Poland.

It was

 

Heinrich Himmler

 

who came up with the idea; thus the plan was code named Operation Himmler.

 

On the night of August 31, 1939,

Nazis took

 

an unknown prisoner from one of their concentration camps, dressed him in a Polish uniform, took him to

 

 

the town of Gleiwitz (on the border of Poland and Germany), and then shot him.

 

The staged scene with the dead prisoner dressed in a Polish uniform was supposed to appear as a Polish attack against a German radio station.

Hitler used the staged attack as the excuse to invade Poland.

August,31th.1939

The Excuse
After having gained both Austria and Czechoslovakia, Hitler was confident that he could again move east, this time acquiring Poland without having to fight Britain and France. (To eliminate the possibility of the Soviet Union fighting if Poland were attacked, Hitler made a pact with the Soviet Union – the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.)
So that Germany did not officially seem the aggressor (which it was), Hitler needed an excuse for entering/attacking Poland. It was Heinrich Himmler who came up with the idea; thus the plan was code named Operation Himmler.

On the night of August 31, 1939,

Nazis took an unknown prisoner from one of their concentration camps,

 

dressed him in a Polish uniform, took him to the town of Gleiwitz (on the border of Poland and Germany), and then shot him. The staged scene with the dead prisoner dressed in a Polish uniform was supposed to appear as a Polish attack against a German radio station.


Hitler used the staged attack as the excuse to invade Poland.

Blitzkrieg


At 4:45 on the morning of September 1, 1939

(the morning following the staged attack),

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Koleksi sejarah Perang Dunia Kedua Di Eropa

INI ADALAH CONTOH cd-rom drIWAN kOLEKSI PERANG DUNIA kEDUA YANG AKAN DIUPLOAD SECARA BERSAMBUNG

The Euro world War II

Prologue

NAZI PROMOTIONAL COLLECTIONS

Army Pg 31 Opener

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-Rom edition

Special for Senior Collectors Copyright@2013

Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Christmas at front 1942
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Hitler celebrates Christmas
with soldiers
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
The Weihnachtsmann (Santa)
at the front 1944
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Christmas among the SA
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
Wooden Christmas Candle Holder
 
Kayu Natal Candle Holder (Item Wehr 31-1)
DESKRIPSI: Ini adalah indah, ini adalah bermakna. Ini adalah pemegang lilin kayu diukir dari kayu ek dan itu digunakan di garis depan posisi tentara Jerman di Front Barat. Ukiran yang indah dengan karangan daun oak dan biji-bijian diukir di kedua belah pihak. Juga, ada kata-kata indah diukir di bagian depan: “. Tentara Kristen” “. Kriegs Weihnacht 1942″ Prajurit Jerman untuk bagian terbesar adalah Kristen Protestan atau Katolik dan itulah mengapa kita hanya sebagai sedih dengan kematian ini Seperti kita tentang anak laki-laki dari sisi Sekutu yang memberikan hidup mereka untuk apa? Anda dapat percaya cerita yang berlimpah tentang apa yang Amerika dan Inggris sedang berjuang untuk ATAU Anda dapat membaca buku Patrick Buchanan Lagi “Perang yang tidak perlu.”, Tidak bisa saya mulai, perspektif saya tentang Perang Dunia I dan Perang Dunia II yang jauh dari pandangan ortodoks sebagai dipromosikan oleh “Departemen Kebenaran” sebagai Orwell akan meletakkannya “Hail Big Brother.” saya minta maaf tapi masukan saya sebagai seorang sejarawan revisio.nist tidak dapat ditampung karena saya menangani peninggalan bermakna dari masa penuh gejolak dan misinformasi yang kita telah begitu “profesional sendok makan” Kembali ke candlestick … pengukuran adalah 12 “x 5 ¼” dan 2 ¼ “inci tebal. Terjemahan dari kata-kata daun “Perang Natal 1942″ dengan ek untuk setiap sisi pepatah dan swastika di tengah. Ini bagian yang indah dari seni parit atau kesenian rakyat berdiri hari ini sebagai pengingat bahwa bahkan dalam perang saudara melawan saudara mengerikan pembunuhan antarsaudara, semangat Natal, sebagai hari kelahiran dari “Raja Damai,” dirayakan bahkan oleh orang Jerman yang mengerikan bahwa kita membaca begitu banyak tentang dalam jurnal kain kuning atau di TV dan film. Dalam hal apapun, ini adalah salah satu karya seni yang indah. Dan harus dilestarikan untuk anak cucu.

 
.
 
 
  

 

Dutch Commemorative Plate
 
         
   Tentara Paratrooper Badge (Item Wehr 31-2)
DESCRIPTION:
Komandan atau Kepala Angkatan Darat, Jenderal Oberst Frhr. Von Fritsch, wewenang lembaga lencana penerjun payung militer pada tanggal 1 September 1937. Mengingat fakta bahwa penghargaan ini dari lencana ini pola tertentu dihentikan ketika kontrol unit paratroop dikembalikan dari tentara ke Luftwaffe pada tahun 1939 itu tidak dapat dianggap sebagai penghargaan waktu perang dan jelas bukan penghargaan keberanian untuk membedakan di lapangan. Itu hanya lencana kualifikasi diberikan kepada semua perwira dan prajurit dari unit parasut di bawah kendali tentara yang memenuhi persyaratan yang diperlukan ada Namun, persyaratan tertentu yang harus dipenuhi untuk memenuhi syarat untuk lencana, bagi penerjun yang ditransfer
kontrol Luftwaffe dari tentara dan tetap pada status melompat, mereka dituntut untuk terus mengenakan lencana penerjun militer ketimbang kembali lolos ke lencana Parachutists baru Luftwaffe. Karena masalah waktu pendek itu dianggap cukup langka saat ini. Harap dicatat bahwa talon belakang pada elang menyelam tersebar ketimbang bergabung seperti yang digambarkan pada banyak salinan modern. Ini bagian tertentu juga langka di fakta bahwa lencana seluruh melanda pada 800 perak daripada perunggu biasanya menunjukkan bahwa itu adalah pembelian pribadi khusus juga terakhir tetapi tentu tidak sedikit lencana adalah “pribadi” di bagian belakang karangan bunga. Ada kata-kata Fallshirm Inf. Btl. Mayor Adolff. Jadi, hal ini ternyata menjadi permata yang nyata dan layak tempat di koleksi yang baik. Perhatikan gambar salib Knights. Pemenang Hagi mengenakan lencana militer penerjun payung sementara di seragam Luftwaffe nya.

 
 
 
 
Combat Book Knife
 
Combat Book Knife
Combat Book Knife
Combat Book Knife
Combat Book Knife
 
pISAU sEPATU TENTARAJerman pERANG DUNIA KEDUA  (Item Wehr 31-3 & WAF 11-10)
KETERANGAN: Awalnya dirancang untuk klip di tepi di atas boot. Ini adalah pisau yang dirancang untuk ringan klip ke setiap bagian dari seragam (sangat berguna) ini gaya tertentu digunakan secara luas oleh SS Waffen tetapi juga Angkatan Darat dan beberapa pilot Luftwaffe disukai mereka sebagai pisau well.The memiliki beberapa lama noda? ? /? Tapi pisau keseluruhan dalam kondisi sangat baik dan klip masih sangat ketat. Yang satu ini mungkin bisa memberitahu beberapa cerita. mengenai noda
 
German Combat Soldier’s Boot Knife (Item WEHR 31-3 & WAF 11-10)
 
Dutch Commemorative Plate
Dutch Commemorative Plate

Decorative Plate Commemorating the Military Mobilization of the Netherlands 1939 (Item WEHR 31-4)

 

 
DESKRIPSI: Piring tidak tepat masuk ke salah satu kategori kami, tapi itu sangat artistik indah, kami hanya harus memasukkannya. Setelah semua, itu adalah bagian dari sejarah Perang Dunia II. Ini mengacu pada mobilisasi pasukan perbatasan daerah, Brabant-Limburg. Ini tidak melakukannya lebih baik karena Wehrmacht mudah berguling mereka ketika invasi dari dataran rendah mulai. Tapi itu hidangan yang cukup pula. Ini memiliki label menarik di bawah glasir di bagian belakang – sebuah perusahaan di Maastricht menggunakan sphinx sebagai logo mereka. Karena piring yang lebih untuk ekspor, ia mengatakan, dalam bahasa Inggris – “Made in Holland.”  

//
Army Flack Badge
Army Flack Badge
Army Flack Badge (Heeres-Flakabzeichen) (Item WEHR 31-5)
 

Army Flack Badge (Heeres-Flakabzeichen) (Item Wehr 31-5)
KETERANGAN: Otorisasi untuk pemberian lencana flack tentara, menyusul institusinya pada 18 Juli 1941 oleh OKH, datang dari Komandan memegang pangkat Jenderal der Artillerie dan di atas. Itu diberikan dalam abu-abu, kelas tunggal kusam, secara akumulasi poin dengan 16 poin menjadi diperlukan, atau dapat diberikan tanpa mengacu pada jumlah poin untuk tindakan keberanian atau jasa dalam pelaksanaan melakukan udara anti kerajinan misi. Setiap baterai anti-pesawat dikreditkan dengan menenggak pesawat musuh tanpa dukungan baterai lainnya dianugerahi empat poin tetapi jika baterai lain membantu dalam jatuhnya pesawat, hanya dua poin diberikan. Berbeda dengan lencana flack Luftwaffe, poin tidak dapat diberikan untuk target hancur di tanah. Lencana yang kami tawarkan adalah dalam kondisi baik & tidak ditandai untuk membuat

 
 
 
Ukranian Carved Box
Ukranian Carved Box
Front of box
Ukranian Carved Box
Side view
Ukranian Carved Box
Back of box

Wonderful Russian Peasant Box Hand Made and Presented to a German Wehrmacht  Officer (Item WEHR 31-6 & RUSO 5-11)

Indah Petani Tangan Box Rusia Made dan Disampaikan kepada petugas Wehrmacht Jerman (Item Wehr 31-6 & Ruso 5-11)
 
DESKRIPSI: Ini adalah khas seni Ukraina dan benar-benar cantik. Itu disampaikan ke petugas yang memimpin sebuah perusahaan Cossack yang sungguh-sungguh anti-Bolshevik dan bertugas di sisi Jerman dalam Perang Dunia II 1941-1945. Informasi ini berasal dari keluarga korban Jerman ke agen kami dan pemetik. Kotak adalah dari kayu dan bunga-bunga dan simbol tangan mengatur ke permukaan. Sebuah tugas yang sangat membosankan dan itu menunjukkan bakat banyak pembuat. Setiap bagian dari dekorasi harus individual dipotong dan kemudian dilengkapi dengan inlay berbagai jenis kayu di banyak bagian penempatan. Desainnya sangat khas dari Ukraina dengan bunga matahari dan desain bintang. Tema sentral adalah “Deutsche Adler” atau Nasional Jerman desain elang. Juga profesional hias di kayu di atas ini elang adalah simbol dari jenis desain barel dengan lima tombak memancarkan dari setiap sisi. Ini akan mengambil beberapa penelitian tapi terlihat seperti lambang Cossack dikenakan pada tab kerah seragam mereka – teori ini adalah yang terbaik tidak jelas tetapi kemungkinan. Kotak ukuran 6 “x 8″ di dan sekitar 3 inci. Kondisi besar! Dan, sangat penting secara historis dan hanya prestasi artistik yang indah. Ini adalah petani seni Rusia dari orang-orang yang ditundukkan di bawah tumit Bolshevic tapi masih bangga dan mulia. Ini adalah tanda dari persahabatan yang tajam yang berkembang di antara para prajurit Wehrmacht Jerman Pembebasan dan Cossack persaudaraan stepa

 

Army bread bag
Army bread bag
Grain Sack for the German Army (Item WEHR 31-7)
DESCRIPTION: This is one of the burlap sacks as used to carry such supplies as potatoes, beans, bread, etc.; they were used throughout the entire war. Under the eagle and swastika and above the date of 1949 you can see the initials H.VpFL “Heeres-Verpflegung” which stands for Army Supply Service. They might not be the prettiest German war relic but to the soldiers of the Wehrmacht, they were ultra important.  “ An Army travels on its stomach.” 
PRICE: $175.00
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
The brotherhood rides
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
Cossack Sword
At the ready!
Cossack Sword
General Helmuth von Pannwitz

Cossack Sword (Shashqua) For the Cossack Brotherhood Serving in the German Wehrmacht  (Item WEHR 31-8 & RUSO 5-12)

DESCRIPTION: This is the classic Cossack sword of the Steppes as used for centuries; however, this one has the Nazi eagle and swastika molded in the brass hilt. We remember when a large grouping of these were located in Europe and were purchased by a British dealer. The story was that the swords were produced by a firm that was located somewhere in the Caucasus and the small factory produced the swords for the Communist Cossacks with Hammer and Sickle but when the small staff thought that Germany and its Allies would win the Crusade against Bolshevism, they changed over and produced these swords with the National Socialist eagle to be sold to the officers of the Cossack legions that now were attached to the German Wehrmacht such as the divisions of Don Cossacks, tThe Brotherhood under the command of the brave and noble officer Helmuth Von Pannwitz. The Germans who were well aware of the Cossacks fighting ability and supreme valor and thanks to the efforts of Pannwitz a true Cossack army with all of its traditions became a Cossack Cavalry Corp. They were particularly effective in Yugoslavia where they fought against the filthy murderous partisans of the bloody demon Tito. It is believed that these swords were produced late in the war and the purpose was to make them an issue weapon to these fighters who had been forced from their lands by the advance of the Red Army, but hoped in their service to the German army to be given a new territory in Byelorussia when the Reds were finally defeated. In the meantime the members of the Crusade were settled nearly at the end of the war in an operational area for the Cossack Cavalry Corps in northern Italy. This may have been where the swords were to be sent.  But as dark Fate would have it, the Reds and their willing Allies, the US and Britain, triumphed against Europe and the horrible Fate of these brave men, women, and children ensued and they were turned over by the same ‘Allies’ to the Soviet authorities. Almost 50,000 of these poor souls were turned over, men, women, and children, who for the most part were horribly executed, while others were sent to Gulags or deported for force labor. No more noble, dedicated and wonderful people ever existed *(author’s opinion). The U.S. and England should live in eternal shame for bringing about “Operation Keelhaul.”  Read about it on Google.The sword is 100% original.  It is crude to some extent due to the shortage of certain materials necessary to the production at that late stage of the conflict but certainly it was produced to create an esprit de corps in the warrior ranks but also to be effective in usage. No scabbards were found. The theory was to why no scabbards on any of these swords is this — the swords were shipped to the Italian Cossack redoubt in cartons but the scabbards were to follow in another separate shipment but due to the fortunes of war were never shipped. The shop very probably was geography right in the way of the changing tides of action on the Eastern Front. Lets hope that if the Mongols took possession of the shop that they did not find one of these swords because if they did they would have been in absolute ecstasy while roasting alive the owner his wife, children and any employees. The sword is a large: 38 inches long, the grip is 5 ½ inches long, the grip is of wood. the blade is not marked. It shows much old rust — we know they were stored for many years in a barn, before being discovered they were exposed to the elements although packed in hay in loosely bound crates. But unlike the Cossacks who would have proudly carried them, they survived!  Someday they will reach their full value potential. But for now this is a bargain at…PRICE: SOLD

Small War Flag

Small War Flag (Reichskriegsfahne) (Item WEHR 31-9)

DESCRIPTION: Here is a great little military flag of the Wehrmacht. So often seen on German war ships of the Kriegsmarine but actually was the flag used by all branches including the army. This is an ideal size that collectors are continually seeking. The German measurements stamped on the edging are 60 x 90 mm and that is 31 x 24 inches. It has the full staff rope intact and has the word Reichskreigsfahne on the bunting edge. Absolutely perfect condition. This great looking flag of this size was usually for the “Schnellboot” or PT boat type vessel. Looking for the perfect den decoration or front door posting?  Here is the finest!  Just as nice as they ever come.PRICE: Consignment $650.00
6.450.25 a-12
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Soldier Figurine
Helmet for size perspective

Gross Deutschland Soldier Model (Item WEHR 31-10)

DESCRIPTION: ACHTUNG! Collectors…Are you ready for this? Here is a resin statue of a Landser of the Grossdeutschland Division of the Deutschen Heers (Wehrmacht) in action against the enemy. At Germania we handle 99% vintage original items but when we attend the military shows now and then an item shows up that we simply cannot resist. This guy was one of those. The details, the great action, the authenticity, is remarkable to say the least, look closely at the pictures provided and you will see what we mean Spectacular!! In one of the pictures accompanying this article we pictured a helmet just to give a perspective of the size! This is a big figure 13 inches high including the base. The measurement does not go to the top of the grenade. (Breathtaking detail!)  An accurate depiction of a soldier of the German army’s elite division. This was the absolute “premier “Army group. They fought bravely against vastly superior odds on all fronts. You can read about them in several places by going into “Google.” Remember however that the victors write the history of the wars. Seldom are they completely truthful about the role of the vanquished! You will never see any model with the detail of this one. We are very proud to offer it to Germania’s customers.  PRICE: $198.00
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Inside of cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Top of cap with mothing
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Waffenruck uniform
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Waffenruck
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
Wehrmacht Doctor's Tunic and Cap
German Army Medical Officers Tunic (Item WEHR 31-11)
DESCRIPTION: This beautiful tunic belonged to a Hauptmann-Captain (Sanitatsunteroffizier). The auguette suggests that he was also a medical assistant to what probably was a surgeon. Everything on the tunic suggested that it was tailor made — all the boullion crisp and untattered. All insignia including the shoulder boards and breast eagle and collar tabs are sharp and neat. The Caduseus symbol and pips are gold colored. It has a battle ribbon bar with four medals that show his military history.  He won the 2nd Class Iron Cross, theWar Service Cross, the Nazi Party Long Service Medal, the Army Long Service Medal, the Memel Land Medal and the Sudatenland Medal. This tunic is the early dress uniform “Wafffenrock” and this has to be the neatest yet most beautiful uniform in the world of militaria. So, here it is — right out of the past, and 100% original. This was one sharp looking Doctor when attired in beautiful tunic! We also have a Medical officers cap with the blue piping (shown) but while the tunic is in exemplary condition the cap is with moth damage mostly on the top the cap has that  wonderful jaunty look with the high lift to it that you all like to see in these caps.  It would be great featured with the tunic as you can see in our pictures.   PRICE: SOLD
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
Note wear
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
Note wear
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
Major’s shoulder boards
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
The label (Note: Wehrmacht)
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
Rommel in leather coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
German Officer's Leather Great Coat
Hitler in leather coat
A Leather Greatcoat for German Army Officer (Item WEHR 31-12)
DESCRIPTION: This is what 75% of all WWII German collectors look for…a genuine German officer’s grey leather greatcoat. This is the ‘real McCoy’ German officers of higher rank could wear store bought leather coats that approximate this coat if it would be their choice, but this was the only official Wehrmacht model made by the firm of Max Schleusner of Dresden. You can see his label in the pictures attached. Note that he was a ‘Special’ leather workshop for Wehrmacht and Sport. This coat is beautiful in form and design but it is very worn. Some of the inner sleeves are worn to a frazzle and pocket edges are frayed rather badly. However, it will still look sharp and jaunty on a manikin or on you perhaps.  It was bought in one of our German field trips from the family of the man who wore it through many campaigns in the West and in Russia.  After the war he wore it (usually sans the shoulder boards) right up to the early 90’s until he passed away. He was a Major in the Heers Signal troops and was right up there in all the major action.  He had an extra set of shoulder boards stashed away in his wife’s keeping during the war. This was lucky because the ones he wore on the coat were taken from him by some GI when he surrendered. From time to time he openly wore the boards all around Munich after the war and was oftimes saluted by soldiers who served their country, and he was spat upon by cowards and lowlifes. His wife told us that a bunch of leftist goons who were really “the bottom of the barrel” tried to provoke him once near the Munich Hofbrau Haus. They held combs under their noses and gave Nazi salutes done in obvious hostile jest. Then one of them leaned over and ‘mooned him.’At that moment the old man quickly strode forward and shoved his foot ‘resoundingly’ practically up the buffoons ‘arshe’.  The other three were getting ready to come to the aid of the red baboon who was howling in pain when some of our hero’s friends both old and young came out of the Hoffbrauhaus and ran them off with dire threats about “life and limb.” This old Major was the “Heldenmann” (hero) of the hour and the beer flowed that evening.  So dear collector, here is the Coat of Champions. Note: pictures of some known and unknown Soldaten in our picture section wearing these Max Schleusner greatcoats. Yes, this “mantel” is a bit raggedy but authentic and no part of the traditional German uniform said it all like these handsome coats! PRICE: SOLD
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
Reproduction Schmeisser Gun
A bit of artistic license
Replica German Schmeisser Mod MP-40.5 Sub Machine Gun (Non-Firing) (Item WEHR 31-13)
DESCRIPTION: Again we say we do not generally handle replicas, reproductions, etc, but now and then when we attend a military show something ‘neat’ will catch our eye. In this case it was this ‘Schmeisser” just the neatest piece of machinery ever to be used by German paratroopers and crack Waffen SS units in WWII. There have been other copies of this gun but the best ones were the ones that were made in limited numbers in the Orient and were imported into the US in the 1970’s. This model is a near perfect replica of the MP-40 and has the folding stock and a bolt action that actually functions like the real thing. It has a detachable clip and plastic or bakelite stock just like the real ones. It is assembled with over 70 precision parts, and has been approved by the U.S. Government as a non-gun but we sell it as a decorator model only, and we have only one! This great piece can be used in reenactments or display — it will look really great in any good WWII collection. Length 32.5, weight 7.5 pounds. We cannot by law ship this replica internationally nor to Mexico or Canada.  It cannot be shipped to CA., CT., KS, MA., MN., NY., or WI or Puerto Rico. The piece we have is from a collection that is established since 1965 and the replica was purchased in 1975 — again it is the oldest model and by far the best. It even has color stressing to look like it was carried in war. Good condition and functioning perfectly. We have seen other replicas of this gun but the quality does not approach this one.  PRICE: $695.00 (ONE ONLY!) A bargain for this one.
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
Bronze German Soldier Statue
The artist
Bronze German Soldier Statue
The plaque
Bronze Soldier Statue
Ulanen on patrol
Bronze Soldier Statue
Ulan in early combat
Bronze Soldier Statue
Third Garde Ulanen Kaserne in Berlin
Bronze Soldier of the Reich (Item WEHR 31-14, WWI 12-2, ART 16-10, KSTATUE 5-6 )
DESCRIPTION: This marvelous statue measuring 13 ½ inches high with a base 4 ½ inches square (length and depth) personifies the strength and determination of the “Deutscher Soldat” from the time of the battle of the Teutoberg Forest up through the pages of history and into the 2nd World War. The slogan that might go with this wonderful sculpture could be “Die Ganze Welt Gegen Uns”! The whole world against us! Yes, Germany in the embodiment of the Heilege Vaterland was always to protect Europe against the constant incursions from the east against the Magyars, Huns ,Goths, and Visagoths and even the moribund Roman Empire. The land of Germania and its Teutonic Volk took on all comers. It was no different in the 2nd World War when Germany with a few allies stood against the Maelstrom in what was a German led crusade to destroy the beast of Bolshevism before all of Europe was disseminated by what President Reagan later called the Evil Empire. Tthis was truly “evil personified! “ And in this author’s perception, all the nations who joined in the fight to preserve communism and crush Germany were the acolytes of Stalin and Tito and obviously Satan*. (*Authors historic opinion.) The statue you see here tells of a saga that we have briefly touched upon in the forgoing narrative. As this Warrior stands naked before the world, the artist who sculpted him conveys in statuary the defeated yet proud and militant German soldier who wears the Stalhelm (steel helmet) and makes ready the sword of Siegfried known as Nothung for the next time the call of the besieged Fatherland is heard. We readily admit that all of this will only be understood and honored by Germanophiles, but we can envision all the deep meaning that this artistic masterpiece conveys. Nothing else that we have ever offered or seen offered comes up to the artistic expression and important significance of this prodigiously important piece. Its historical importance is magnificently conveyed. This statue which may actually be unique; it is a presentation piece to an officer who was “Beirat” (military advisor) to the Third Ulan battalion in Berlin. This wonderful gift was from the Kameradschaft (comrades) and presented to him for his true service to the Batt. From 1920 to 1940 this illustrious unit was the Third Guard Uhlan regiment and in WW 2 the Uhlans became armored divisions and covered themselves with glory in the early campaigns in Poland and the military engagements against France and Russia. The sculpture weighs about 14 pounds with the marble plinth and is in perfect condition with a gorgeous patina throughout. Deutschland Uber Alles !  PRICE: SOLD
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books
Africa Korps Books

Album, Diary and a Published Book Concerning A Soldier of the Africa Corps FABULOUS! (Item WEHR 31-15 & AFRICA 1-13)

DESCRIPTION: Yes, fabulous and yet that may be an understatement. The diary and photo album were the property of Rolf Krengel Afrika Korps and the photo album is also from him. It is the saga of a brave and true soldier of the Reich. The diary is the actual original handwritten copy.  It starts with the beginning of the war and ends shortly after the Occupation. Serving primarily in North Africa, Krengel recounts with keen insight and now and then flashes of humor the day-to-day challenges of the Africa Corps in the desert battle and the lines are seldom clearly drawn. The narrative reveals an ad hoc campaign in which the average soldier never knew who had the upper hand. During one of the swirling battles in the desert, Krengel found himself sharing a tent with Field Marshal Rommel himself at a forward outpost. However, after the Battle of El Alamein, the cards of fate seemed clear. Evacuated back to Germany prior to the unfortunate collapse in Africa, Krengel continued to keep his journal during the last two years of the war, providing further insight into the final throes of the N.S. regime. He went on to become a successful economist and assisted the Allies with the Post-war Berlin airlift. Here is a first hand account found in the pages of this diary. Here are overviews, illustrations, and timelines with — get this! – a book published in 2009 written by Professor Don Gregory of the University of Alabama and Wilhelm Reinhard Gehlen who was born in Germany and was in the “Deutsches Jungvolk” the equivalent of the American Cub Scouts in Hitler’s Germany. After WWII ‘Willi’ joined the French Foreign Legion and served in Indo-China and North Africa. These two authors previously collaborated on Mr. Gehlen’s acclaimed memoir, “Jungvolk the Story of a Boy Defending Hitler’s Third Reich.”Now, here is the fabulous part. Not only do we have the actual Krengel Diary and photo album but what goes with it is the actual book that was published that gives the entire translation for the diary day by day, while Krengel was with the 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion. Then the 5th Light Division/21st Panzer Division German Africa Corps/Panzer Army Africa. A great and typical narrative of the Infantry soldier who fought bravely for Fuhrer and Fatherland. The book by Gregory and Gehlen is called Two Soldiers, Two Lost Fronts, subtitled German war diaries of the Stalingrad and North Africa campaigns.  Actually, it describes the service of both Rolf Krengel and another German soldier whose diary R. Gehlen decided to keep at this point. This other soldier must at this point be considered the “unknown” warrior as he as author of the diary did not see fit to include his name but if you read the account of his war experiences on the Eastern Front it is just as exciting as Krengel’s accounts. That soldier was a member of the 2nd Batt. 201st Panzer Regiment 23rd Panzer Corps Army Group A. We think this diary and album of R. Krengel is practically unique in that here you not only have the original documentation, but a book in English that is written by a learned professor and a battle experienced veteran of the Wehrmacht telling it as it was directly from the account of this A.K. soldier. We know of no other instance that something as personal and historically important as this group is being offered. The diary measures 8 x 5 inches and ½ inch thick. It contains page after page of hand written accounts by Krengel and even several drawings that he actually sketched.  One in particular is my favorite showing an artistic conception of the face of the British enemy as Krengel envisioned it. A familiar face to Scottish, Irish, American Revolutionists and others who faced the cruelty of the British Grenadiers.  I believe it was the Iron Duke (Wellington) who said of his soldiers at Waterloo “I don’t know if they frighten the enemy, but they scare the Hell out of me.” There are several photographs pasted on the pages as well.  The photo album measures about 12 x 9 and has about 134 photos in it.  Most of the photos are of Africa Corp Personal, aircraft officers, stage presentations at Command HQ, Artillery, Sport, and some neat photos of Krengel himself.  Many of the actual pictures in the album are copied into the book and explained therein.The book by Gregory and Gehlen is 262 pages long with many pictures of German and Italian Axis soldiers and officials. All the dates and summaries in the book match the dates of the entries in the diary.  What a combination! — diary, album, and new book that traces it all for the reader.  Please understand just how unique this truly is! The authors are to be highly commended for putting all of this together and the collector or archivist who decides to purchase this marvelous assemblage will be fortunate indeed. When it comes to provenance on articles of military history we are often asked what the provonance is. And our usual answer is that the inanimate objects cannot speak for themselves unfortunately. But here is the exception surely because this diary and album does in fact speak clearly and distinctly through the explanations and revelations of these two gifted writers in the present and the A.K. soldier Krengel speaks clearly and lucidly from the past. PRICE: SOLD
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
Model Troop Car
An Original Period Model of a German Troop Car (Iem WEHR 31-16)
DESCRIPTION: Leithtengelende Einheits Personen-Kraftwagen this was a light uniform all road car and was manufactured from 1940 by the Svgwer Company and also by BMW and Hano-Mag. The cars were all wheel drive and were produced with different style bodies. The model we have was the 4-man style with driver, gunner, officer and co-driver personell. The real autos were often used by the German Signal Corps as a radio car and also for forward reconnaissance. This is a period toy made in the 40’s. It is about 8 inches long with all metal wheels. To find one with all the soldiers there is seldom accomplished .Good condition overall.  The soldiers are probably produced by Elastolin. Very rare and historically important as well. PRICE: $750.00
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
Wehrmacht Ring
An Odd WWII Wehrmacht Unit Ring (Item WEHR 31-17)
DESCRIPTION: We call this a Wehrmacht ring in lieu of not knowing if it is a ring of the Deutsche Heers, Luftwaffe, or Waffen SS. Somewhere in the far reaches of my mind, I remember seeing a depiction of man and rearing hose such as this back several years ago, but I do not remember what it was on; perhaps one of you collectors out there might help us to shed some light on it. Possibly you have read our narrative on our home page entitled “About Our Rings and Silver Insignia.” But if you have not, then I really suggest that you do so and then you will have an understanding of how all of these fabulous pieces of jewelry were obtained by us in Stuttgart, Germany. You will also be introduced to Herr Franz Schnell, the silversmith who produced many of these pieces and personally designed many of them himself in the 20’s through to the 40’s. He was a master of his trade. This ring is one of the items that we found in his huge grouping but his son could tell me nothing about it except that he knew his father designed rings for many of the units of the Wehrmacht. So for now, it is unidentified and we won’t price it until we have some idea of what the unit was that used it.PRICE: ??
Vorsicht Sign
Vorsicht! A Metal Sign of Warning (Item WEHR 31-18 & GEN 14-16)
DESCRIPTION: This is a warning to service personal and German citizens during WWII that they should be alerted to the danger of loose talk on telephones and other means of communication. The words Vorsicht Bei Gesprachen, Feind Hort Mit! This means: Caution with your conversation! The enemy is listening!  With such Freedom eroding laws & unconstitutional  measures imposed on Americans today with the ‘Patriot Act’ and ‘Homeland Security’ this sign has real meaning in 21st century America as well.  The sign is in heavy gage steel enameled over. It has four holes, one at each corner so it may be secured in place where it would be a reminder that loose lips are the friends of the enemy. The sign measures 8″ x 4″ and is in good shape with a little staining that will wash off.  We leave them as we get them! PRICE: SOLD
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWI German Fur Cap
WWII German Army Rabbit Fur Cold Weather Hat (Item WEHR 31-19)
DESCRIPTION: This rabbit fur cap is the typical cold weather issue that was used by various Wehrmacht units. This one by the military police who often had to stand for hours directing military traffic and also performing the duties of the “Field Cop” and this necessitated the warmest of clothing especially in Russia each unit of the German Wehrmacht was issued these caps with the cloth parts closely matching the uniform of the particular recipient. This one was for the MP’s and it has the police eagle device sewn to the front face. Army and Luftwaffe personnel had the particular insignia of their branch affixed in the same way on the ones issued to them. The cap in is 100% perfect condition. It is marked inside with the numbers and letter R.B.Nr 0/1200 and under this 58-41. This is the size and date of issue. The fur is soft and completely intact. A very nice speciman of excellent German workmanship technique. This cap might be practical as well as a collectable considering the strange weather patterns as of late! PRICE: $450.00
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Back side
Army Officer Sword
Knuckle bow
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Nice blade!
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
The Army oath taken on sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Army Officer Sword
Von Stein WW II German Army Sword (Item WEHR 31-20)
DESCRIPTION: This Von Stein pattern sword is an aluminum example, exhibiting rich gilding throughout its surfaces. In fact, the gilding work on this sword is nearly 100%. The Von Stein sword is one of the famed field marshal series and can be seen in the Angolia Book on page 79. It is named for the famed German marshal  of the Napoleonic wars, Freiherr von Stein. This example has a dove head style pommel with a flowing backstrap and side tabs which all portray raised-out oak leaves with acorns. The “P” guard also has an oak leaf acorn sprig design. The same is true of the ferrule. The cross guard area has a series of dot and dash markings and at the langet there is a Wehrmacht eagle. This bird is shown in relief and he has half-closed wings, looks to the viewer’s left and clutches a swastika.. The grip is the standard wood base having celluloid covering. The celluloid is in perfect condition having fine factory sheen. This grip is tightly wrapped with triple aluminum wire, the center being twisted. The lower portion of the sword guard is stamped, “Ges. Gesch.”, indicating that the Eickhorn firm had a patent pending on the design. The scabbard is nice and straight. The scabbard is without any bending or dented, but it has been very professionally re-painted in the exact hue that the original scabbard was finished in back in those early days in Solingen. The very fine blade is 33 inches in length. It has been quality nickel-plated and has a bright mirror finish. This blade is in near mint condition. The reverse ricasso is stamped with the 1935-41 seated squirrel logo. The original tan leather washer is in position. A fine looking and semi rare Von Stein example offered here.PRICE: $ 695.00
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
Back
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
Note the depth of carving
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
The mail out of Krosno
Deutsche Post Bread Plate
Postschutz Officer dagger (note
the eagle configuration)

Carved Bread Plate from the Military Postal Police (Postshutz) in Krosno, Poland (Item WEHR 31-21 & BRE 1-6)

DESCRIPTION: This may be the finest German bread plate we have ever seen and we have seen many fine collections of them. This plate is expertly carved with the eagle of the German Military Postshutz eagle as its central design. The Postshutz (Postal Police) comprised about 4,500 members stationed all over Europe and they were tasked with the security of Germany’s Reichspost; they were not only responsible for security of the mail but other communications media such as telephone and telegraph systems. The plate was from the HQ of this organization in Poland. They were stationed there after the Polish attack on the German radio station at Gleiwitz, in 1939 — the event that after many Polish atrocities against the German minority in Poland finally launched the German retaliation and began WWII. After that vicious attack units of the postal protection police were dispatched to several locations in Poland to prevent something like this happening again. One of these outposts was Krosno which is a medieval fortified town; a former royal “free town” in medieval Europe. The carved plate was probably a gift from Poles who not only cooperated with the German occupiers but actually sided with their mission of destroying Soviet Communism. There were many who thought this way. The contemporary orthodox history books do not mention this of course. The dish says along its edges “Deutsche Post Osten 1939-1942 Krosno.” It measures 11 inches in diameter and is in excellent condition. The carved Postshutz eagle rises in deep relief carving and is very dramatic. It is the eagle that you see in the middle of the grip of the rare Postshutz daggers. The piece is not only artistically great but is a really important historic relic of the turbulent time!PRICE: $750.00
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses
Cased Snow Glasses

Cased Set of Snow Goggles for SS Mt. Troops (SS Geburgsjager) (Item WEHR 31-22)

DESCRIPTION: Here is something seldom found. It is a cased set of goggles used in winter combat by the SS Mountain Troopers of the SS Geburgsjager Division “Nord’ and this wording is engraved on the outside of the case. It also says Eigentum Der Waffen SS; this sentence means Property of the Waffen SS. In the middle is the runic symbol for this elite corps. The box measures 3×2 across the box top and 1 ½ inches deep. The goggles are with blackened lenses and black fabric head band. The Kampfgruppe Nord was formed from the 6th and 7th SS Totenkopf Standarten in 1941. In 1942 they became the SS Division Nord and in May of 1942 they became the SS Gebirgs Division Nord. They fought bravely as the SS DivisionNord against the Russians on the Kald Peninsula and in subsequent hard fought conflicts. They saw combat in the Finnish Front along with the brave Finns until the Finish Government made a Devil’s pact with the Soviets and then ordered all German Army and SS units to leave Finnish territory and in September 1944 the 6th SS Division Nord began its retreat across Finland to the West.  Later they participated in the Ardennes Offensive. After continuous fighting in this area, the Division retreated to the North where it was engaged once more with the advancing English and American enemy. In the vicinity of Worms, eventually after heroic action, they surrendered to the Americans. Usere Ehre Heist Treue! This was their clarion call and their sacred pledge right to the end.PRICE: $450.00
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
Distressed cover
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
Good inside – note glasses
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
The 3-D pictures
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
All great like this!
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
The color plates
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book
3-D Kampf in Westen Book

Der Kampf in Westen 3-D Book “Raumbilderbuch ” (Item WEHR 31-23)

DESCRIPTION: OK, collectors, here is one of the fabulous 3-D books that were produced by the firm of Heinrich Hoffman in Munich. The subtitle is “Die Soldaten Des Führers Im Felde” (The Soldiers of the Fuhrer in the Field). It was published early in the war in 1940. These Raumbilder books were all the rage back then and are very popular today when found. We have had several of them including some of the rare titles. The one most profusely produced in the Third Reich was this one because it celebrated the dazzling victory of the German Army in the West right up to the fall of France to the German Wehrmacht. The German people rejoiced in this and the purchase of these books that told the story in 3-D was more popular than “Leberwurst”! Who can blame them? These actions were the first steps in a war lamented by Hitler but necessary to stem the tide of British encroachment and the soon to come onslaught of the Russian Communists. The people were overjoyed at the success of their fighting soldiers. And the book shows the prowess, dash and daring of these soldaten at the front. Great scenes of the forward advances and early victories. Pictures of scroungy looking White and Negroid French prisoners, sharp German officers of the army, air force, etc. right up to the surrender of the French armed forces at Compiegne in the same railroad car that the Germans had to surrender to the French in 1918. This was the most glorious moment for the Führer, his army and the German people. But from 1943 it was all down-hill because the misguided Allies pushed on to utterly defeat Germany with its superior fire power and endless supplies that Germany did not have, thus the bulwark against the Eastern hordes of Bolshevism was destroyed and the West has been in danger ever since of losing also due to the influence of its traditional enemy and its most diabolical offshoot, communism.Enough of my history lesson. The book itself is a history lesson portrayed before you in three dimension just like you are standing there personally (Do I hear the music of twilight zone!) The stark realism cannot be compared to looking at pictures in a regular book as fine as they might be. Before Japan got into the art of special photography, Germany excelled in state of the art photographic innovation. Now that 3-D is so popular out of Hollywood, it really has nothing on this 1940’s Raumbilder process. We have another copy of this prodigiously book on our site at WEHR 10-5 on the Wehrmacht section. This one that we offer here is not nearly in as good condition as the one I just mentioned. The cover is quite tattered with the spine taped some time ago and it has rips at the edges and also tattering.  The spine was glued to hold at some time or another. But the pages are all there with the brilliant color plates.  It has all 80 pages, the viewer is in good shape and the cards are also. There should have been 100 cards but a dozen are missing. However, these books are so very rare today that this one will be considered extremely reasonable compared with what they bring in Germany today. It is still a great historical treasure if only for the pictures, so we offer it for the bargain price of…PRICE: $198.00  A real bargain, better grab it!
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Method of carry
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
Worn about the neck
Gas Mark Canister
Gas Mark Canister
German WWII Gas Mask Container (Item WEHR 31-24)
DESCRIPTION: Here is a container for the gas mask issued in WW II to the German Army and Waffen SS personal. Poison gas was not used in WWII although the British and Americans longed to use it. It was the most horrible weapon other than the Allies atom bomb ever devised to be sent against soldiers in the field. It was used so frequently in WWI that it gave rise to the term “The Chemist’s War.” One notable poison gas victim of WW I was Adolf Hitler who was temporarily blinded while healing in a hospital in Wervik; as a result Hitler adamantly refused to authorize the use of poison gas on the battlefield in World War II. However, the High Command of the Wehrmacht did not trust the Allies with good reason and retrospect. So, German soldiers were issued gas masks in the event that the Allies would suddenly introduce this cruel and horrible type warfare. The only reason they didn’t was fear of retaliation in kind. Their genocidal bombing raids on Hamburg Koln, and especially Dresden, proved that their only regard for human life was to run up their score of kills on human targets and mostly civilian. So the soldiers of the Fatherland carried their gas masks right up to the end. But why do we find so many of the canisters empty of the gas mask. Because from 1940 on the soldiers were fairly sure that they would never encounter gas at the front. Their code of honor however was theirs alone in WWII and although it was extremely ‘chancy’ thousands of them threw away the mask and kept the canister as a handy ‘catch all’ for trinkets, goodies and yes, collectables! This one we offer has all the original straps and is in good condition throughout.PRICE: $175.00
War Service Cross
War Service Cross

War Service Cross with Issue Envelope (Kriegs Verdienstkreuz) (Item WEHR 31-26)

DESCRIPTION: This is the 2nd Class without swords (mint condition) with ribbon. Adolf Hitler directed that a decoration should be struck that would recognize service in the war effort that would fall short of the award of the Iron Cross. This medal was instituted on 18 Oct 1939 and even civilians could win this coveted award who performed outstanding service. The war merit cross was instituted with and without swords in a 1st and 2nd class. The class without swords was a non-combatant award but could be given for duties performed for the Fatherland exceeding the feats that would be given to military recipients who received the cross with swords. To find one with the issue envelope is rare.PRICE: $150.00
Faithful Service Cross
War Service Cross Without Swords (Kriegsverdienst Kreuz) (Item WEHR 31-27)
DESCRIPTION: Another like the one listed above but without issue envelope (condition mint!) but with some stain on the back portion of the medal.PRICE: $80.00
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
The presentation cigarette case
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Medal assemblage with shoulder
boards
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Promotion certificates
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
To Captain
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
To Major
Konrad Leper Grouping
To Oberstleutnant
Konrad Leper Grouping
Aryan birth paper
Konrad Leper Grouping
Letter while POW
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
His sword from WWI seen in
this portrait
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
His engraved initials
Konrad Leper Grouping
Wilhelm II cypher
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
His WWII officer’s dagger
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Portepee
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
His initials
Konrad Leper Grouping
Manufactured by Puma-Solingen
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Hangers
Konrad Leper Grouping
Konrad Leper Grouping
Some misfortunes of war
Konrad Leper Grouping
Back side
Konrad Leper Grouping
Utterly Magnificent WWI & WWII Group Belonging to One Officer of the Deutsches Vaterland  (Item WEHR 31-28 & WWI 12-8)
DESCRIPTION: This has to rate as one of the absolute best groups we have ever offered at Germania International.  In a word, incredible.  The articles were the personal possessions of Herr Konrad Lepper who served in WWI and won the Iron Cross First and Second Class and was an adjutant, so we are told, in the unit I/417 and worked up the ranks to being an Oberstleutnant in 1942. The Second World War, he was in the Gebirgsjager Corps (Mountain Infantry) or at least that is indicated by the color of the underlay on his shoulder boards…light green Waffenfarbe. With the group there is a cigarette case that is crafted in 800 silver. It measures 3 ½” x 3″ and about ½ inch thick; it has the Hohenzollern eagle in its center and K.L for Konrad Lepper. The initials are on the left (K) and in the bottom right (L) on the inside of the case. It is presented to Lepper with the words that are hand engraved — Ihrem Lieben Adjutanten Lepper 2-M 14 5 1917. “To the Dear Adjutant Lepper’.  Then there are what looks to be five facsimile signatures of officers that  were presenting the case to Lepper. The only one at his point that we can make out clearly is Kluge — this could be the famed General Von Kluge of WWI and WWII fame. That might have been the officer that Leper was adjutant to.With the group are 10 medals in parade dress mount and his shoulder boards from his WWII rank -Oberstleutant 1st Colonel in the 15th Mountain Troop Battalion. His medals are mounted on a board that is similar to the funeral pillow that is used in display, these would be the awards won in the career of a soldier then deceased and this might well be the case here. We received them mounted like this when we purchased the group. Note the medals in our pictures and they are from the top on down: 

  1. The Iron Cross First Class
  2. The ribbon bar contains the Iron Cross Second Class.
  3. The red enamel medal is the Hanseatic Cross given for bravery in combat.
  4. The cross of Honor WWI for a combatant
  5. Cross for Military Merit awarded by Austria (“Militar-Verdienstkreuz”)

On the Next medal grouping parade bar we find:

  1. WW II Kriegs Verdienst-Kreuz with swords for Combatants.
  2. The 4 year Faithful Service medal for the German army.
  3. The National Socialist Civil Service medal
  4. The War Service medal presented by the Weimar Republic to Veterans who served in the First World War
  5. (Separate) the war Merit Cross Kriegsverdienstkreuz with swords for combatants (in silver 1st Class)

On this board you can also see Lt. Col. Lepper’s WW II shoulder boards from the 1st Gebirgsjager Regiment. We would hazard a guess that Lepper may have been retired at the age of 52 in 1943 or 53 in 1944.  He was born May 14th, 1871.  We say this because of the Weimar Kyfhauser bund medal and the N.S. Faithful Service award; it indicated he may have been in the Civil Service even before the First World War. To continue we come to the most incredible part of the group and that is a beautifully rendered oil portrait of the Soldat Lepper in full uniform in the WWI era with his sword. This is a large painting 42” x 30”.  It is actually from the period 1914-1918 and it is in fine condition.  We had to remove the frame to send the painting home but believe me the frame was nothing we would treasure. It was a black painted common frame in chipped up condition and this magnificent oil deserves a better framing job in any case.  We leave that to the buyer.  The painting is unsigned but is obviously the work of a truly professional artist; very life-like portrait of a real career officer, Germany’s finest.

Also fantastic is that we have the actual Mod 1889 Infantry officers sword that you see in the picture with Lepper’s initials K.L. engraved in the pommel section.  The sword is in all around great condition  The wire wrapping is tight, the brass is all still with 90% of its original gilted patina.  The scabbard shows use but no abuse.  The blade is plain steel.  Unsigned, with double blood gutters. The royal Prussian crest are perfect as is the eagle on the brass foldable guard   The sword in its scabbard is 36 inches long. Herr Lepper was a proud German soldier so it is not so unusual to find their initials or names on the swords.  Usually it is the career men who are “button busting proud” of their army, their nation and their family who would have this done. To continue, we have Lepper’s Wehrmacht officers model ‘Heersdolch’or (army dress dagger) with original portepee (knot) and hanger. The dagger was manufactured by the famous Solingen Firm of Puma. The cross guard on the back incredibly has his initials once again (K.L.) done in classic Germanic letters that exactly match the personalization on the sword. This dagger is in average to very good condition.  The blade is bright but could have at one time broken at the tip. But if so it has been expertly repaired even if shortened by a ¼ inch or so.  The grip may have had a chip near the cross guard but that also was excellently repaired. The scabbard shows some plating loss here and there but we think Lepper was no armchair officer; he was probably busy most of the time and wearing the weapon all the time as an adjutant.  The supplied hangers show use but are still good and serviceable (and highly collectable); all in all a very nice specimen of the official dress dagger of the German Army.

Next, and this is incredible, the original three promotions that Lepper earned through his long military career. This starts with:

  1. The promotion document promoting him from a Hauptmann (Captain) in the infantry regiment 15 who has served form Dec. 1938 as a captain in the reserve to a captain in the regular army in the field for 1939 and it is hand signed by the Supreme Commander of the army, General Oberst Franz Halder.
  2. The official document promoting him from Hauptmann (Captain) to Major on the 1st of April 1940. It says — “I issue this promotion document and expect that the above Konrad Lepper to be true to his oath of service and he will execute his duty and the trust in him that is given to him with this promotion at the same time he can be assured of my special protection.”  Fuhrers headquarters facsimile signed by Adolf Hitler in autopen on the 20th April 1940. This was Hitler’s birthday.  Under this is in large letters “Der Fuhrer Adolf Hitler”.  Under this is the handwritten signature of General Walther Von Brautisch who in 1940 was also promoted .He was elevated from General to Field Marshal
  3. The original document promoting Lepper from Major to Oberstleutant.  (Lieutenant Colonel) The wording in this document is much the same as on the document preceding at (B) this one is signed by Wilhelm Keitel Supreme commander of the Army. It is dated and signed 8 April 1942 but is retroactive from April 1st 1942.  This one like the others has the facsimile Adolf Hitler signature. All three documents are in their original folders with the beautiful and noble Reichsadler eagle on the covers embossed in gold. The actual documents are on parchment stock paper and have the highly embossed official seal of the Reich (An eagle on a wreath of oak leaves). All of these documents are in marvelous condition and like all of the other Leper items were kept in a special state of preservation.

Next: When an officer reaches the high rank of Oberstleutenant the official Wehrmacht inspection always came to pass. And this was similar to the Party Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt “Race and Resettlement Office.” They wanted to know if the officer was of pure Germanic descent according to paragraph (1.) The law of Aryan descent. This was under the Reichsgesetzblat-filing system 1063 it says “We hereby certify that Oberleutnant Konrad Lepper who was born 14/5/91 is of German descent as is his wife Martha who was born Hupfeld Nov 1st 1893 and as far back as her grandparents is also Aryan Approved by inspection of official records here in Oct 1935.  This was signed in Kasssel the 22nd of December 1942.  It has the stamp of the inspection office and is signed by a captain and adjutant. This file paper is 8 x 6 inches in size.  

Last but not least is an envelope minus the letter — 5 ½” x 4″ addressed to Oberstleutnant Lt. Lepper # 316-2 509 083 U.S. Army POW 1 B France and dated 29 May 1946. It says to the side (German) and at the top Prisoner of War post. On the back it says Lepper Bringhausen UB Wildungen 16 Germany.   We believe this was a letter from his father or mother but could be from his brother or sister while he was a prisoner of war in France but at a US prisoner facility.

So here we have one of the most complete groupings of the personal articles ever offered — absolutely stupendous! How and why they were ever released and sold by the family is unknown to us.  Perhaps it is because of the slander and debasement of Germany’s soldiers taught in the post-war German schools and in fact even in the media today in the Orwellian world we now seem to have reached.  Or perhaps most of the Lepper family is gone leaving behind a few of the ‘new’ Germans who have adopted the “Coca-Cola and gum chewing culture”. These types would sell their history and heritage in a snap! It means nothing to them. If they would be asked if they knew the difference between ignorance and apathy their answer would likely be “I don’t know and I don’t care!” Think about that one.  To us this collection is truly a Germanophiles dream and a tribute to a brave soldier of the Reich. May he rest in glory!  Alles für Deutschland!

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Driwancybermuseum christmas and newyour card

Dr Iwancybermuseum sent to All collectors from all over the word Marry christmas And’ Happy New Year Special for You

We upload a sample of dr Iwan E-book In Cd-ROM THE CHRISTMAS HISTORY COLLECTIONS 1500 1800

1800

World’s first Christmas card Christmas cards originated as hand-written letters sent by school children to their families in England in the early 1800s.

The invention of the steam press in 1840 made it possible to mass-produce Christmas greetings. Christmas cards were first printed in London, England.

They were designed by John Calcott Horsley of the Royal Academy for Sir Henry Cole in 1843 and were sold at Felix Summerly’s Home Treasury Office.

The greeting was “A Very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to You.” A portrayal of a child sipping wine in a toast on the central panel caused a stir with temperance groups. Cards were first mailed (to friends) by W. C. Dobson (Queen Victoria’s favorite painter) in 1845. First mailings in U. S. were in 1846. Louis Prang, a Boston lithographer, marketed multicolored Christmas Cards in Europe in 1865, and in the U. S. in 1875.

He made Christmas Cards popular. Mailing was expanded with the “penny post card,” 1893. Half-tone engravings appear in 1900. The home photograph card begins in 1902 by Eastman Kodak.

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the Sample Of Euro and Pasific World War II 1943 History collections

THIS IS THE  SAMPLE OF Dr IWAN E-BOOK IN CD-ROM ,THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBE TO BE PREMIUM MEMBER VIA COMMENT

THE SAMPLE INFO FROM

THE EURO AND PASIFIC WORLFD WAR II 1943

HISTORY COLLECTIONS

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private limited e-book in Cd-Rom Edition

special for senior collectors

copyright @ 2012

August,28th.1943

1943 Air Mail Letter Card from CDBScholey   RAF INDIA Command  to his parent  C.W.Scholey  Watkworth Morpeth  Northtumberland England. GB with d/r. 220 Security p/m. and censor W 148. From F/O CB Scholey, RAF India Command.

CONTENTS MOSTLY ABOUT DOWNFALL OF

MUSSOLINI

AND

REPLACEMENT BY

MARSHAL BADOGLIO

COMMENTING ON THE LATTER’S USE OF MUSTARD GAS ON THE ABYSSINIANS, THE RUSSIAN ATTACK ON GERMANY AND “THE JAPANESE ANIMALS ARE A DIFFERENT MATTER BUT WE WILL FIX THEM BEFORE LONG. I PERSONALLY SHOULD WHIP THE SON OF HEAVEN IN PUBLIC” COMMENTS ON THE CAPTURE OF VON ARNIN IN NORTH AFRICA.

read the letter below

Dear Dad and mother

Thank you for your Air letter card on 27th June which I got a day or two ago. From What you say you are greetings my letter in less time then I usually recived from you, but there is a  great improvement from both directions.In Mussolini’s downfa I suppose you see,as I do,the beginning of the end of Italy.and I dare say something will have happened before you get this.Obviously off course the country had enough of the fellow,and to say that he resignedmean that he was told to get out.I only hope they don’t bump him off before we get our hooks on him! I supposed this the biggest blow yet to the Axis, and how exactly Hitler can explain it way, I don’t know bad heel is much too thin this time, for musso is hardly the man to pack up even if his health is not all it may be.

As far as I can make out they are saying so little as possible about it for the present.

Badoglio is, of course, preferable to Musso, but I deplore the tendenvy which even now is making itself  apparent to regard him as  a sort of savior,not only for Italy but of half the civilized world.

It should not forgotten that,although he is an anti-Fasict,it was he who used mustard gas on the Abysinnian and did a few other thing he shouldn’t.So although Italy is hardly in the  same category as Germany she should never the less be very severely dealtwith.

If she isn’t , we shal be offering a direct incentive to all the Jack Spratte the world over to imitate her performance of the last decade or two.

If it is true that Badoglio has  ordered  the Division in the Balkans and France to return to Italy,Goodness knows what Germany will do, especially in Balkans., but I should think it is a move prepatory to talking peace, for if he packed up before he got his Division home heaven knows what might happen to them at the handle of the Yugoslave and the Greeks.

It seems quite obvious that the German attacks on the Russian front have lost much of their sting, and that the Russian are masters of the situation there.Germany’s losses have been so enormous that I don’t see how it could be otherwise, I am beginning to think that my current estimate of a maximum of tweleve month more in Europe may be in generous side.I hope so anywhy.

The Japanese animals  are a different matter, but we’ll fix them before very long I personally should whip the Son Of Heaven in the public.

Thanks you for offering me to send me newspaper occasionally  don’t trouble to much about it, but I should certainly like one now an then.

No. I am afraid I am not keeping a diary , there is  little at present that I could put in it of any interest, and most of that would be unprintable.

I am kept busy enough to have very little time for outside pursuits, and they ,such as  they are , don’t amount to very musch.

Pepys would have been hard put to it to make much of this lot

(Dr Iwan note,please read more info to proof the estime right or wrong,please read the info from my complete CD-rom)

The complete Cd-rom exist please subscribe to be premium memebr to get it via comment

 

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